Bernadette Earley

Bernadette Earley
TEAGASC - The Agriculture and Food Development Authority · Animal & Bioscience Research

B.Sc., H.Dip. in Ed., Ph.D.
Animal health and welfare; bovine respiratory disease (BRD); BRD virome; BRD microbiome

About

279
Publications
36,963
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5,341
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 1984 - December 1994
National University of Ireland, Galway
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (279)
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of its Farm to Fork Strategy, the Commission is undertaking a comprehensive evaluation of animal welfare legislation. The present Opinion deals with the protection of small ruminants (sheep and goats) during transport. The main focus is on welfare of sheep during transport by road but other means of transport and concerns for welfa...
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of its Farm to Fork Strategy, the Commission is undertaking a comprehensive evaluation of the animal welfare legislation. The present Opinion deals with protection of pigs during transport. The welfare of pigs during transport by road is the main focus, but other means of transport are also covered. Current practices related to tra...
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of its Farm to Fork Strategy, the Commission is undertaking a comprehensive evaluation of the animal welfare legislation. The present Opinion deals with protection of cattle (including calves) during transport. Welfare of cattle during transport by road is the main focus, but other means of transport are also covered. Current pract...
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of its Farm to Fork Strategy, the Commission is undertaking a comprehensive evaluation of animal welfare legislation. This opinion deals with the protection of horses and donkeys during transport. While the opinion focuses primarily on road transport of horses, there are specific sections dealing with the transport of horses on rol...
Article
Full-text available
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cattle, is caused by numerous known and unknown viruses and is responsible for the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics despite the use of polymicrobial BRD vaccines. Viral metagenomics sequencing on the portable, inexpensive Oxford Nanopore Technolog...
Article
This review addresses the progress that has been made in ruminant health research over the last 60 yr, with an emphasis on Irish research. The review focuses on the economically important infectious diseases of dairy and beef cattle and of sheep, calf diseases, regulated and non-regulated infectious diseases, lameness, mastitis and parasitoses. The...
Article
Full-text available
The welfare status of an animal is dependent on its ability to cope and exist in harmony with its environment, such that good physical and psychological health is maintained. Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems due, in a large extent, to increased consumer concerns about animal production pra...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the main cause of mortality among 1-to-5 month old calves in Ireland, accounting for approximately one-third of deaths. Despite widespread use of clinical respiratory signs for diagnosing BRD, lung lesions are detected, using thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) or following post-mortem, in calves showing...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Hot-iron disbudding is a common management procedure to prevent horn growth in calves. The study objective was to examine effect of age, breed and sex on horn bud size of dairy-bred and suckler-bred calves at time of disbudding. Results: The left and right horn bud size (diameter and height in mm) of 279 calves, including dairy-bred...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cattle in Ireland, and internationally. This disease is caused by many well-known, and an ever-increasing number of newly associated viruses and bacteria. Consequently, diagnosis of BRD pathogens by targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) diagnostics is...
Article
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in dairy calves is a multifactorial condition, involving environmental, host, and pathogen factors. Thoracic ultrasound scoring (TUS) has recently been validated as an accurate method of detecting BRD-related lung pathology in dairy calves. Previous studies investigating the use of TUS in preweaned dairy calves have...
Article
Full-text available
The study objective was to examine effect of age at castration on stress indicators and performance of 40 crossbred suckler beef calves. Calves were assigned to two age groups and two castration treatments; calves 2.5- or 5.0-mo-old (mean body weight (SD) = 120.8 (29.3), 218.1 (30.8) kg, respectively) were sham (control) or Burdizzo castrated (n =...
Article
Full-text available
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) is a primary viral cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) in young calves, which is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. Infection with BRSV induces global gene expression changes in respiratory tissues. If these changes are observed in tissues which are more accessible in live animals, s...
Article
Full-text available
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality, affecting cattle of all ages. One of the main causes of BRD is an initial inflammatory response to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). MicroRNAs are novel and emerging non-coding small RNAs that regulate many biological processes and are implicated in various inflam...
