Bernard Enjolras

Bernard Enjolras
Institutt for samfunnsforskning, Oslo · Center for research on civil society and voluntary sector

PhD Sociology; PhD Economics

About

85
Publications
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Introduction
Bernard Enjolras is a Research Professor and Director of the Center for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector. He is also the coordinator of the EU-FP7 project Third Sector Impact He has been Editor-in-Chief of Voluntas, International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations (ISTR, Springer) between 2010 and 2015. He has been Deputy Director at the Institute for Social Research in Oslo (2014-2016), Research Director for the group Politics, Democracy, Civil Society at the Institute for Social research (2006-2014), Director of the Center for Research on Civil Society and Voluntary Sector (2008-2014) and has been leading the Freedom of Speech Foundation project “Status of the freedom of speech in Norway” (2012-2014).Bernard research interests are related to different aspects of civil society and the third sector, public policies and governance issues, civic and political engagement, social media and digitalization, terror and trust, and freedom of speech. He has among other publications authored or edited « Gouvernance et intérêt général dans les services sociaux et de santé », (Governance and general interest in social and health services).Bruxelles : Editions Peter Lang, 2008. « Idrettsdemokrati », (Sport democracy in Norway), Oslo : Akilles, 2009. “Civil Society in Comparative Perspective”, B. Enjolras & K. H. Sivesind (Eds.) Comparative Social Research, Volume 26. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited (2009). “Frivillige organisasjoner og offentlig politikk”, (Voluntary organization and public policies), B. Enjolras & R.H. Waldhal (Eds.). Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2009. « Norsk Idrett. Organisering, felleskap og politikk. Andre utgave», (Norwegain sport. Organization, Community and Politics. Second Edition », B. Enjolras, Ø. Seippel, R. Holmen Waldahl. Oslo : Akilles, 2012. “Governing Ambiguities. New Forms of Local Governance and Civil Society”. Emanuela Bozzini & Bernard Enjolras (eds.). Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2012. Liker-Liker ikke: Samfunnsengasjement i en Facebook-tid (Like- don’t like: civic engagement in Facebook time). (Bernard Enjolras, Rune Karlsen, Kari Steen-Johnsen & Dag Wollebæk). Oslo: Cappelen Damm, 2013. He received in 2010 the ”Academy of Management Public and Nonprofit (PNP) Division Best Article Award” for his article 'A Governance-Structure Approach to Voluntary Organizations' published in 2009 in Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Bernard Enjolras received a Master in Political Sciences from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques (Sciences-Po), Paris, France and a Master in Economics from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France. He received his PhD in Economics from Université de Paris I. Panthéon Sorbonne, Paris, France and his PhD in sociology from Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada. He has been a Senior Fellow in Policy Studies at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, US and guest professor at Montpellier University, Aix-Marseille University, University Paris Pantheon-Sorbonne. He serves as Board Member of the “Citizenship Panel”, Institute for Comparative Politics, University of Bergen, Board Member of Peace Research Institute Oslo-PRIO, Ex-officio member of the board of the International Society for Third Sector Research (ISTR) (2010-2015), Member of the Editorial Board of The Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics (from 1995), Revista CIRIEC-España (from 1995), Comparative Social Research (from 2006) and Telescopes from 2006), Associated redactor and correspondent for La Revue Internationale de l’Economie Sociale (RECMA), Member of ARNOVA (Association for Research on Nonprofit Organization and Voluntary Action) and NVSQ (Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly) Best Paper Award Committee 2011 and 2012.
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - present
Institutt for samfunnsforskning, Oslo
Position
  • Research Director

Publications

Publications (85)
Preprint
Full-text available
Ideological homophily on social media has received increased scholarly interest as it is associated to the formation of filter-bubbles, echo-chambers and increased ideological polarization. Yet, there is no necessary linkage between ideological homophily, echo chambers, and polarization. In spite of political interactions on social media taking pla...
