Bernardo Urbani

Bernardo Urbani
Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research | IVIC · Departamento de Antropologia

PhD

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92
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451
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Publications

Publications (92)
Book
Full-text available
Archaeoprimatology intertwines archaeology and primatology to understand the ancient liminal relationships between humans and nonhuman primates. During the last decade, novel studies have boosted this discipline. This edited volume is the first compendium of archaeoprimatological studies ever produced. Written by a culturally diverse group of schol...
Chapter
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Uno de los aspectos relevantes que deben considerarse cuando se quieren comprender los fenotipos existentes entre los primates vivientes es entender la importancia de la filogenia en la variabilidad del comportamiento del orden. Por tanto, en este ensayo comenzamos a explorar la relación entre la filogenia y el comportamiento y las posibles restric...
Article
Recently, an article was published in the journal Primates, in which an interdisciplinary team consisting of primatologists, a taxonomic illustrator, and an art historian/archaeologist suggested a new identification of the monkeys depicted in a wall painting from Room 6 of Building Complex Beta in the Bronze Age town of Akrotiri on the Cycladic isl...
Article
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Scientific collaborations among nations to address common problems and to build international partnerships as part of science diplomacy is a well-established notion. The international flow of people and ideas has played an important role in the advancement of the ‘Sciences’ and the current pandemic scenario has drawn attention towards the genuine n...
Article
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Archaeoprimatology explores how humans and nonhuman primates coexisted in the past. This discipline has profound roots in texts of early scholars. Archaeoprimatological research examines the liminality between humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians deep in time before the rise of the Anthropocene. By exploring the beginning of the relationship betwe...
Article
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A recent debate on the taxonomic identiication of the monkeys depicted in a fresco from Room 6 of Building Complex Beta in the Bronze Age town of Akrotiri, Thera (Greece) has triggered a multitude of diferent interpretations deriving from a fruitful exchange of diverse academic approaches. Thus, Pareja et al. (Pareja et al., Primates 61:159–168, 20...
Article
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In the Near East and the Eastern Mediterranean region there is a lack of proper taxonomic identification when referring to material culture depicting primates. A group of five primatomorphic statuettes from Susa of the Proto-Elamite and Elamite periods deserves a closer examination. Two monkey species were identified: olive baboon (Papio anubis) an...
Article
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Preprint
Despite the failures to tackle early coordinated responses at national and multinational levels, the global emergence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic promoted unprecedented actions on the science-policy, science-communication, and science-diplomacy interfaces worldwide. With varying degrees of success, various actions within the rea...
Technical Report
Evaluation of the conservation status of Ateles belzebuth
Technical Report
Evaluation of the conservation status of Lagothrix lagothricha
Article
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Skeletal fragments of ursine howler monkeys (Alouatta, A. cf. arctoidea) recovered from two archaeological sites in northern Venezuela are discussed in this article. Osteological remains, material culture evidence, and historical records are put together using an archaeoprimatological approach in order to investigate the relationships between the P...
Article
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Recently, Pareja et al. (Primates, 61:159–168, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-019-00778-12020) published a report suggesting that the monkeys represented by Minoans in Room 6 of Building Complex Beta at Akrotiri, Thera (present-day Greece) allegedly represented Hanuman or gray langurs (Semnopithecus spp.). This conjecture was based only on the post...
Article
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Sleep is the longest and most continuous behavioral phase in the 24 h cycle of mammals. However, selection of postures, substrates, and tree parts during sleep has not been adequately explored, as well as their evolutionary consequences. The present study investigates postural behavior, substrate, and tree part use during sleep in three howler spec...
Article
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There is no literature referring to the ancient iconographic depiction of apes in the eastern circum-Mediterranean region and the Near East. Written reports such as the Old Testament mention apes, but this may be a reference to monkeys, while Hanno the Carthaginian Navigator referred to chimpanzees in the 5th-6th c. BC. Here we describe two marble...
Article
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A new look at the Minoan ‘blue’ monkeys—ADDENDUM - Volume 94 Issue 376 - Bernardo Urbani, Dionisios Youlatos
Article
Conrad Gessner is considered a major encyclopedist of the 16th century. His work is a benchmark in natural history studies. It is an enormous effort that covered the zoological information known until that century. In his publications, illustrations were a fundamental component that paralleled the textual narratives. Those noteworthy images followe...
Article
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A review of Minoan frescoes and artefacts suggests interactions with two primate groups in sacred and leisure contexts, respectively. This demonstrates the early exchange of iconography and knowledge of monkeys between the Aegean and North Africa.
Chapter
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Primates constitute one of the main sources of animal protein for the Yanomami people of Brazil and Venezuela. Monkeys are also important in Yanomami mythology, technology, and body adornment. Ten primate species are found in the Yanomami territory: Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta macconnelli, Cheracebus lugens, Saimiri cassiquiarensis, Aotus trivirgatu...
