Bernard Marty

Bernard Marty
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Centre de recherches pétrographiques et géochimiques (CRPG)

About

475
Publications
77,631
Reads
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21,773
Citations
Citations since 2017
100 Research Items
9987 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
Additional affiliations
September 1992 - present
Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques
Position
  • Senior Researcher
September 1992 - present
University of Lorraine
Position
  • Professor of Geochemistry

Publications

Publications (475)
Chapter
This chapter reviews the way the six key questions about planetary systems, from their origins to the way they work and their habitability, identified in Chapter 1 (Blanc et al., 2021), can be addressed by means of solar system exploration, and how one can find partial answers to these six questions by flying to the different provinces to the solar...
Article
Full-text available
Comets represent some of the most pristine bodies in our solar system and can provide a unique insight into the chemical makeup of the early solar system. Due to their icy volatile-rich nature, they may have played an important role in delivering volatile elements and organic material to the early Earth. Understanding how comets form can therefore...
Article
Volatile elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are essential ingredients to build habitable worlds like Earth, but their origin and evolution on terrestrial planets remain highly debated. Here we discuss the processes that distributed these elements throughout the early Solar System and how they then became incorporated into planet...
Preprint
Full-text available
This chapter of the Planetary Exploration Horizon 2061 Report reviews the way the six key questions about planetary systems, from their origins to the way they work and their habitability, identified in chapter 1, can be addressed by means of solar system exploration, and how one can find partial answers to these six questions by flying to the diff...
Article
The near-Earth carbonaceous asteroid (162173) Ryugu is expected to contain volatile chemical species that could provide information on the origin of Earth's volatiles. Samples of Ryugu were retrieved by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. We measure noble gas and nitrogen isotopes in Ryugu samples, finding they are dominated by pre-solar and primordial compo...
Article
The Hayabusa2 spacecraft returned to Earth from the asteroid 162173 Ryugu on December 6, 2020. One day after the recovery, the gas species retained in the sample container were extracted and measured on-site, and stored in gas collection bottles. The container gas consists of helium and neon with an extraterrestrial 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios, al...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the composition of the Archean atmosphere and oceans is vital to understanding the environmental conditions that existed on the surface of the early Earth. The analysis of atmospheric remnants in fluid inclusions trapped in Archean-aged samples has shown that the Xe isotopic signature of the Archean atmosphere progressively evolved via...
Article
The elemental and isotopic compositions of noble gases trapped in primitive meteorites have the potential to yield stringent constraints on the origin of matter in the solar system. The isotopic compositions of key elements like O, Ti, Ru, Mo suggest that the Earth accreted from material having similarities with two classes of meteorites, carbonace...
Article
Full-text available
Noble gases are chemically inert and, as such, act as unique tracers of physical processes over geological timescales. The isotopic composition of atmospheric xenon, the heaviest stable noble gas, evolved following mass-dependent fractionation throughout the Hadean and Archaean aeons. This evolution appears to have ceased between 2.5 and 2.1 Ga, ar...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the way the six key questions about planetary systems, from their origins to the way they work and their habitability, identified in Chapter 1 (Blanc et al., 2021), can be addressed by means of solar system exploration, and how one can find partial answers to these six questions by flying to the different provinces to the solar...
Article
Full-text available
Samples returned from Mars would be placed under quarantine at a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) until they are considered safe to release to other laboratories for further study. The process of determining whether samples are safe for release, which may involve detailed analysis and/or sterilization, is expected to take several months. However, th...
Article
Full-text available
The Perseverance rover is meant to collect samples of the martian surface for eventual return to Earth. The headspace gas present over the solid samples within the sample tubes will be of significant scientific interest for what it reveals about the interactions of the solid samples with the trapped atmosphere and for what it will reveal about the...
Article
Full-text available
The Mars Sample Return Planning Group 2 (MSPG2) was tasked with identifying the steps that encompass all the curation activities that would happen within the MSR Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) and any anticipated curation-related requirements. An area of specific interest is the necessary analytical instrumentation. The SRF would be a Biosafety Le...
Article
Full-text available
The most important single element of the "ground system" portion of a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Campaign is a facility referred to as the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF), which would need to be designed and equipped to receive the returned spacecraft, extract and open the sealed sample container, extract the samples from the sample tubes, and implem...
Article
Full-text available
The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Campaign must meet a series of scientific and technical achievements to be successful. While the respective engineering responsibilities to retrieve the samples have been formalized through a Memorandum of Understanding between ESA and NASA, the roles and responsibilities of the scientific elements have yet to be fully...
Article
Full-text available
Dust transported in the martian atmosphere is of intrinsic scientific interest and has relevance for the planning of human missions in the future. The MSR Campaign, as currently designed, presents an important opportunity to return serendipitous, airfall dust. The tubes containing samples collected by the Perseverance rover would be placed in cache...