Article
Full-text available
Background Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) is a cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). DNA-based biomarkers contributing to BRD resistance are potentially present in non-protein-coding regulatory regions of the genome, which can be determined using ATAC-Seq. The objectives of this study were to: (i) identify regions of open chromatin...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Calves with lower concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in their blood, have a greater risk of developing diseases. There is a lack of knowledge on genetic markers known to be associated with immunological variability or disease resistance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify SNP markers associated with passive immuni...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated (i) the effect of clinical bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and associated lung consolidations on growth performance and hematological profiles of recently weaned beef calves and (ii) the relationship between clinical respiratory signs and lung consolidation detected by thoracic ultrasonography (TUS). One hundred and fifty-t...
Article
The aim of the studies presented in this research communication was to compare species of origin (goat and sheep) and the effect of treatment (pasteurization at 56, 63 and 72 °C, skimming and curding) and refrigeration time on colostrum antimicrobial activity (AnAc). Two experiments were performed. In experiment 1, twenty-four first milking colostr...
Article
Full-text available
Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is the leading cause of mortality in calves. The objective of this study was to examine the response of the host’s bronchial lymph node transcriptome to Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) in a controlled viral challenge. Holstein-Friesian calves were either inoculated with virus (103.5 TCID50/ml × 15 ml) (n =...
Conference Paper
Bovine respiratory disease accounts for the largest proportion of calf mortality (5.8%). In a controlled challenge study in artificially-reared dairy calves (15514 kg), the host transcriptomic response to BRSV was examined. Holstein-Friesian calves were either challenged with BRSV inoculum (10 3.5 TCID 50 /ml × 15 ml) (n=12) or mock challenged wit...
Article
Full-text available
Mannheimia varigena is a pathogen of cattle that has been isolated from diseased lung and udder. There are currently complete genome sequences for 4 M. varigena isolates, all from lungs of cattle in the United States. We report a complete genome sequence of M. varigena isolated from bovine milk in Ireland.
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous research in both calves and other species has suggested n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and β-glucans may have positive effects on immune function. This experiment measured performance, behaviour, metabolite and immunological responses to pre-weaning supplementation of dairy bull calves with n-3 PUFA in the form of fish o...
Article
Full-text available
Weaning is a necessary husbandry practice in which nutritional, social, physical and psychological stressors are imposed on the beef calf causing alterations in behavioural and physiological responses. The present paper is a review of studies on the influence of weaning stress at housing on beef calves. To date, few studies have examined the effect...
Article
Full-text available
Concern about the use of antimicrobials in food producing animals is increasing. The study objective was to quantify antimicrobial drug usage in calves using antimicrobial treatment records from Irish suckler beef and dairy farms. Antimicrobial treatment records for calves born between 1 July 2014 and 30 June 2015 on 79 suckler beef and 44 dairy fa...
Article
Full-text available
Colostrum-derived passive immunity is central to the health, performance and welfare of neonatal beef-suckler calves, and economics of beef-farming enterprises. Compared to dairy calves, mainly Holstein-Friesian, there is much less research carried out on passive immunity and associated factors in beef calves. Thus, this review aimed to summarise a...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Neonatal calves possess a very immature and naïve immune system and are reliant on the intake of maternal colostrum for passive transfer of immunoglobulins. Variation in colostrum management of beef and dairy calves is thought to affect early immune development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine changes in gene expressi...
Poster
High rates of calf mortality (5.2%) (DAFM, AIM 2017) in the first 12 months of life, results in significant economic losses in Ireland. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) accounts for the largest proportion of calf mortality (DAFM/AFBI, 2016). However, there is a paucity of literature concerning the biological mechanisms controlling the host response...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present an instance segmentation algorithm trained and applied to a CCTV recording of beef cattle during a winter finishing period. A fully convolutional network was transformed into an instance segmentation network that learns to label each instance of an animal separately. We introduce a conceptually simple framework that the network uses to o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present a novel instance segmentation algorithm that extends a fully convolutional network to learn to label objects separately without prediction of regions of interest. We trained the new algorithm on a challenging CCTV recording of beef cattle, as well as benchmark MS COCO and Pascal VOC datasets. Extensive experimentation showe...
Article
In calf rearing, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major animal health challenge. Farmers incur severe economic losses due to BRD. Additional to economic costs, outbreaks of BRD impair the welfare of the animal and extra expertise and labour are needed to treat and care for the infected animals. Coughing is recognised as a clinical manifestatio...
