Bernard Effah

Botany, Educational Leadership

HND, B.Ed.,M.A., MSc, PhD (Student)
2.44

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: This research assessed how small scale sawmills residues at Sokoban and Ahwia wood markets are managed and disposed off and suggested appropriate measures for dealing with the situation of waste disposal at these industrial estates. The study was conducted at two local timber markets in Kumasi and its environs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The study was a descriptive social survey design which sought to portray an accurate profile of persons, events and situations. To harness the needed information, a triangulation method comprising of questionnaire, interview and observation/photography methods were employed in gathering data. For primary data collection, systematic random sampling method was used to select a realised sample of 208 respondents from an infinite population comprising of wood processors, carpenters and timber sellers from the areas under survey. The study showed sawing and planing as the highest waste generation sources. Sawdust was the highest waste generated by the artisans while majority were also collecting their waste by manual clearing. The artisans have also resorted to open burning as the means of disposing their waste. There was general assertion that state authorities were not doing enough to manage waste at the surveyed sites. A significant positive correlation between methods of collecting waste and methods of disposal practiced were identified. Ideally, the easiest and most cost-effective way of managing any waste is not to generate it in the first place. Reassessing daily practices and overall product design of the artisans may significantly reduce the amount of wood waste they discard.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
  • Bernard Effah · Albert Van Reenen · Martina Meincken

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
  • Bernard Effah
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    ABSTRACT: This study on ergonomic impact of furniture design on the health of students was necessitated by the need to look into the health problems posed to students by furniture used in the classroom, its compatibility to users and the number of movements students make in the furniture. Systematic random sampling method was used to choose a sample of 120 students from a population of 482 students. The subjective evaluation of the health problem of the students was made by questionnaire and structured observation techniques. Students selected were given questionnaire to obtain information on their background, back pain, discomfort/complaints and satisfaction with classroom furniture. In using correlation and regression analysis in the study, there was significant association of the backrest shape as a cause of upper back pain at 0.182** (5%). There was also a significant association between students feeling neck pain when sitting on mono-desk at 0.344*** (10%) and other related musculoskeletal disorders. Students recommended for furniture with broad seat, clearance space for thighs and legs in order for them to feel comfortable in the classroom when they sit in the mono-desk.
    No preview · Article · May 2015
  • Bernard Effah
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    ABSTRACT: The study was carried out in a furniture industry in Ghana, to identify some of the hazards, lost in revenue due to hazards and hazard control. Questionnaires were administered to workers of which 60% had adequate knowledge about hazards management; 50% had experienced minor injuries; 80% had knowledge on the use of Personal Protective Equipment, and 100% had access to good medical care provided by the Management. The results further indicated that unavailability and low usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) increase the risk of getting involved in accidents.It was recommended that Management should be committed to the training of their workers on the use of safety tools. Factory Inspectorates should increase the number of times they visit these industries to ensure safety. Procedures for providing safety against accidents are therefore very relevant, hence encouraged through safety committees.
    No preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Classroom furniture is an important facility that helps to provide a conducive, comfortable and functional classroom environment for students in educational institutions. The comfort and functional utility of classroom furniture depends on its physical design in relation to the physical structure and biomechanics of the human body. An observation and evaluation study was conducted to explore the type of furniture used by students in classroom environment and their opinions were drawn on the design. A systematic random sampling method was used to choose a sample of 120 students from a population of 482 students. The subjective evaluation of the health problem of the students was made by questionnaire technique. Postural analyses of the students during normal classroom lessons were made by video-photographic method as well as direct observation methods. The outcome of the study revealed that one type of furniture (mono-desk) as seat to one student at a time was found in use and the design features and its dimensions were the same. The features like seat width, and height, backrest height, thigh clearance, footrest and lumbar support were found to be incompatible to the users. The prevalence rate of neck pain according to class, age, sex, weight and height experienced by students were high. The study found significant association between flexed postures and upper back pain. Static postures neck pain and low back pain were also associated.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    Bernard Effah · Ernest Boampong