Chapter
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This chapter explores the uses, perceptions of, and interactions with monkeys by the Mapoyo, an indigenous society of Carib linguistic affiliation of the Middle Orinoco of Venezuela. Historical references of ethnoprimatological interest registered by eighteenth-century chroniclers that visited that region are also examined. The Mapoyo identify and...
Book
Ethnoprimatology is situated at the intersection between the biological and cultural subfields of anthropology. Research on the interface between human and nonhuman primates has been steadily increasing since 1997, when the term ethnoprimatology was first coined. Although there have been studies on human–nonhuman primate interactions in the tropica...
Article
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This work examines the historical context and implications of the accounts on nonhuman primates reported in the Histoire Naturelle des Indes , circa 1586. It is a fundamental document for the understanding of Caribbean natural history. It shows color illustrations and descriptions of different animals, including primates such as Sapajus flavius (or...
Article
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Moving back in time from the early colonial to the late pre-colonial period we evaluate the hypothesis asserting the migratory movement of Cariban-speaking groups from the Middle Orinoco River area towards north-central Venezuela. The explanation in vogue maintains that the migration followed fluvial routes and occurred between 1350 and 1150 BP (AD...
Chapter
Historically, Homo predation on nonhuman primates has been overlooked. Humans are major predators of prosimians, monkeys, and apes; however, they do not fit the theoretical paradigms that have been proposed to characterize predation on nonhuman primates. Human predation on nonhuman primates has been reported since prehistoric times. Today, it also...
Chapter
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This entry provides a descriptive synopsis of the history of South American primatology. Christopher Columbus found monkeys on his very first arrival in continental America. During the sixteenth century, early protodescriptions of primates were provided by chroniclers. Then in the seventeenth century, New World monkeys as commodities were fully cir...
Chapter
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Primatus sum, nihil primatum mihi alienum puto (Yo soy un primate; Nada acerca de los primates me es extraño [Hooton, 1955]). La primatología, como la antropología no tiene límites intelectuales, todo acerca de los primates está incluida en ella (Rodman, 1999). Los antropólogos le han dado poca importancia a los Primates del Nuevo Mundo porque no e...
Chapter
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Understanding the way howler monkeys interact with other vertebrates has critical ecological, evolutionary, cognitive, and conservation implications. In this review, we completed an extensive search of the available data on interspecific howler encounters, including individual communications from field primatologists, in order to gain insight into...
Chapter
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The goals of this first chapter to our volume Howler Monkeys: Adaptive Radiation, Systematics, and Morphology are to highlight the importance of morphological, genetic, and physiological studies for understanding the evolutionary adaptations of this highly successful genus. Many questions continue to exist regarding the systematics, anatomy, and ph...
Chapter
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The goals of this first chapter to our volume "Howler Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation" are to highlight the importance of long-term studies for understanding howler behavioral ecology, evaluate the concept of howlers as a colonizing species, and to identify those aspects of howler behavior that are well studied from those that require...
Article
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This chapter reviews the interface between humans and howler monkeys based on evidence from the archaeological record and the ethnography of contemporary indigenous societies. The record of howler monkeys interconnections with humans may be traced back to the Pre-Hispanic period. Data suggest that Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Mayans and A...
Chapter
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Since the first long-term field study of mantled howler monkeys carried out by Clarence R. Carpenter on Barro Colorado Island about 80 years ago, howler movement patterns and range use have been studied in several species and study sites throughout Mexico, Central, and South America. Howler monkeys often use small home ranges (<30 ha) and travel sh...
Article
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Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origins of primates, suggesting evolutionary scenarios that are usually paralleled to modern mammalian models that partly simulate the morpho-behavioral apomorphies of primates. The current study examines substrate use and positional behavior of tiny-sized Eurasian harvest mice (Micromys minutus)...
Article
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RESUMEN En este trabajo se recopilan menciones y descripciones de cuevas reales o imaginarias de México (al este del istmo de Tehuantepec) hasta Panamá, a partir de documentos de viajeros y cronistas del siglo XVI. Entre ellas, destacan las alusiones de cuevas dentro del contexto de las creencias de los indígenas. Para la Península de Yucatán hay m...
Article
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This study provides a detailed description of a rare predatory event concerning a juvenile Ursine Howler Monkey Alouatta arctoidea captured and consumed by a sub-adult Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja. During ca. 30 min., we were able to observe the behaviour of the eagle from the moment in which the howler group began screaming until the raptor began to...
Article
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The study of memory integrates different humanistic and scientific disciplines. Philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology are related due to this common research objective. This is due to the interest in exploring how the mind relates to human nature. For that reason, it is also common to find conceptualizations of this idea from the a...