Article
The study objectives were to: 1) evaluate the diagnostic performance of passive immunity tests for classification of failure of passive transfer (FPT) risk, based on their relationships with calf health and performance, and 2) describe the epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in suckler beef and dairy calves under Irish conditions. A total of 13...
Conference Paper
Application: A novel bacterial species within the Leptotrichiaceae family has been identified in post-mortem lesioned lung tissue and the corresponding mediastinal lymph node tissue using an amplicon sequencing assay. This bacterium may play a pathogenic role in bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Introduction: Viral and mycoplasmal agents are respo...
Article
Data from individual studies evaluating the effect of housing systems on performance, lying time and dirt scores of finishing beef cattle are conflicting. The objective of this study was to collate the data from previous animal housing studies and quantify, through meta-analysis, the effect of floor type on animal performance, lying time and dirt s...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) remains among the leading causes of death of cattle internationally. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with exposure to BRD pathogens during the peri-weaning period (day (d)-14 to d 14 relative to weaning at 0) in dairy bull calves using serological responses to these p...
Article
The objectives of the study were to determine whether allometric equations are suitable for estimating the space requirements of finishing beef cattle housed on concrete slatted floors (CSF) and to examine the effect of fixed and dynamic space allowances on the performance and welfare of these cattle. Continental crossbred steers (n=120: mean initi...
Preprint
Abstact The Oxford Nanopore MinION Mk1B is a portable 90 g device that sequences DNA directly at 450 bases/second generating sequence reads in excess of 400 kb. Recent improvements in error rate and speed of library preparation mean that this device has considerable potential for rapid molecular bovine pathogen diagnostics. We tested the MinION for...
Article
The study objectives were: 1) to characterise the development of immunocompetence in beef suckler calves from birth to three months of age, and 2) to trace glycoprotein E (gE)-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) antibodies from dam to calf and subsequent vaccination against pneumonia. Thirty multiparous beef suckler, spring-calving cows, co...
Article
Full-text available
The overall objective was to compare immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations measured by single radial immunodiffusion (sRID) and ELISA-based methods in samples of bovine colostrum and transition milk from contrasting breed types (Limousin × Friesian (n = 10) and Holstein (n = 10)). Jugular blood samples were collected at 48 h post-birth from beef (n...
Article
Full-text available
The study objectives were to: 1) examine how calves of divergent immune status respond to BRSV vaccination at 3 weeks of age; 2) trace glycoprotein E negative BoHV-1 antibodies from vaccinated dams to calf sera and to investigate how passive transfer affects response to live BoHV-1 vaccine at 6 weeks of age; 3) explore the impact of passive transfe...
Article
Full-text available
Refractometry has been proposed as a farm technique to estimate the IgG concentration in colostrum. In order to validate the method in goat colostrum using a clinical refractometer, 216 colostrum and milk samples were obtained from 54 dairy goats. Samples were evaluated for protein concentration using a clinical refractometer and IgG concentration...
Article
Full-text available
Background: When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the...
Article
Sole hemorrhages result from disruption to normal claw horn formation and are caused by a variety of internal and external factors. Evidence suggests that they are painful, although they do not usually cause clinical lameness and are difficult to detect by observing cow gait. Little is known about how or whether sole hemorrhages affect the cow syst...
Article
Full-text available
The study objective was to determine if there was a relationship between behavioural and physiological stress measures in sport horses and their performance. Nineteen horses competed in show jumping events (6 housed at the centre and 13 transported), while 5 horses at home training served as controls. The competition horses were assigned to “light”...
Article
Full-text available
Accommodating cattle indoors during the winter is widely practiced throughout Europe. There is currently no legislation surrounding the space allowance and floor type that should be provided to cattle during this time, however, concerns have been raised regarding the type of housing systems currently in use. The objective of the study was to invest...
Article
Full-text available
Background The objective was to investigate the effect of placing mats on concrete slatted floors on performance, behaviour, hoof condition, dirt scores, physiological and immunological variables of beef steers, and to compare responses with animals on out-wintering pads. Continental crossbred beef steers [n = 360; mean (±SD) initial live weight 53...
Article
Full-text available
Background Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. Next generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR amplicons (NGS 16S amplicon analysis) is a powerful culture-independent open reference method that has recently been use...