Bernardo J. Carducci

Bernardo J. Carducci
Indiana University Southeast · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

796
Publications
163,852
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (796)
Article
Emotional intelligence is a widely used, but controversial construct, and has been adapted and applied extensively in workplace research. This entry is structured around three “streams” of thought in modeling and measuring emotional intelligence. Stream 1 refers to the original definition of the construct by Peter Salovey and Jack Mayer, measured i...
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This chapter summarizes the life and work of Maria P. P. Root, one of the foundational thinkers in the field of biracial and intersectional identity development in psychology. It addresses the manner in which Dr. Root has drawn upon her own experience as a person of mixed race living in the cultural context of the United States in order to propose...
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Relationships between personality and health are increasingly well documented, but understanding who gets sick and who stays well is a complex problem; a number of key variables interact with one another over time to lead an individual towards early death or a long, healthy life. Howard S. Friedman's concepts of the disease‐prone and self‐healing p...
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Dr. Joseph Matarazzo is an academic and clinical psychologist who is indisputably the parent of Clinical Health Psychology in the United States and internationally. Dr. Matarazzo is a visionary; through his decades of writing, teaching and advocacy he challenged professional psychologists to move beyond treating patients with exclusively mental hea...
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Machismo is a Latino male cultural value with a lot of controversy in the psychological literature due to its lack of an operational definition. Scholars argue that machismo is multidimensional with positive and negative qualities. More recently, traditional machismo and caballerismo are used as proxies of machismo when studying Latino men. Publish...
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This entry provides a summary of the diagnostic considerations, prevalence, demographics correlates, potential risk and protective factors, and treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a syndrome which may emerge following a potentially traumatic event (PTE) in which a person witnesses or experiences actual or possible death, se...
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Substantial research has contributed to our understanding of personality factors involved in suicide risk. In this entry, we briefly review the literature linking broad personality factors, including the Five Factor Model, but emphasizing Tellegen's Three Factor Model, with suicide‐related outcomes. We suggest an explanatory framework that integrat...
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Full-text available
Organizations have great interest in controlling counterproductive work behaviors. In an effort to reduce the amount of counterproductivity among employees, professionals have turned to integrity tests – a non‐cognitive measure used worldwide for more than 60 years to identify individuals with a higher propensity to engage in counterproductive work...
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Schizoid Personality Disorder (SZPD) is classified as one of the cluster A (“schizophrenia‐spectrum”) personality disorders (PDs) in the DSM‐V (APA, 2013). Its core diagnostic features are emotional detachment and social isolation. However, historically, SZPD was described as considerably more complex and multifaceted in both descriptive psychiatry...
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Janet E. Helms, PhD is a noted counseling psychologist who, since the mid‐1970s, has contributed significantly to applied research and cross‐cultural considerations in theory, measurement, and application of racial identity (RI) theory. Helms's contributions include the development of racial identity models for people from a variety of racial and e...
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Personality psychology in China has a long history before it became a specialized discipline. Since 1980s, the Western personality theory and measurements had been introduced into China and being wildly used among Chinese people. At the same time, there was also the localization movement of Chinese personality research which highlighted the indigen...
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The majority of research examining individual antecedents of workplace deviance, also known as counterproductive work behavior, has focused on the big five personality variables: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience. Counterproductive work behavior has also been linked to the dark triad, a constell...
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Some psychologists believe that resilience involves remaining the same despite the occurrence of stressful circumstances. In contrast, hardiness is the personality pattern of attitudes and strategies that, together, help one turn stressful circumstances from potential disasters into personal growth and advantage instead. There is more than 40 years...
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Mental health professionals have long recognized that certain people have a dependent personality style – a tendency to look to others for nurturance, guidance, protection, and support, even in situations where autonomous functioning is warranted. Although early theoretical models conceptualized dependency as being inextricably linked with passivit...
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Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) is a pervasive, stable, pattern of excessive emotionality and attention‐seeking behavior, currently classified as “Cluster B” personality disorder (dramatic, emotional, and erratic cluster) in the DSM‐V The etiology of HPD is presently unclear, although both heritable and environmental factors may contribute to...
