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Bernard William Downs

Bernard William Downs
VNI, Inc. · R & D

About

112
Publications
46,668
Reads
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2,740
Citations
Citations since 2017
47 Research Items
1136 Citations
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Introduction
Research into how improvements in blood health make improvements in the anatomical, physiological, and functional cellular, tissue, organ, and systems biology properties.

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
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Scientific studies have provided evidence that there is a relationship between violent and aggressive behaviors and addictions. Genes involved with the reward system, specifically the brain reward cascade (BRC), appear to be associated with various addictions and impulsive, aggressive, and violent behaviors. In our previous research, we examined th...
Article
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This case series presents the novel genetic addiction risk score (GARS), which shows a high prevalence of polymorphic risk alleles of reward genes in a nuclear family with multiple reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) behavioral issues expressing a hypodopaminergic antecedent. The family consists of a mother, father, son, and daughter. The mother exper...
Article
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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is defined as a breakdown of reward neurotransmission that results in a wide range of addictive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. RDS is caused by a combination of environmental (epigenetic) influences and DNA-based (genetic) neurotransmission deficits that interfere with the normal satisfaction of human physiol...
Article
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The current addiction crisis has destroyed a multitude of lives, leaving millions of fatalities worldwide in its wake. At the same time, various governmental agencies dedicated to solving this seemingly never-ending dilemma have not yet succeeded or delivered on their promises. We understand that addictive behavioral seeking is a multi-faceted neur...
Article
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Addiction is a complex multifactorial condition. Established genetic factors can provide clear guidance in assessing the risk of addiction to substances and behaviors. Chronic stress can accumulate, forming difficult to recognize addiction patterns from both genetic and epigenetic (environmental) factors. Furthermore, psychological/physical/chemica...
Article
Obesity and overweight are now defined as an epidemic. An array of evidence substantiates that existing weight loss strategies and programs have not worked. Fat is the lightest of macromolecules, the highest energy reserve of the body, and the last reservoir of survival insurance to be expended. Conventional weight loss concepts and therapies, for...
Article
Despite the advancement in wound care, the effective therapy of chronic diabetic ulcers continues to be a challenge. Wound healing is a highly controlled process, which involves a sequence of complex overlapping steps. This healing pathway comprises of hemostasis, inflammation, proliferative, and remodeling phases. Recent evidence suggests that phy...
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Background: The prevalence of obesity has increased an astounding 30.5% to 42.2% over the last two decades despite numerous weight loss products and programs, thus qualifying it as an epidemic. Fat is the lightest of macromolecules, the highest energy reserve of the body, and the last reservoir of survival insurance to be expended. Water, muscle, a...
Article
The researchers demonstrate the development of a novel Prodosome technology-derived PL425 PEC phytonutrient-enriched electrolyte formulation and its significant contribution in fluid homeostasis as well as enhanced neuromuscular function, cardio-protection, pulmonary, and other physiological cellular and organ functions. Electrolytes enriched in ph...
Chapter
Enzymes play a vital role in biometabolic functions. Insufficient enzyme availability leads to impaired metabolism including digestive and immune dysfunctions. Digestive enzymes enable disintegration, dissolution, and absorption of foods, significantly improving gastro-intestinal integrity, immunity, cellular functionality, and overall health. An a...
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Kenneth Blum,1– 5 Bruce Steinberg,6 Marjorie C Gondre-Lewis,7 David Baron,1 Edward J Modestino,6 Rajendra D Badgaiyan,8– 10 B William Downs,11 Debasis Bagchi,11 Raymond Brewer,5 Thomas McLaughlin,12 Abdalla Bowirrat,13 Mark Gold14 1Center for Psychiatry, Medicine & Primary Care, Division of Addiction Research & Education, Graduate College, Western...
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Metabolic competence in conjunction with well-balanced nutritional support is extremely important for normal biochemical and physiological functions, as well as for enhanced athletic performance. Research-affirmed nutraceuticals enriched in structurally diverse phytonutrients including bioflavonoids may help to boost athletic, functional, and bioph...
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An increase in anaerobic (oxygen-deprived) pathogenesis significantly increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inflicting damage on cell membranes and intracellular constituents. Generation of ROS and concomitant inflammatory response is the two hallmarks of cellular damage caused by cellular injury or invasion by pathogens. Oxygen...