Chapter
This chapter develops an analytical model suited for empirical investigations of the interactions between local government and voluntary organizations. Public authorities and voluntary organizations interact through conflictual, complementary or cooperative relationships. We contend that, in addition to macro-institutional structures, that is the w...
Chapter
The chapter illustrates the traditional varieties and recent transformations of volunteering in five different cultural areas of the world (Anglo-Saxon, European, Latin American, East Asian, sub-Saharan African) and connects the peculiarities of domestic voluntary action to the different cultural and socioeconomic local patterns. It identifies in t...
Article
Full-text available
Artikkelen diskuterer narrativers betydning for befolkningens tillit til politikere etter terror, med utgangspunkt iangrepene i Oslo og på Utøya, i Barcelona og i Nice. I Norge så man etter 22.juli 2011 en sterk økning i politisk tillit,mens bildet for de to andre casene er mer sammensatt. Også etter angrepet i Barcelona i 2017 steg den politiske t...
Article
Full-text available
Volunteer rates vary greatly across Europe despite the voluntary sector's common history and tradition. This contribution advances a theoretical explanation for the variation in volunteering across Europe-the capability approach-and tests this approach by adopting a two-step strategy for modeling contextual effects. This approach, referring to the...
Article
Full-text available
Acts of terror lead to both a rise of an extended sense of fear that goes beyond the physical location of the attacks and to increased expressions of online hate. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed dynamics between the exposure to online hate and the fear of terrorism after the Paris attacks in November 13, 2015. We hypothesized that exposure...
Article
Terrorist attacks can instigate widespread and long-lasting fear. Mass media can enforce fear by framing the events and affecting their perceptions. We implemented a news experiment to investigate the fear-triggering effects of different types of terrorist threats. We manipulated the type of terrorist group in three scenarios: a homegrown Islamist...
Article
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This article examines the potentially buffering effect of generalized social trust on fear in the aftermath of terrorist attacks and in situations of terrorist threat. It draws on comparative, longitudinal survey data, examining the cases of the 2011 Utøya terrorist attack in Norway, the 2016 Nice attack in France and the 2017 Barcelona attack in S...
Article
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Emotions, such as anger and fear, have been shown to influence people’s political behavior. However, few studies link emotions specifically to how people debate political issues and seek political information online. In this article, we examine how anger and fear are related to politics-oriented digital behavior, attempting to bridge the gap betwee...
Article
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This article develops a theoretical perspective to study the conditions for media policy formation under the condition of digitalization – the Media Policy Field approach – building on an organizational field approach in combination with theories of policy development. The theory of strategic action fields offers a meso-level view of how actors in...
Book
Full-text available
Volunteering and political activism are two key forms of civic engagement. There is a broad consensus that civic engagement, which often involves participation in various forms of collective action, is a cornerstone of a well-functioning democracy. Civic engagement and participation in collective action have traditionally been linked to social move...
Book
This book aims at presenting a conceptual apparatus and empirical analysis of the ways Scandinavian civil society is affected by social transformations by focusing on the Norwegian case. The Norwegian empirical focus allows identifying processes and factors of change that are relevant outside this context and enable us to understand, on a more gene...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter addresses the socioeconomic impact of the third sector in Europe. Overall, the available empirical results based on existing data remain inconclusive, mainly due to the poor quality of available data about the third sector and volunteering in Europe. Third sector impact (TSI) means direct or indirect, medium- to long-term consequences...
Chapter
This chapter looks at changes in the population of associations, organization structures, and patterns of collaboration with other organizations, businesses, and the public sector, harnessing data from several censuses and surveys conducted among national and local voluntary organizations in Norway from 1980 to 2013. The purpose is to provide an em...
Chapter
In this chapter, we draw on the analyses presented in the previous chapters and discuss whether modernizing societal trends have disrupted the social movement basis of the Scandinavian voluntary sector model, making it democratically less important, or whether we are witnesses to a reconfiguration of this model. To what degree has the organizations...