Article
Full-text available
The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Campaign represents one of the most ambitious scientific endeavors ever undertaken. Analyses of the martian samples would offer unique science benefits that cannot be attained through orbital or landed missions that rely only on remote sensing and in situ measurements, respectively. As currently designed, the MSR Campai...
Article
Full-text available
The NASA/ESA Mars Sample Return (MSR) Campaign seeks to establish whether life on Mars existed where and when environmental conditions allowed. Laboratory measurements on the returned samples are useful if what is measured is evidence of phenomena on Mars rather than of the effects of sterilization conditions. This report establishes that there are...
Article
Full-text available
The Earth's atmosphere has continually evolved since its formation through interactions with the mantle as well as through loss of volatile species to space. Atmospheric xenon isotopes show a unique and progressive evolution during the Archean that stopped around the Archean-Proterozoic transition. The Xe isotope composition of the early atmosphere...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the origin of life-essential volatiles like N in the Solar System and beyond is critical to evaluate the potential habitability of rocky planets. Whether the inner Solar System planets accreted these volatiles from their inception or had an exogenous delivery from the outer Solar System is, however, not well understood. Using previous...
Preprint
Full-text available
The age of iron meteorites implies that accretion of protoplanets began during the first millions of years of the solar system. Due to the heat generated by 26Al decay, many early protoplanets were fully differentiated with an igneous crust produced during the cooling of a magma ocean and the segregation at depth of a metallic core. The formation a...
Article
In the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's main satellite, molecular growth is initiated by 85.6 nm extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons triggering a chemistry with charged and free-radical species. However, the respective contribution of these species to the complexification of matter is far from being known. This work presents a chemical analysis in order...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the origin of life-essential volatiles such as nitrogen (N) in the Solar System and beyond is critical to evaluate the potential habitability of rocky planets1,2,3,4,5. Whether the inner Solar System planets accreted these volatiles from their inception or had an exogenous delivery from the outer Solar System is, however, not well und...
Article
Significance The crusts of the oldest protoplanets are virtually unknown due to the scarcity of samples. Here, we describe the oldest known lava that crystallized ca. 4,565 Ma ago and formed by partial melting of a chondritic parent body. ²⁶ Al- ²⁶ Mg systematics suggest that the elapsed time between melting and crystallization was significant, on...
Article
Full-text available
This brief review will discuss the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of the nitrogen atmospheres of the icy bodies in the solar system, particularly of Titan, Triton and Pluto. An important tool to analyse and understand the origin and evolution of these atmospheres can be found in the different isotopic signatures of their atmospheric...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, we review the contribution of space missions to the determination of the elemental and isotopic composition of Earth, Moon and the terrestrial planets, with special emphasis on currently planned and future missions. We show how these missions are going to significantly contribute to, or sometimes revolutionise, our understanding of...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the formation of our planetary system requires identification of the materials from which it originated and the accretion processes that produced the planets. The compositional evolution of the solar system can be constrained by synthesizing astronomical datasets and numerical models with elemental and isotopic compositions from objec...
Preprint
This brief review will discuss the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of the nitrogen atmospheres of the icy bodies in the solar system, particularly of Titan, Triton and Pluto. An important tool to analyse and understand the origin and evolution of these atmospheres can be found in the different isotopic signatures of their atmospheric...
Preprint
Here we discuss the current state of knowledge on how atmospheric escape processes can fractionate noble gas isotopes and moderately volatile rock-forming elements that populate primordial atmospheres, magma ocean related environments, and catastrophically outgassed steam atmospheres. Variations of isotopes and volatile elements in different planet...
Article
My journey in science began with the study of volcanic gases, sparking an interest in the origin, and ultimate fate, of the volatile elements in the interior of our planet. How did these elements, so crucial to life and our surface environment, come to be sequestered within the deepest regions of the Earth, and what can they tell us about the proce...
Article
Full-text available
The terrestrial carbon to nitrogen ratio is a key geochemical parameter that can provide information on the nature of Earth's precursors, accretion/differentiation processes of our planet, as well as on the volatile budget of Earth. In principle, this ratio can be determined from the analysis of volatile elements trapped in mantle-derived rocks lik...
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Full-text available
This study investigates metal–silicate partitioning of neon (DNe) under the likely conditions of early Earth’s core formation: up to 16 GPa, ∼ 3000 K and an oxygen fugacity near IW-2 (2 log units below the Iron-Wüstite buffer). We find that the DNe coefficients range between 10−2 and 10−1. These partition coefficients are only one of the controllin...
Article
Past changes in the halogen composition of seawater are anticipated based on the differing behavior of chlorine and bromine that are strongly partitioned into seawater, relative to iodine, which is extremely depleted in modern seawater and enriched in marine sediments due to biological uptake. Here we assess the use of chert, a chemical sediment th...
Article
An unexpected source of Earth's water The abundances of Earth's chemical elements and their isotopic ratios can indicate which materials formed Earth. Enstatite chondrite (EC) meteorites provide a good isotopic match for many elements but are expected to contain no water because they formed in the hot inner Solar System. This would require Earth's...