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Longevity has been linked to several personality traits – that is, the relatively stable patterns in thought, behavior, and motivation that serve to differentiate individuals from one another. The associations are complex, however, and more long‐term studies with multiple measured factors are needed to further expand understanding of personality‐lo...
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Dr. Harry C. Triandis is known as the father of Cross‐Cultural Psychology. He served as president of multiple psychological associations and is well known for his influential research developing the cultural constructs of individualism and collectivism, the self, and interpersonal behavior. His research relied on multiple methodologies and collabor...
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Japan has its own history about personality psychology. There are some Japanese words regarding meaning of personality. Historically, various pieces of knowledge of personality psychology have come into Japan, and original theories have also been created. Japanese personality psychology researchers maintain energetic research activities and publish...
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Full-text available
David C. McClelland was an internationally recognized, motivation psychologist because of his profound research into achievement, affiliation, and power and his commitment to applying the findings to enhance people's lives and society. He led efforts to develop entrepreneurs in dozens of countries of the world, many in developing economics. He appl...
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Marketing campaigns are most effective when they are tailored toward the personalities of the target audiences. In this entry, we review the central links between marketing and personality, including the ideas of brand personality, self‐congruity, and message‐person congruence. We end with an overview of personality‐based marketing in digital envir...
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Janet E. Helms and Donelda A. Cook began using the term “visible racial/ethnic groups” (VREGs) in place of racial/ethnic minorities, as the respective minority and majority status designations for VREGs and Whites continued to disempower and characterize VREGs as deficient in comparison to White societal standards. They also considered VREGs as an...
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Sexual dysfunctions are influenced by many factors, including personality traits and personality‐related characteristics. Understanding these personality factors may aid in the understanding and treatment of sexual problems. Men and women both share and differ on personality traits impacting sexual dysfunctions. Neuroticism, hostility, openness, an...
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Personality in Islam is viewed as a multidimensional entity comprised of body, mind, and spirit that interact with one another and constitute an individual human being. In the Qur'an, the Muslim holy book, humans are encouraged to reflect on the signs within and outside themselves so they can know their real self and their relationship with their C...
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The terms sadism and masochism were coined by German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft‐Ebing in his book Psychopathia Sexualis. He described sadism as deriving sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on another person and masochism as obtaining sexual pleasure from receiving pain and cruelty inflicted by another person. British psychologist Havelock Ell...
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This entry compares and contrasts the terms monocultural and multicultural. It includes general uses of the terms as well as their use in relation to the field of psychology. The entry addresses key topics such as origins of the terms, definitions, and their various uses.
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Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a chronic pattern of antisocial behavior. Its close link to violence and crime renders it an important social and public health issue. A review of the extant literature on ASPD is provided. Key topics such as the conceptualization and categorization of ASPD, sex differences in the manifesta...
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There is geographical variation in the ways in which people think, feel, and behave. Research concerned with geographical variation in personality explores the spatial organization of personality traits and how they relate to social entities and physical features of the environment. Evidence indicates that social influence, ecological influence, an...
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Peggy McIntosh founded the Seeking Educational Equity and Diversity (SEED) Project on inclusive curriculum in 1986, serving as co‐director until 2011. McIntosh's understanding of privilege grew out of her own experience as a woman teaching in women's studies in the 1970s and 1980s. McIntosh has been instrumental in identifying and shaping the under...
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Social class and classism are poorly understood when objective indices of income, education, and occupation are used to categorize individuals into social‐class groups (e.g. middle‐class). Research suggests that individuals within these social‐class groups vary on a number of personality and individual characteristics. Subjective approaches to unde...
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Risk‐seeking is a characteristic that one attributes to a certain personality: Some individuals are risk‐seeking; others are risk‐aversive. Recreational risk‐seeking, implicates two personality traits: impulsivity and sensation seeking. Risk‐seeking can implicate antisocial behavior, especially if the activities engaged in are prohibited by law, su...
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Biculturalism describes one's status of being identified with two cultures, internalizing, or containing within oneself, the identity and/or behaviors of both cultures. Biculturalism occurs as a result of a variety of situations, including immigration, interethnic relationships, mixed heritage, colonialism and war‐related occupations, expatriation,...