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The local timber industry in Ghana has for some time now experienced major challenges that have subjected the sector to severe pressure regarding raw material unavailability and a struggle for efficient use of the limited available timber. This study investigated the availability of timber species and their sizes in two local timber markets and the factors that influence their selection for furniture and joinery production. A cross-sectional survey study which used questionnaire, observation and photography was employed. Random Systematic sampling methods was used to select a realised sample of 306 respondents from an infinite population comprising of timber processors, timber sellers and consumers from the study sites. From the study, out of thirty-two species that were outlined, twenty-two of them were found to be available on the markets. Durability, appearance, quality and processability were the most influential factors for the specification and selection of the species for furniture and joinery production. Affordability, area of usage and informed decision were the least influential factors. Seven common sawn lumber sizes and the actual sizes on display at the markets showed that thickness sizes were less by 5mm for four sizes. The width sizes for all the observed pieces were less by 5-20mm for all the seven sizes. It was concluded that the trend of availability of the species on the markets for furniture and joinery production is attributed to the knowledge on the utilization of the species and the easiness to obtain by the dealers whiles most wood users buy lumber without checking if the sizes are actual as indicated. There is therefore the need to increase utilization of a wide number of species, especially lesser-used species (LUS) to help prevent creaming for the few traditional high value species.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
  • Jenkins A. Asaah · Bernard Effah · Francis Kwame Sam
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    ABSTRACT: The Competing Values Framework is a tool that can be used for many purposes, including identifying the organizational culture of an organization. According to this framework, there are four main cultures, namely, Clan, Adhocracy, Market and Hierarchy. Knowledge of the organizational culture of an institution is very important if the managers of such institution are to succeed. The purpose of the research was therefore to identify the existing dominant organizational culture of Kumasi Polytechnic as perceived by its staff as well as the preferred organizational culture of members of staff. The members of staff of Kumasi Polytechnic were grouped into; senior members, senior staff and junior staff. Members of staff who had attained a minimum of one year of service with the Polytechnic were randomly sampled to answer the organizational culture assessment instrument. Based on the analysis, the existing dominant organizational culture of Kumasi Polytechnic is Hierarchy. However, the study revealed that the preferred organizational culture is Market. The implication is that for managers of the Polytechnic to be effective and successful, their leadership style should be that of a coordinator or organizer or rule-reinforcer. Also, their management style should be characterized by security of employment, conformity and stability in relationships.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    Bernard Effah

    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    Kwaku Antwi · Bernard Effah · Jonny Osei Kofi