Article
Full-text available
The current composition of giant planet atmospheres provides information on how such planets formed, and on the origin of the solid building blocks that contributed to their formation. Noble gas abundances and their isotope ratios are among the most valuable pieces of evidence for tracing the origin of the materials from which the giant planets for...
Article
Full-text available
Stellar evolution models predict that the solar luminosity was lower in the past, typically 20-25% lower during the Archean (3.8-2.5 Ga). Despite the fainter Sun, there is strong evidence for the presence of liquid water on Earth’s surface at that time. This “faint young Sun problem” is a fundamental question in paleoclimatology, with important imp...
Article
Full-text available
Here we discuss the current state of knowledge on how atmospheric escape processes can fractionate noble gas isotopes and moderately volatile rock-forming elements that populate primordial atmospheres, magma ocean related environments, and catastrophically outgassed steam atmospheres. Variations of isotopes and volatile elements in different planet...
Preprint
Full-text available
Stellar evolution models predict that the solar luminosity was lower in the past, typically 20-25 % lower during the Archean (3.8-2.5 Ga). Despite the fainter Sun, there is strong evidence for the presence of liquid water on Earth's surface at that time. This "faint young Sun problem" is a fundamental question in paleoclimatology, with important im...
Article
Full-text available
Volatile elements play a critical role in the evolution of Earth. Nevertheless, the mechanism(s) by which Earth acquired, and was able to preserve its volatile budget throughout its violent accretionary history, remains uncertain. In this study, we analyzed noble gas isotopes in volcanic gases from the Yellowstone mantle plume, thought to sample th...
Article
Full-text available
The origin of terrestrial volatiles remains one of the most puzzling questions in planetary sciences. The timing and composition of chondritic and cometary deliveries to Earth has remained enigmatic due to the paucity of reliable measurements of cometary material. This work uses recently measured volatile elemental ratios and noble gas isotope data...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen is the main constituent of the Earth’s atmosphere, but its provenance in the Earth’s mantle remains uncertain. The relative contribution of primordial nitrogen inherited during the Earth’s accretion versus that subducted from the Earth’s surface is unclear1–6. Here we show that the mantle may have retained remnants of such primordial nitro...
Preprint
The composition of an atmosphere has integrated the geological history of the entire planetary body. However, the long-term evolutions of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets are not well documented. For Earth, there were until recently only few direct records of atmosphere's composition in the distant past, and insights came mainly from geoc...
Article
Full-text available
The composition of an atmosphere has integrated the geological history of the entire planetary body. However, the long-term evolutions of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets are not well documented. For Earth, there were until recently only few direct records of atmosphere’s composition in the distant past, and insights came mainly from geoc...
Preprint
Full-text available
{CircumStellar Envelopes (CSEs) of stars are complex chemical objects for which theoretical models encounter difficulties in elaborating a comprehensive overview of the occurring chemical processes. Along with photodissociation, ion-neutral reactions and dissociative recombination might play an important role in controlling molecular growth in oute...
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Full-text available
Ureilites are equilibrated carbon-rich olivine-pyroxene rocks from the partially melted mantle of a large (>500 km diameter) heterogeneous parent body. Recently the ureilite parent body was interpreted as an incomplete mixture of material from two carbon-rich chondritic reservoirs, one (Mg-rich) with reduced iron, low Δ¹⁷O and low δ¹³C, and the oth...
Article
The exchange of volatile species—water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and halogens—between the mantle and the surface of the Earth has been a key driver of environmental changes throughout Earth’s history. Degassing of the mantle requires partial melting and is therefore linked to mantle convection, whose regime and vigour in the Earth’s distant past re...
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Full-text available
Insoluble organic materials (kerogens) isolated from ancient sedimentary rocks provide unique insights into the evolution of early life. However, establishing whether these kerogens are indeed syngenetic with the deposition of associated sedimentary host rocks, or contain contribution from episodes of secondary deposition, is not straightforward. N...
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Full-text available
The noble gas isotope composition of the mantle can provide unique insights into the origin and evolution of volatile elements on Earth. Xenon isotopes combine primordial signatures with contributions from extinct and extant radionuclides, therefore offering the potential to set constraints on both the nature of Earth's planetary precursor(s) and t...
Article
High-temperature isotope fractionation during partial melting and other igneous differentiation processes has been observed in many non-traditional isotope systems. The potassium (K) isotope system has not been extensively investigated historically due to the lack of high-precision analysis methods; however, the recent development of the Multi-Coll...
Data
Fig. S1: A) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of CM 2.9 (fragment 5) and CM 2.7 (taken close to fragment 8) areas of our thin section of the Paris meteorite. The more altered zones are marked by the presence of carbonates and phyllosilicates in the matrix. These minerals are absent from the pristine areas, where free Fe‐Ni metal is observed...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory investigations of noble gas trapping in amorphous water ice have been used to predict the noble gas composition of comets and infer on the origin of volatile elements within planetary bodies. However, the recent measurement of the noble gas composition of ice sublimating from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the Rosetta mission calls f...