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James M. Jones is a leading voice in psychology on the issue of race, racism, prejudice, and discrimination. His book, Prejudice and Racism is a classic in the field. This chapter discusses his early life, academic influences, and employment history. Jones's two major impacts upon the profession have been on his writings on prejudice and racism and...
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Individual differences play a key role in career choice and development. Personality and interests are evident from early childhood, and they typically remain stable across the lifespan. Personality traits have been found predictive of college major and career choice, and they have been related to many career outcomes including job search behaviors...
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Martin E. P. Seligman is a leading authority in the fields of positive psychology, resilience, learned helplessness, depression, optimism, and pessimism. In 1998, Dr. Seligman was elected president of the American Psychological Association by the largest vote in modern history. He is currently the Zellerbach Family Professor of Psychology at the Un...
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Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) affects just under 4% of the population and is characterized by cognitive, perceptual, social, interpersonal, and behavioral features. SPD exists along a continuum of severity across clinical and community populations. Between 20% and 40% of individuals with early SPD develop schizophrenia later. Much progress...
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This section examines the role played by individual coping behaviors in managing stressful experiences. First, “stress” and “coping” are defined, and the importance of cognitive appraisal in coping processes is noted. Different types of coping (e.g. problem‐focused and emotion‐focused strategies), methods of assessment, and dispositional versus sit...
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Allocentrism and idiocentrism are the individual equivalents of collectivism and individualism. Collectivism and individualism are intended to refer to cultural or societal descriptions of the interrelations among inhabitants of those cultures or societies. Thus, an individual can be allocentric or idiocentric in a collectivistic society, or an ind...
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This chapter will define cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and describe its theoretical perspective; place CBT in historical perspective in psychology; briefly review some basic principles; describe applications and efficacy of CBT to specific problems and populations including children and adolescents; and describe limitations and discuss possibl...
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Culturally adapted psychotherapy refers to the tailoring and modification of mental health services for people of diverse backgrounds. A number of meta‐analyses have found that culturally adapted treatments moderately improve treatment outcomes. Moreover, cultural adaptations that occur at a deeper structural level and incorporate client values in...
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This entry provides a compact review of the evidence that personality characteristics are related to deviant work behaviors, with special attention directed at counterproductive work behaviors and abusive supervision. In particular, the roles that the Big Five personality traits, the attachment system, and dark personality characteristics play in t...
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Volunteerism is a unique form of helping behavior that is related to personality traits and characteristics. The Big Five personality traits of agreeableness and extraversion consistently predict volunteerism. In addition, there are a number of dynamic, or changeable, traits and states that reliably predict volunteerism, including: (a) prosocial or...
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Full-text available
For many years, the trait perspective has dominated the study of human personality. At the turn of the twentieth century, with the development of new scientific methods for psychological research, researchers began to focus on personality as a set of identifiable, universal traits. Researchers such as Allport, Cattell, and Murray each developed the...
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With over 6,000 languages spoken in the world (Crystal, 1987), acknowledging linguistic and cultural variables is imperative as they impact the understanding of psychological functions. Individually, these variables represent intricate mechanisms, and complexity becomes greater when both culture and language are coalesced and studied together. To m...
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Personality and intelligence are two commonly measured constructs used for employee selection that have been shown to be valid predictors of job performance. Often used in connection with other measures, the combination of personality and intelligence assessments has been shown to have incremental validity over either type of assessment used alone....
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Cultural Intelligence is defined as “an individual's capacity to function and manage effectively in culturally diverse settings” (Ang et al., 2007). CQ is conceptualized into four different dimensions that correspond to the depth, breadth, and flexibility of an individual's cultural strategies, knowledge, drive, and skills. There are three broad ty...
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Personality was once regarded as stable in adulthood, but increasingly researchers are discovering patterns of change across the adult years. The principles of plasticity, maturation, and social engagement provide a framework for understanding changes in personality traits. From the perspective of psychosocial developmental theories, ego identity c...
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John Lewis Holland was a theorist, researcher, practitioner, and educator. He was one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century and his impact on vocational psychology continues into the twenty‐first century. He is well known for his theory of Vocational Personality Types which hypothesized that people and environments can be c...