Chapter
The Scandinavian civil societies have several characteristics that distinguish them from other types of civil society regimes. This includes high organizational density and a high level of participation in voluntary organizations (membership and volunteering); a democratic organizational model where organizations operate within a structure of local...
Article
Full-text available
Fear is one of the negative outcomes of terrorist attacks. Currently, there is a need to understand how societal fear and fear of terrorism might be shaped and induced by social-media discussions. This study analyzed how exposure to cyberhate was associated with perceived societal fear after the November 2015 Paris terrorist attacks. Demographicall...
Book
Full-text available
This book provides a critical account of the third sector and its future in Europe. It offers an original conceptualization of the third sector in its European manifestations alongside an overview of its major contours, including its structure, sources of support, and recent trends. It also assesses the impact of this sector in Europe which conside...
Chapter
In this chapter the relationship between online and offline civic engagement. We look specifically at the effect of being a member of a Facebook group related to voluntary organizations or to different types of protest on offline membership in voluntary organization and offline volunteering. Using panel-data from a three-wave survey of the Norwegia...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the book’s main topics and analytical frame. With the development of societal meta-processes of change such as digitalization, individualization and globalization, the condition of collective action are under transformation. The main question, addressed by this book, is whether a new form of collective action – connective ac...
Article
Full-text available
The topic of this paper is the social and normative conditions for exercising the freedom of speech in Norway. Based on a representative survey of the population, the authors ask which types of utterances are seen as acceptable on different arenas in Norway, and whether certain groups are more likely to withhold their own opinion, out of fear of of...
Article
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Social media have the potential to influence power relations in political parties as they allow individual candidates to campaign more independently of the central party. In this paper, we scrutinize the relationship between individualization and digital social media in a study that combines the 2013 Norwegian Candidate Survey with candidates’ Twit...
Chapter
This qualitative case study describes and analyzes the use of social media by Amnesty International Norway (AIN), a medium-sized human rights organization. Specifically, the case looks at how and to what extent AIN fulfilled its aims of enhancing information, public debate, and mobilization for campaigns through the use of Facebook and the organiza...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The adoption by politicians of social media platforms as tools of political communication are expected to generate new forms of communication between politicians and their electorate and to provoke more dialogical forms of communication where politicians talk personally to their followers. This article investigates the extent to which Norwegian Pol...
Article
This paper examines how the use of social media affects participation in offline demonstrations. Using individual web survey data from Norway, we ask whether social media usage serves to re-affirm or transcend socioeconomic divides in participation. In addition to data on demonstration participation in general, we also use the data on the Rose Marc...
Article
The article examines short-term effects of terror on trust and civic engagement in Norway. Prior to the July 22, 2011 attacks, Norway ranked among the nations with the highest levels of trust and civic engagement in the world. How does a nation of trusters react to terror? Based on two web surveys conducted in March/April 2011 and August 2011 short...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The main issue when ,considering the democratic governance ,of voluntary ,organizations is that the organization’s claim to be a ,democratic body is not necessarily confirmed by ,the reality of the ,organization. According to Michels (1949) almost all voluntary organizations are characterized by the “iron law of oligarchy” i.e. the control...
Article
Full-text available
The approach in terms of new governance gives a significant place to civil society’s actors both within policy-making and policy implementation processes. The issue of governance has to be understood against the backdrop of the erosion of state’s prerogatives in industrialized countries. The governance perspective mirrors a move of the focus on pub...
Article
It is generally accepted that the role of local government is changing. Over the last decade most European countries have reformed local governments: the competences and powers of local authorities, and relations between centre and region, have been considerably modified in Britain, France, Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere, thus favouring a pro...
Article
L'économie sociale su service de l'inclusion au niveau local : Rapport sur deux régions de France : Alsace et Provence – Alpes – Côte d'AzurCe rapport sur «L’économie sociale au service de l’inclusion au niveau local» a été préparé dans le cadre du projet «L’économie sociale au service de l’inclusion au niveau local» (CFE/LEED (2008)9/REV1). Il est...