Article
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This article presents information on the early reports of New World caves. We review the documents of travelers and chroniclers that informed about South America and the Caribbean territories during the 15th and 16th centuries. Among them, we highlight the early reference of Latin American caves such as the ethnographic account about caverns in the...
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Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica. Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed par...
Article
Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys...
Article
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Geophagy has been recorded in an increasing number of New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) over recent years, permitting a tentative analysis of ecological patterns. While geophagy has now been recorded in species representing all 4 platyrrhine families and a majority of genera, there is a marked tendency for it to occur in the larger-bodied Pitheciidae...
Article
This article presents new evidence on the manner in which Neotropical primates were perceived in the 16 th century (after Urbani, 1999, 2004). It includes several aesthetic and artistic views of New World primates from the early Con-tact period. The Florentine Codex contains the first illus-tration of human / non-human primate interactions from the...
Article
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We studied the diet, activity budget, vertical ranging, and postural behaviour in relation to weather of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus flaccidus) in disturbed montane forest remnants (1150 m asl) in northern Venezuela. Sloths spent most (72.9%) of their time resting and had a nearly exclusive (99.4%) leaf diet. While resting they assume...
Article
The article offers a chronological synthesis of the anthropospeleological activity carried out by the Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología since its foundation in 1967. Emphasis is given to the protagonists involved in these activities, the nature of individual and collective contributions, the regions where work has been carried out, as well as the...
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The region of the Guiana Shield is extraordinarily rich in biodiversity. Little is known, however, of the biogeography and conservation status of its diverse primate taxa. The aim of this study was to conduct a rapid survey of primate populations in the northeastern-most part of the state of Bolívar, Venezuela, near the border with Guyana. A previo...
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This work reviews the information related to predation on Neotropical primates by human and non-human predators. Paradoxically, humans have been systematically neglected while evaluating the potential effects of predation in the structure of non-human primate populations. Predation paradigms do not include humans in their propositions. In this revi...
Article
In this paper we discuss the results of four radiocarbon dates obtained from bone, guano and wood recovered from three caves located in the Guasare and Palmar rivers basins, Sierra de Perijá, Zulia State. The results of the analysis show the possible utilization of one of the caves by prehispanic groups occupying the area two millennia BP, also the...
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This work characterizes differences in selection of Talisia retusa fruits by two sympatric Neotropical primates, Pithecia pithecia (white-faced sakis) and Alouatta seniculus (red howlers). Color appears to be the criterion by which fruits were selected. Greenish fruits were mainly eaten by Pithecia, while yellowish fruits by Alouatta. The character...
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This note reviews Léon Croizat's ideas about the evolution of human behavior, based on his evaluation of the tool use capabilities of a capuchin monkey. Croizat theorized mainly on his orthogenetic view to explain such behavior. Interesting enough is the timeframe (1962) and context of his statement and the monkey's model used for such explanation....
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Four cases of spontaneous food-washing and others novel behaviours are reported forCebus olivaceus. The individuals observed are either wild or captive born members of wedgecapped capuchin monkey groups from two zoological parks in Caracas, Venezuela. Those cases seem to represent the resolution of particular and circumstantial problems, rather tha...
Article
A letter written in 1810 by a Alexander von Humboldt to Mr. Louis Mathien Langlès in Paris, is one of the first scientific attempts to understand the possible meaning of a Venezuelan petroglyph. They were copied from a cave and given to him by Father Ramóm Bueno in La Urbana, state of Bolívar. Those petroghyphs located in a speleohistorical site, r...
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François de Loys (1892-1935), a geologist from Lausanne, was one of the pioneers of oil exploration in the remote rain forests south west of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. As a field geologist, he participated in expeditions to Europe, Africa and America during the golden age of great oil discoveries. However, Dr de Loys is less known for his geologica...
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The use of tools by New World primates has only been observed in capuchin monkeys, genus Cebus, mainly by Cebus apella in captivity. Visalberghi [1] points out that monkeys of this genus show an enthusiastic interest and tendency to manipulate objects after a short presentation and that they have a greater variety of exploration patterns than other...
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Two oil fields were established in the Tarra River ar ea in 1916, after the discovery and drilling of the first oil well of the region, which lies on the southwestern Lake Maracaibo Basin. Local geological surveys continued ever since, and they were led by Swiss geologist Francois de Loys (1892-1935) in between 1917 and 1920. Even though DI. de Loy...
Article
El estudio del auto-reconocimiento de los primates no-humanos, particularmente simios, ha sido tema de una intensa discusión y controversia. Las tareas de reconocimiento, como son los ejercicios con espejos, con las respectivas interpretaciones e implicaciones cambiaron la concepción del auto-reconocimiento fuera del "dominio humano". ¿Se reconocen...