Article
SARS-COV2 has emerged as the second biggest threat to humanity of all times, after the Spanish Flu massacre. Due to its brisk rate of mutation, especially that of the host receptor docking Spike protein, a safe immunization is still questioned by some, and protection or recovery has been dependent largely on immune system competence and overall bio...
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Millions of Americans experience pain daily. In 2017, opioid overdose claimed 64,000 lives increasing to 84,000 lives in 2020, resulting in a decrease in national life expectancy. Chronic opioid use results in dependency, drug tolerance, neuroadaptation, hyperalgesia, potential addictive behaviors, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) caused by a hy...
Article
Background Conventional medical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases primarily target anti-inflammatory interventions, immune suppression of autoimmune pathologies, and, depending on the diagnosed pathological mechanisms, neurotransmitter reuptake inhibition, among other tactics. However, the incidence of neuroinflammatory pathologies appears t...
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This article describes a unique therapeutic precision intervention, a formulation of enkephalinase inhibitors, enkephalin, and dopamine-releasing neuronutrients, to induce dopamine homeostasis for detoxification and treatment of individuals genetically predisposed to developing reward deficiency syndrome (RDS). The formulations are based on the res...
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In 2019, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided vital statistics related to drug overdoses in the United State1. They concluded that in the USA the number of deaths at almost 72,000 was due to 66.6% of opioid overdoses. In fact, the rate is alarming and increasing yearly. To make 2021 even more scary is the daunting effect on inc...
Article
Introduction Polymorphic gene variants, particularly the genetic determinants of low dopamine function (hy-podopaminergia), are known to associate with Substance Use Disorder and a predisposition to PTSD. Addiction research and molecular genetic applied technologies supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have revealed the com-plex fun...
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We hypothesize that Iron-Deficiency Anemia (IDA) has been misconceptualized. In the body, low blood iron is not caused by a deficiency. The primary cause of low iron, appearing to be IDA, is the expenditure of alkalinizing histidine, from heme protein, which requires the cleavage of iron and its repartitioning to other storage depots. As an alkalin...
Article
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Research into the neurogenetic basis of addiction identified and characterized by Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) includes all drug and non-drug addictive, obsessive and compulsive behaviors. We are proposing herein that a new model for the prevention and treatment of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) a subset of RDS behaviors, based on objective biolo...
Preprint
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Background: Integrity of hemoglobin is a crucial determining factor for the overall health functions. Nutrient repletion therapy should be a fundamental strategy to restore the healthy properties of blood. A unique patent-pending iron-free VMP35 formulation was engineered by our laboratory to restore iron-dependent hemoglobin in anemic cells using...
Article
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Background: A common neurological condition worldwide is Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) leading to both substance and non-substance addictive behaviors, that must be combatted by integrating both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system biological approaches. Integrity of hemoglobin is a crucial determining factor for the overall hea...
Article
Objectives Optimal nutrition and natural digestive enzymes play a critical role in enhancing healthy digestion. N-SORB, a novel KD120 liquid multienzyme complex was developed and encapsulated using a SK713 SLP absorption technology (Prodosome®). A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled investigation over a period of 90 consecutive days was con...
Article
Objectives NHLBI announced that anemia is one of the most common blood disorders, which affects more than 3 million Americans, while the Global Burden of Disease 2016 reported that anemia affects 1.93 billion people worldwide. Anemia is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders. Hemorrhagic anemia results in substanti...
Article
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In the face of the global pandemic of COVID 19, approaching 1.75 Million infected worldwide (4/12/2020) and associated mortality (over 108, 000 as of 4/12/2020) as well-as other catastrophic events including the opioid crisis, a focus on brain health seems prudent [1] (https://www.coronavirus.gov). This manuscript reports on the systemic benefits o...
Chapter
World statistics indicate that approximately 1.93 billion people suffer from anemia. Anemia is intricately linked to overindulgence of dietary fat, salt, and sugar-induced chronic inflammation, chronic kidney disease, gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies, and autoimmune disorders. Hemorrhagic anemia results in substantial loss of blood w...
Article
Background/Aims This case series presents the novel Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS®) coupled with a customized pro-dopamine regulator matched to polymorphic reward genes having a hypodopaminergic risk. Methods The proband is a female with a history of drug abuse and alcoholism. She experienced a car accident under the influence and voluntarily...