Article
The issue of citizens’ participation in civil society in Europe is perceived as crucial for the democratization and the legitimacy of the European Union (EU) as well as for the development of a European identity. There are at least three reasons for the increasing attention devoted to the role played by civil society in the European integration pro...
Article
Full-text available
This article develops a governance-structure theoretical understanding of voluntary organizations. Voluntary organizations are seen as governance structures reinforcing the norm of (generalized or balanced) reciprocity, making possible the pooling of resources based on the reciprocity principle. Voluntary organizations' governance structure present...
Article
The paper proposes to discuss the issue of civicness in the governance of social services by analyzing policy changes relative to the regulation and governance of social services in Europe. The empirical analysis is structured around the concept of "governance regime." The paper shows that modernization processes within the field of social services...
Article
Cet article developpe une approche theorique de la structure de gouvernance des organisations non lucratives. Celles-ci sont analysees comme structures de gouvernance renforcant la norme de reciprocite (generalisee ou equilibree) et rendant possible la mutualisation des ressources. Leur structure de gouvernance presente des traits specifiques relat...
Article
Citizenship is not just a status (defined by a set of rights and obligations), it is also an identity that expresses membership in a political community. It also has a substantive political dimension of active participation in the public sphere. Traditionally, collective identity and the membership dimensions of citizenship have been seen as intrin...
Article
Full-text available
In European economies, the importance of a "third sector", distinct from the private for-profit and public sectors, is increasingly being acknowledged, from various points of view. First, it clearly appears that beyond the diversity of conceptions and labels used to identify such third sector, the latter has gained economic significance in terms of...
Article
This article analyses how public sport policy is made as a result of the interactions between the public sport administration, the political system and sport organizations, and discusses the relevance of three theoretical approaches — corporatism, policy communities and clientelism — for explaining policy-making within the Norwegian context. It bui...
Article
RÉSUMɇ: Le secteur à but non lucratif constitue un secteur non néligeable de notre écommie qui reste cependant sous exploré tant sur leplan empirique que théorique. De récents travaux anglo-Saxons et français permettent de mieux cerner cette réalité. Le programme de recherche du secteur à but non lucratif traite deux types de problématiques: la pr...
Article
Full-text available
La problématique de la gouvernance traduit un déplacement de l'atten-tion, des modes de fonctionnement des organisations publiques vers les réseaux d'acteurs. Cet article s'attache dans un premier temps à montrer la convergence qui s'établit entre nouvelle gouvernance, valorisation du territoire et caractéristiques des organisations d'économie soci...
Article
Pour la théorie des coûts de transaction la firme est préférée au marché lorsque les coûts de transaction sont élevés. Si de ce point de vue le marché et la hiérarchie constituent deux formes institutionnelles alternatives de coordination des activités, il reste à expliquer pourquoi certaines organisations prennent la forme lucrative tandis que d'a...
Article
Full-text available
This anthology consists of a collection of articles that address two common questions : how institutions emerge from individual actions and how individual actions are shaped by institutions ? What unifies these contributions is the search of a theoretical explanation that overcomes the shortcomings of the rational choice explanations of social inst...
Article
This article examines the relationship among voluntary labour supply and commercial income for Norwegian sport voluntary organizations. Empirical results using cross–sectional data on voluntary sport organizations in Norway and on their members show a decrease in voluntary work from an increase in commercial income. Voluntary work and commercial in...
Article
Full-text available
Following a theoretical analysis of factors that may account for the level of commercialization of voluntary sports organizations, commercialization is measured using cross-sectional data at the organizational level. The potential crowding-out effect between (a) commercial resources and (b) public and voluntary resources is investigated. The findin...
Chapter
This chapter studies work-for-benefit policies in France, which is a country that seems to be an unlikely host of workfare programmes compared to the other countries that are discussed in this volume. The main concern of the discussion is the way the strong republican ideology of French policy makers from the main political parties has accommodated...