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The common proverb of “The early bird gets the worm” has often been used to express that the early riser is more likely to be successful. Although this may be true, late risers may be just as productive as earlier risers. This concept of different waking times is exhibited in the behaviors of two birds: the lark and the owl. These two birds have op...
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This review summarizes the theories, research, and methodologies associated with the study of individual differences in creativity, including individual differences in personality, cognition, style, attitude, and perception. These individual differences must be taken into account whenever there is an interest in supporting or enhancing creativity....
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Adrian Frank Furnham (b. 1953–) is currently adjunct professor at the BI Norwegian Business School in Oslo. Previously he was professor of psychology at University College London (2001–2018), visiting professor at the University of Hong Kong's Business School (1995–1997), and visiting professor at the Henley Management College (1999–2001). He is al...
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Education scholars have long been interested in the role of personality as a determinant of educational performance and success. Recent meta‐analytic investigations indicate that of the Big Five traits, Conscientiousness is the most strongly linked to educational performance. At more narrowly defined trait levels, achievement motivation, leaning go...
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Dr. Reginald L. Jones (1931–2005), a pioneer in the fields of Black Psychology and Special Education, has led an extensive career as a respected scholar and distinguished professor. In addition to writing the seminal book on Black Psychology, Dr. Jones published and edited 22 books, 200 articles, and 28 videos related to labels and stigma in Specia...
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Although often thought of as an outcome of life experiences, well‐being is a relatively stable individual difference. One explanation for this stability is personality. Personality traits are strongly associated with well‐being. Moreover, these associations persist even controlling for the behaviors and life experiences that are fostered by persona...
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“Tiger mother” has become popularized in the Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother (Chua, 2011). This strict, achievement‐ and merit‐focused childrearing style has yielded scientific discourse about the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of tiger parenting on Asian American offspring outcomes. Tiger parenting behaviors include high parental monitori...
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The Type A/B Personality construct has evolved considerably in terms of its definition and its importance since it was first introduced by cardiologists Friedman and Rosenman in 1959. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of how theorists and researchers have defined and measured the Type A/B construct. This chapter will briefly discuss t...
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Full-text available
Leadership has been a topic of contentious debate since the time of the ancient philosophers. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries a number of leadership theories have been advanced. The Great Man Theory gives the basic framework on which contemporary theories have been based. Contemporary theories of leadership first began to focus on...
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Howard S. Friedman is a pioneering scientist whose work spans three major areas of psychology: personality, social, and health. His work, both theoretical and applied, has shifted our thinking about personality and health in meaningful ways.
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In the early United States, there was both the reality of interracial mixing and the legal prohibition of it as soon as Europeans arrived. Innately racist social policies of segregation aimed to prevent the spread of perceived undesirable traits by criminalizing sex, cohabitation, and marriage between a White individual and an individual of color....
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This entry provides a review of how personality is used in military settings for selection as well as the effectiveness of personality constructs for predicting performance, training, attrition, leadership, and health outcomes. It also provides evidence concerning the effectiveness of developmental interventions designed to increase mental health,...
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Forgiveness within psychotherapy is a new and empirically‐verified form of treatment for clients who present with unhealthy emotions and moods resulting from unjust treatment by others. To forgive is to offer goodness to those who have been unjust to the client. To forgive is different from excusing, reconciling, or abandoning justice. Forgiveness...
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This entry summarizes the career of Robert Hogan, one of the more creative, impactful, and iconoclastic figures in the field of personality theory. Young Hogan's intellectual preoccupations with Freudian theory and evolutionary theory came together in his crusade against the critics of personality theory and led to his development of Socio‐analytic...
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Religiosity and spirituality are both characterized by a search for or belief in a divinity or higher power. Religiosity is more located in an institutional framework whereas spirituality is more personal or internal. Numerous measures of religiosity and spirituality have been developed. The most frequently used scale measures an individual's relig...
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Addiction describes maladaptive patterns that implicate excessive use, poor control, and adverse consequences of substances or other behavioral processes. A discrete set of “addictive personality” has been used to differentiate individuals who misuse alcohol and other substances. This predominantly psychodynamic perspective helps researchers and cl...
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Dissociative disorders are conditions marked by discontinuities in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor control, and behavior. Dissociative disorders include dissociative amnesia, depersonalization/derealization disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. This entry reviews the...