    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2014
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    Bernard Effah
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    ABSTRACT: Wood is a renewable natural resource which can effectively reduce climate change. Wood processing operations generate enormous amount of wood residues which need to be efficiently managed. A lumber yield of about 28- 64% requires maximizing the economic values of wood. The utilization of wood residue which is deemed as a burdensome waste in many timber industries has the potential of lessening the effects of climate change. This has led to the study of issues associated with the generation and management of wood residues. This research was conducted to examine the rate of wood residue production at the various production lines and its utilization in four selected timber industries in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions of Ghana; and their effects on climate change. Four different timber species, Cylicodiscus gabunensis (Denya), Entandrophragma angolense (Edinam), Pterygota macrocarpa (Koto) and Triplochiton scleroxylon (Wawa) were studied. The average lumber recovery percentage at the four sawmills was 38.08% with residue forming 61.92% of the total input volume. It was observed that 9.07% of input volume generated sawdust. However about 60% of this sawdust was not utilized but burnt and/or dumped openly, polluting the environment. It is recommended that the sawdust could be used to manufacture biochar for soil amendment to enhance nurseries, plantations and other agricultural interests.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    Bernard Effah
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    ABSTRACT: The energy problems in Ghana and Africa in general have perpetuated the need for sustainable energy production sources. One of the sustainable energy production systems is the cogeneration system. Cogeneration is the simultaneous production of useful heat and energy by using a primary fuel which is supposed to be easily available. It is fast gaining grounds, especially in the timber industry as an efficient means of maximizing the usage and economic value of wood residue. This research was carried out to assess the cogeneration system of Samartex Timber and Plywood Company, Ghana. The input and output volumes of logs (irrespective of species) at the four production departments of the company (sawmill, plymill, veneermill and the moulding mill) were calculated to identify the estimated wood residue volume generated at each department. The quantity of electricity generated from the residues was calculated to assess the rate of electricity production. The company had an average percentage residue of 44.50%. This yielded a volume of 619.654 m3 per month which was able to generate an estimated electricity of 2,408,055.694 Kw/h per month. It was realized that any wood species can be used for cogeneration but its feasibility depends on continuous supply of the primary fuel. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted during the burning of wood residue is typically 90% less than when burning fossil fuel which helps to reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere which reduces the global warming. It is recommended that the system should be practiced in the timber industry which usually has enough wood residues for primary fuel.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that are associated with teachers’ job satisfaction. There were three major issues that the study sought to examine namely; levels of teacher job satisfaction, factors that lead to teacher job satisfaction or dissatisfaction and teachers’ job characteristics. The research design was a descriptive survey. Through a probability sampling method, 4 out of 5 Senior High Schools were chosen for the study with a total sampling size of 200 respondents. A questionnaire was designed for this study involving thirty-six (36) questions and a five point likert scale type. Descriptive statistical techniques were employed to calculate the means and standard deviations for the data collected. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.85. The study showed that; teachers have low levels of satisfaction and high level of dissatisfaction. Half of the respondents supported the measures and policies taken by government currently to help teachers achieve job satisfaction and the other half was dissatisfied. Almost all the respondents were satisfied on the issue of teacher job satisfaction and job characteristics. Based the findings, it is recommended that policy makers and the Ghana Education Service should help to design policies that would make the income of teachers now and future very attractive. Other allowances, bonuses and fringe benefits in the teaching service in this current state should be reviewed upward and funds located to the Ministry of Education in the annual budget should also be reviewed upward to help implement all seminars workshops and programmes planned.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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    Bernard Effah
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    ABSTRACT: Cola nitida and Funtumia elastica are two lesser-known species in Ghana that are not used for commercial timber purposes. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of Cola nitida and Funtumia elastica to some drying defects as the basis for determining the potential uses that may encourage the utilization and promotion of these two lesser known species. The basic drying characteristics were determined using the quick drying test method developed by Terazawa. The experimental results revealed the following degrees of defects; checks in the early stages of drying were less severe in both species (Class 3). There was no honeycombing (Class 1) in both species as well as no deformation (Class 1) in both species. This in turn may be followed by an evaluation of their utilization potential, marketability and performance, so as to serve as suitable substitutes for the fast-diminishing traditional market species in Ghana.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to explore some issues of students’ industrial training programme at Kumasi Polytechnic. Data were collected from 282 students by simple random survey through self completion questionnaire based on a four point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. The findings revealed that the overall state of preparation of students for the attachment programme was suitable. The study established, among the challenges that students had competition for attachment places from other institutions, tough work environment for students, high expectations by firms; financial challenges and lack of appropriate skills, tasks and jobs. Finally, strategies that could improve the attachment programme were proposed and it summed up as strong relationship between the Polytechnic and industry. It was recommended that Polytechnic education should be given the needed resources and recognition to produce graduates who may end up solving the problems of the nation. Keywords: Kumasi Polytechnic, industrial attachment, education, graduates, industrial liaison office and unemployment
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014