Article
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Background The search for an accurate, gene-based test to identify heritable risk Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) was conducted based on hundreds of published studies about the role of dopamine in addictive behaviors, including risk for dependence; both drug and non-drug. The term RDS was first coined by Blum’s group in 1995 to identify a group of...
Article
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Objectives: Global Burden of Disease 2016 (GBD 2016) reported that Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is the leading cause of anemia, which affect 1.93 billion people worldwide. Anemia is intricately linked to chronic inflammation, chronic kidney disease, gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies, and autoimmune disorders. Hemorrhagic anemia resul...
Article
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In the face of the current Opioid crisis in America killing close to 800,000 people since 2004, we are proposing a novel approach to assist in at least attenuating these unwanted premature deaths. While we applaud the wonderful efforts of our governmental institutes and professional societies (NIDA, NIAAA, ASAM, ABAM ) in their extraordinary effort...
Article
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Background The American Society of Hematology reported that according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) anemia is the most common blood disorder, which affects more than 3 million Americans, while the Global Burden of Disease 2016 (GBD 2016) reported that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the leading cause of anemia, which affe...
Article
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Background: Enzymes are crucial for all aspects of metabolic function. Digestive enzymes from natural sources have been credited with beneficial effects in the digestion and absorption of food. N-SORB is a novel KD120 multienzyme complex (MEC) of metabolically activated enzymes composed of proteases, amylases, lipases, alpha-galactosidase, and gluc...
Article
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Prescriptions for Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have risen continually. According to national statistics, the combination of BZDs with opioids has increased since 1999. BZDs (sometimes called "benzos") work to calm or sedate a person by raising the level of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the brain. In terms of neurochemistry, BZDs act at the GABA...
Article
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Background We are facing a significant challenge in combatting the current opioid and drug epidemic worldwide. In the USA, although there has been notable progress, in 2017 alone 72,000 people died from a narcotic overdose. The NIAAA & NIDA continue to struggle with innovation to curb or eliminate this unwanted epidemic. The current FDA list of app...
Article
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The well-researched pro-dopamine regulator KB220 and variants result in increased functional connectivity in both animal and human brains, and prolonged neuroplasticity (brain cell repair) having been observed in rodents. Moreover, in addition to increased functional connectivity, recent studies show that KB220Z increases overall brain connectivity...
Chapter
The passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994 created an extraordinary environment for research, intellectual property development, and market opportunities unprecedented in the natural products industry up to that time. Research intensified and focused on harnessing the benefits of nature to improve human health, d...
Article
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DNA Customization of nutraceutical products is here. In the truest sense, "Gene Guided Precision Nutrition(™)" and KB220 variants (a complex mixture of amino-acids, trace metals, and herbals) are the pioneers and standard-bearers for a state of the art DNA customization. Findings by both, Kenneth Blum, Ph.D. and Ernest Noble, Ph.D. concerning the r...
Article
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Background: In North America digestive malfunction in terms of disintegration, dissolution, and absorption of food and nutrients, is a widespread malady. Malabsorption is also an exacerbating factor in most chronic degenerative diseases that might benefit from dietary supplementation. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate absorption follow...
Article
The passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994 created an extraordinary environment for research, intellectual property development and market opportunities unprecedented in the natural products industry up to that time. Research intensified and focused on harnessing the benefits of nature to improve human health, de...
Article
Full-text available
The mounting endemic of prescription iatrogenic opioid dependence in pain patients provoked this treatise about an alternative method that can be used to treat pain, improve function and reduce the risk of opioid dependence. It is well known that as well as the side effects reported for chronic opioid therapy, genetically predisposed individuals ar...
Article
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Addictions to smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, and certain behaviors like gambling, overeating, and sex, are prevalent worldwide. These behaviors are highly destructive and costly to individuals and society due to health consequences, criminality and lost productivity. The genetic vulnerability, environmental exposures, and individual behaviors tha...
Chapter
We have entered the genomics era with hope for the future of medicine including psychiatry. Understanding the role of DNA and polymorphic associations with brain reward circuitry has led to a new understanding of all addictive behaviors. We present here a brief review of the role of both neurogenetics and nutrigenomics as cornerstones that link mor...