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Social skills in the workplace are critical to the creation and maintenance of good interpersonal relationships at work. They are important for effective team functioning, and are essential skills needed for leaders and managers. Despite their importance, there has been relatively little research on workplace social skills, and there is no agreed‐u...
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Beginning with its inception in DSM‐III, NPD has been characterized by a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, feeling privileged, entitled, and expecting preferential treatment, as well as displaying an exaggerated sense of self‐importance, and showing arrogant and haughty behaviors or attitudes. In contrast to DSM's predominantly grandiose emphasis,...
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Derald Wing Sue (1942–) is an American psychologist known for his extensive and highly influential research on Asian American psychology, multicultural counseling, racism, and microaggressions (APA, 2013; Munsey, 2006). Sue is the most commonly cited author of multicultural publications, and his research has been highly influential in national disc...
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Burnout is defined as a syndrome of chronic exhaustion and a cynical attitude towards work that is caused by one's professional life. Examining what causes job burnout is crucial for the prevention of the syndrome and its consequences – including impaired well‐being, job performance, and productivity. The study of personality is relevant in this ar...
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The first wave of research on personality in law enforcement compared police and “general population” personality norms and examined if there was a personality “type” that was attracted to policing as a career vocation. The second wave of research looked at “successful” and “unsuccessful” police officers, asking if they had different personalities....
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Contemporary psychological research in the field of acculturation is summarized by underscoring its central characteristics and by contrasting it with related terms. In addition, four of the main acculturation theories are sketched. To conclude, a description of some of the most relevant findings in the acculturation research in the psychological a...
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Psychologist Charles Donald Spielberger will be remembered as one of the most prolific and highly cited psychologists of the twenty‐first century. As one of the most highly awarded psychologists, his contributions to psychology are epic.
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There is no consensus regarding a prototypical personality profile for bullies. However, researchers have been able to identify a variety of personality constructs that coincide with bullying behavior. Bullies tend to have lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness along with higher levels of neuroticism and extraversion. Furthermore, bull...
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Personality variables have frequently been ignored by scientists studying legal‐forensic psychology. This neglect is likely due to legal psychology's focus on variables that are under the control of the legal system (e.g. eyewitness identification procedures, interrogation techniques, jury instructions). However, there are a few areas where legal‐f...
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Research on personality at work has identified a constellation of counterproductive traits that occupy a conceptual space between normal personality and clinical personality disorders. Two streams of research have examined these sub‐clinical traits: one on “the dark side of personality,” a robust taxonomy of 11 counterproductive tendencies associat...
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The personality represents our stable ways of sensing, information processing, thinking, feeling, moral values, interpersonal patterns, and ways of coping and action, which makes an individual profile for each one of us. Causal factors for cancer development typically have been sustained habits over long periods of time, like smoking, and therefore...
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When discerning chronic pain and symptoms that manifest from chronic pain, physical as well as psychosocial constructs impact patient's behavior. A pain‐prone personality does not exist, but personality characteristics can influence features of pain such as pain reactivity, coping techniques, and treatment adherence. The biopsychosocial model is an...
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Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent, chronic, and debilitating disorder characterized by instability in one's sense of self, others, and mood. This instability is expressed as emotional lability, impulsivity, interpersonal dysfunction, angry outbursts, suicidality, and non‐suicidal self‐injury. One in 10 patients with BPD wi...
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Neuropsychiatric disorders are specific, clinically recognized conditions in which an individual's thoughts, perceptions, emotions and/or overt behavior cause suffering and interfere with the individual's daily the subset of mental disorders for which there is some knowledge about the underlying brain pathology and most importantly, this pathology...
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Personality describes a relatively stable set of individual differences in patterns of attitude, motivation, and behavior. The idea that these personal characteristics might be relevant to health is not new, but the ways in which we examine these associations have become more sophisticated with time. We now know a great deal about the ways in which...
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Although general mental ability has been hailed as the best predictor of task performance across work contexts, evidence suggests that personality significantly relates to a wide array of job‐related performance indicators such as creativity, perceptions of leadership, contextual performance, as well as task performance. Additionally, there is cons...