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    Bernard Effah
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated Community Centre for Employable Skills (ICCES) is an agency under the Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare with policy objective of filling the gap in employment generation by developing the young human resources in line with the poverty alleviation goal of the government of Ghana. The purpose of the study was to find out how the ICCES training programmes are achieving their purpose of increasing access of young person’s to skills acquisition and empowerment for productive employment. To harness the needed information, questionnaire, interview and observation, were employed in gathering data from the subjects. The results suggest that participants in the survey had all conferred that the programmes have being helpful to the communities in securing suitable employment that allows them to generate income within the social, family and financial constraints that they face in their communities and as such their social and economic status has being impacted positively.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    Bernard Effah · Kwaku Antwi
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    ABSTRACT: In Ghana, many of our traditional wood species are over exploited and threatened to extinction. The utilization of other lesser-used and lesser known wood species needs to be looked at urgently as a possibility of increasing the wood resource base. And a successful expansion of the resource base is dependent on adequate knowledge of the properties of the lesser-used species such as Allanblackia parviflora which can be a good substitute to some of the dwindling species. It was against this background that the strength and some physical properties of Allanblackia parviflora trees were determined to predict the suitability of the species for furniture production and structural raw material for downstream processing of wood products. Three Allanblackia parviflora trees were used for the study. The main statistical tools used were descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mechanical strength test specimens were prepared and tested in accordance with the British Standard BS 373: 1957. Mean green moisture content was 81.19%. Mean basic density was 539.00kg/m3. The range of mean strength values in N/mm2 in the ‘green’ and dry (12 % M.C) conditions for the three wood species were as follows: Modulus of Rupture: 50.00 - 56.00 (85.00 - 94.00), Modulus of Elasticity: 6,387.00 - 6,951.00 (8,287.00 - 8,875.00), compression parallel to grain: 24.00 - 28.00 (13.00 - 14.00) and shear parallel to grain 6.83 - 7.74 (9.62 - 10.82). Mean ratios of dry to ‘green’ MOR and MOE were 1.68 and 1.28. Almost all strength tests conducted showed a consistent trend that, the heartwood portion of each division was slightly stronger in terms of resistance to failure than its corresponding sapwood portion. Comparing the strength of Allanblackia parviflora to an existing classification (grade), strength is ‘medium’ in Allanblackia parviflora tree wood. It compared favourably with known species such as Aningeria altissima, Terminaria ivorensis, and Antiaris toxicaria in several properties and strength which are suitable for furniture production.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    Bernard Effah · Jonny Osei Kofi
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    ABSTRACT: Cola nitida and Funtumia elastica are two lesser-known species in Ghana that are not used for commercial timber purposes. The objective of this study was to develop kiln-drying schedules for Cola nitida and Funtumia elastica as the basis for determining the potential uses that may encourage the utilization and promotion of these lesser known species. The drying schedules were determined using the quick drying test method developed by Terazawa (1965). Three trees each per species were used in the study. The drying schedules comformed to those of Sterculia rhinopetala and Alstonia boonei. Checks in the early stages of drying were less severe in both Cola nitida and Funtumia elastica samples (Class 3). There were no honeycombing (Class 1) in both Cola nitida and Funtumia elastica species. There was no deformation (Class 1) in both Cola nitida and Funtumia elastica species. Experimental dry kiln schedules for lumber of thickness up to 38 mm corresponding to two Madison schedules were proposed: Cola nitida (T 10-C 4) and Funtumia elastica (T 10 – D 4).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Science and Technology
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed at determining the relationship of anthropometric dimensions of workers from several offices in public institutions with the dimensions of institution chairs. Three dimensions of the chairs in daily use were evaluated to ascertain whether the fit is sufficient and the effect on workers’ sitting posture. The study comprised of a sample of 261 workers from six public institutions in Ashanti Region, Ghana and one type of furniture. Dimensions of institution chairs were compared with three anthropometric variables of the workers. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for all variables. The study results show that furniture of appropriate dimensions is not available to a large number of workers in Ghana. Currently supplied office furniture is provided in several sizes and do not fit the users. It is recommended that work chairs may be acceptable if they are issued in four heights or individually adjustable chairs be introduced in Ghanaian institutions. Furthermore it is strongly recommended that institutions actively promote appropriate active sitting behavior.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
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    ABSTRACT: Teacher attrition and retention in the education sector is a matter of concern for all Ghanaians and as such the study was conducted to explore issues concerning teacher retention and attrition in Ghana. The study was descriptive survey in nature, and sought to establish factors that militate against the retention of teachers, as well as their satisfaction of the conditions of service in public senior high schools. The study was conducted in four Senior High Schools and a sample of 116 teachers was randomly selected for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data. Findings revealed that most of the senior high school teachers may leave the teaching profession in the nearest future if their conditions of service and salaries, as well as school and classroom environment are not improved. Also the problem of teacher attrition in Senior High Schools in the district is partly attributable to non-compliance of the conditions of service for teachers by Ghana Education Service. Based on the findings, the study made the following recommendations: As a matter of urgency, the state should review the conditions of service for teachers and ensure their full implementation. Moreover, the state should take immediate steps to improve upon infrastructure in Senior High Schools, especially, those located in rural communities, to create conducive environment for teaching and learning.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014

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