Article
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It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH...
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This article co-authored by a number of scientists, ASAM physicians, clinicians, treatment center owners, geneticists, neurobiologists, psychologists, social workers, criminologists, nurses, nutritionist, and students, is dedicated to all the people who have lost loved ones in substance-abuse and "reward deficiency syndrome" related tragedies. Why...
Article
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The understanding that genes play a significant role in reward dependence and associated behavioral and drug addictions is highlighted in the emergence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). Here we show two case reports that unequivocally indicate the definite commonality between food and drug addiction. These human cases not atypically raise the qu...
Article
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Importantly, research from our laboratory in both in-patient and outpatient facilities utilizing the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD)™ found a significant lack of compliance to prescribed treatment medications and a lack of abstinence from drugs of abuse during active recovery. This unpublished, ongoing research provides an impetus t...
Article
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Work from our laboratory in both in-patient and outpatient facilities utilizing the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD)(™) found a significant lack of compliance to prescribed treatment medications and a lack of abstinence from drugs of abuse during active recovery. This unpublished, ongoing research provides an impetus to develop accur...
Chapter
In the Beginning - It is important to state that this chapter is not an attempt to discredit Dr. Robert Atkins’ theory. In fact, his observations were right on the mark in general terms. This chapter hopes to put Dr. Atkins’ contribution, as controversial as it may be, into its correct context as a catalyst and vehicle for a major paradigm shift in...
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Executive functions are processes that act in harmony to control behaviors necessary for maintaining focus and achieving outcomes. Executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders is attributed to structural or functional pathology of brain networks involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain regions. The PFC receives...
Article
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Unlabelled: Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). RDS results from a dysfunction in the "brain reward cascade," a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic). Individuals with a fami...
Article
While there is a considerable body of literature correlating the role of dopaminergic genes and obesity, body mass index, body type, overeating, carbohydrate binging, energy expenditure and low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) receptor density, there is a paucity of research concerning the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variants and percent body fat. W...
Article
Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of obesity, the epidemic continues to rise worldwide. While pharmacological treatment of obesity may be effective, medications may have significant side effects and can be potentially fatal. This review will provide significant evidence to substantiate the existence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome...
Article
Full-text available
Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of obesity, the epidemic continues to rise worldwide. While pharmacological treatment of obesity may be effective, medications may have significant side effects and can be potentially fatal. This review will provide significant evidence to substantiate the existence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome...
Article
Full-text available
Opiate addiction is associated with many adverse health and social harms, fatal overdose, infectious disease transmission, elevated health care costs, public disorder, and crime. Although community-based addiction treatment programs continue to reduce the harms of opiate addiction with narcotic substitution therapy such as methadone maintenance, th...
Chapter
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Schematic of Brain reward Cascade Normal and abnormal representation. (A) represents the normal physiologic state of the neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic region of the brain. Briefly, serotonin in the hypothalamus stimulates neuronal projections of methionine enkephalin in the hypothalamus that, in turn, inhibits the release of GABA i...
Article
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Acupuncture is a very ancient form of healing which predates recorded history. The philosophy is rooted in the Taoist tradition which goes back over 8000 years. To date this practice although used world-wide to treat addictive behaviors has not been generally accepted or scientifically proven. There are however many positive reports in the literatu...
Article
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To date, a product or routine that consistently relieves delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) caused by eccentric exercise has yet to be identified. Our latest research results indicate that a new device called Marc Pro™ (MPD) significantly improves muscle recovery and muscle endurance from combined concentric and eccentric exercise in healthy recr...
Article
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Using fMRI, Menon and Levitin and Salimpoor et al. clearly show that listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as well as the hypothalamus, and insula, which are thought to be involved in regulating au...
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Background and Hypothesis: Although the biological underpinnings of immediate and protracted trauma-related responses are extremely complex, 40 years of research on humans and other mammals have demonstrated that trauma (particularly trauma early in the life cycle) has long-term effects on neurochemical responses to stressful events. These effects...
Article
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It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals, there is dopamine resistance due to an association with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Evidence is emerging whereby the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may find its place in recovery from reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) in patients addicted...
Article
It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals there is "dopamine resistance" associated with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Based on earlier studies, evidence is emerging wherein the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may play a significant role in the recovery of individuals with reward de...