Chapter
i>'An Offer You Can't Refuse' compares, in depth, international 'work-for-welfare' (workfare) policies objectively for the first time. It considers well-publicised schemes from the United States alongside more overlooked examples of workfare in Britain, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway.
Article
Full-text available
This report advance a socio-economic theory of the voluntary organisation aiming at conceiving this organisational form in its complexity and at analysing it from both the viewpoints of its economical and political (democratic) dimensions. Three questions are purpose: to what extend democratic organisations contribute to social democracy? What are...
Article
This paper advances a socio-economic theory of nonprofit organizations aiming at conceiving this organizational form in its complexity and at analysing it from both the viewpoints of its economical and political (democratic) dimensions. This theoretical approach accounts for the existence of nonprofit organizations and the reasons why nonprofit org...
Chapter
The question of ‘flexibility’ first emerged during the 1980s as a fundamental challenge of public employment policy. Since the mid-1970s, most industrialised countries have been suffering a slowdown in growth. Although the US is no exception, it has experienced a rate of employment growth higher than most European countries. Between 1975 and 1984,...
Article
Full-text available
[fre] Le secteur à but non lucratif constitue un secteur non négligeable de notre économie qui reste cependant sous exploré tant sur le plan empirique que théorique. De récents travaux anglo-saxons et français permettent de mieux cerner cette réalité. Le programme de recherche du secteur à but non lucratif traite deux types de problématiques : la p...
Article
Mobility-precariousness, toward a new labour The classic approches of mobility lead to a normative conclusion: mobility is desirable. The analysis of new forms of mobility, as a result of economic restructuration lead to consider mobility as a counter-productive factor and to examine the question of optimal territory in definition of economic and...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines how the expansion of online social media affects offline civic and political mobilization. Based on individual web survey data on participation in demonstrations and on social media use in Norway, we ask whether social media transform individual level and structural level conditions for mobilization. Our results show that social...
Article
Full-text available
RÉSUMÉ • Les organisations d'économie sociale et solidaire sont, bien souvent, impliquées dans la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques dans des champs variés de politique publique (services sociaux, santé, éducation, environnement, emploi, etc.). L'évaluation menée par les pouvoirs publics, si elle ne constitue pas la seule perspective d'évaluat...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Study disruptive events and their consequences for social capital and resilience
Project
This research project is part of EU’s seventh framework program (FP7-SSH-2013-2), and its main objective is to create knowledge that will further advance the contributions that the Third Sector and volunteering can make to the socio-economic development of Europe. With the economic crisis in Europe and enormous pressures on governmental budgets there is now a great need to further our understanding of the potential contributions of the Third Sector. There is a need for a clearer understanding of its scope and scale, its existing and potential impact, and the barriers to its full contribution, all of which are factors that will be investigated in this project. Building on previous work, the project seeks to: 1. Clarify the concept of the third sector in its European manifestations. The aim is to formulate a common conceptualize that meets the following criteria: (1) Sufficient breadth to embrace the full range of entities and activities widely considered to be part of the Third Sector in Europe (2) Sufficient clarity to differentiate this set of organizations and activities from other major types, such as for-profit businesses and units of government (3) operationalizable enough to permit the development of cross-country comparative data (4) and sufficiently consistent with existing European statistical usage. 2. Identify the major contours of the sector; its size, structure, composition, sources of support, and recent trends. 3. Identify the impacts of the sector; its contributions to European economic development, innovation, citizen well-being, civic engagement, and human development, and to create capabilities to measure these contributions into the future. 4. Identify barriers both internal to organizations and external to them and suggest ways that these barriers might be overcome. 5. Forge a partnership between the research community and the European Third Sector practitioners so that the understanding of the Third Sector generated by this work remains grounded in reality and enjoy sufficient support among key stakeholders to ensure respectful attention from policy makers and sector leaders long after the project is completed. The project is a collaborative project involving 13 other research institutes in Europe, among them The Johns Hopkins University in Italy, and has a time frame of 3 years.