Bent R Rønnestad

Bent R Rønnestad
Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences · Section for Sports Science

Ph.D

About

146
Publications
265,668
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3,999
Citations
Citations since 2017
78 Research Items
2683 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
Full-text available
Adaptation to heat-stress and hypoxia are relevant for athletes participating in Tour de France or similar cycling races taking place during the summertime in landscapes with varying altitude. Both to minimize detrimental performance effects associated with arterial desaturation occurring at moderate altitudes in elite athletes, respectively reduce...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-day high-intensity interval (HIT) block [BLOCK, n = 12, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max = 69. 6 ± 4.3 mL·min ⁻¹ ·kg ⁻¹ )] with a time-matched period with usual training (CON, n = 12, V̇O 2max = 69.2 ± 4.2 mL·min ⁻¹ ·kg ⁻¹ ) in well-trained cross-country (XC) skiers on physiological det...
Article
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Purpose: Previous research suggests that the percentage of maximal oxygen uptake attained and the time it is sustained close to maximal oxygen uptake (eg, >90%) can serve as a good criterion to judge the effectiveness of a training stimulus. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of adding vibration during varied high-intensity...
Article
Purpose: This study examined the associations among common assessments for measuring strength and power in the lower body of high-performing athletes, including both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Methods: A total of 100 participants, including both male (n = 83) and female (n = 17) athletes (21 [4] y, 182 [9] cm, 78 [12] kg), were recru...
Article
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Purpose: The primary purpose was to test the effect of heat suit training on hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) in elite cross-country (XC) skiers. Methods: Twenty-five male XC skiers were divided into a group that added 5x50 min weekly heat suit training sessions to their regular training (HEAT; n=13, 23 ± 5 yrs, 73.9 ± 5.2 kg, 180 ± 6 cm, 76.8 ± 4.6 mL...
Article
Purpose: This study examined the test-retest reliability of common assessments for measuring strength and power of the lower body in high-performing athletes. Methods: A total of 100 participants, including both male (n = 83) and female (n = 17) athletes (21 [4] y, 182 [9] cm, and 78 [12] kg), were recruited for this study, using a multicenter a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose and methods: To test whether heat training performed as 5x50 min sessions/week for 5 weeks in a heat chamber (CHAMBER) or while wearing a heat suit (SUIT), in temperate conditions, increases haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and endurance performance in elite cyclists, compared to a control group (CON-1). Furthermore, after the 5-week intervention...
Article
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Sprint performance is critical for endurance performance in sports characterized by multiple accelerations like a cross-country Olympic mountain bike (XCO MTB) race. There are indications that 10–25 weeks of heavy strength training (HST) can improve cycling sprint power in cyclists. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of continuing HST a...
Article
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Varied-intensity work intervals have been shown to induce higher fractions of maximal oxygen uptake during high-intensity interval training compared with constant-intensity work intervals. We assessed whether varied-intensity work intervals combined with intermittent vibration could further increase cyclists' fraction of maximal oxygen uptake to po...
Article
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Low-intensity aerobic training combined with blood flow restriction (LI + BFR) has resulted in increases in aerobic and neuromuscular capacities in untrained individuals. This strategy may help cyclists incapable of training with high intensity bouts or during a rehabilitation program. However, there is a lack of evidence about the use of LI + BFR...
Article
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Background Both athletes and recreational exercisers often perform relatively high volumes of aerobic and strength training simultaneously. However, the compatibility of these two distinct training modes remains unclear. Objective This systematic review assessed the compatibility of concurrent aerobic and strength training compared with strength t...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks load-matched block periodization (BP, n = 14), using weekly concentration of high-(HIT), moderate-(MIT), and low-(LIT) intensity training, with traditional periodization (TP, n = 16) using a weekly, cyclic progressive increase in training load of HIT-, MIT-, and LIT-sessions in traine...
Article
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction. Resistance exercise training (RT) is a training modality with a relatively small pulmonary demand that has been suggested to increase skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in COPD. Whether a shift into a more oxidative profile following RT...
Article
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Aim: To describe ribosome biogenesis during resistance training, its relation to training volume and muscle growth. Methods: A training group (n = 11) performed 12 sessions (3-4 sessions per week) of unilateral knee extension with constant and variable volume (6 and 3-9 sets per session respectively) allocated to either leg. Ribosome abundance a...
Article
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The main goal of the current study was to compare the effects of volume-equated training frequency on gains in muscle mass and strength. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the effect of training frequency was affected by the complexity, concerning the degrees of freedom, of an exercise. Participants were randomized to a moderate training...
Article
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The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an individualized training program based on force‐velocity (FV) profiling on jumping, sprinting, strength, and power in athletes. Forty national level team sport athletes (20±4yrs, 83±13 kg) from ice‐hockey, handball, and soccer completed a 10‐week training intervention. A theoretical optimal...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Accumulated time at a high percentage of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is important for improving performance in endurance athletes. The present study compared the acute physiological and perceived effects of performing high-intensity intervals with roller ski double poling containing work intervals with (1) fast start followed by dec...
Article
Rønnestad, BR, Haugen, OC, and Dæhlin, TE. Superior on-ice performance after short-interval vs long-interval training in well-trained adolescent ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 9 weeks with 3 weekly sessions of short intervals (SIs) against long intervals (LIs) on...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The present case report aimed to investigate the effects of exercise training in temperate ambient conditions while wearing a heat suit on hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). Methods: As part of their training regimens, 5 national-team members of endurance sports (3 males) performed ∼5 weekly heat suit exercise training sessions each lasting 50 m...
Article
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Background Subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prone to accelerated decay of muscle strength and mass with advancing age. This is believed to be driven by disease-inherent systemic pathophysiologies, which are also assumed to drive muscle cells into a state of anabolic resistance, leading to impaired abilities to adapt to...
Article
Full-text available
The objective was to compare the efficacy of three different heat acclimation protocols to improve exercise performance in the heat. Thirty four cyclists completed one of three 10-day interventions 1) 50-min cycling per day in 35°C, 2) 50-min cycling per day wearing thermal clothing, 3) 50-min cycling wearing thermal clothing plus 25 min hot water...
Article
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of including sprints within low-intensity training (LIT)-sessions during a 14-d training camp focusing on LIT, followed by 10 days recovery (Rec), on performance and performance-related measures in elite cyclists. Methods: During the camp, a sprint training group (SPR, n = 9) included 12x30-s maximal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: This systematic review assessed the compatibility of concurrent aerobic and strength training compared to sole strength training regarding adaptations in muscle function (maximal and explosive strength) and muscle mass. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the impact of training modality, exercise type, exercise order, training fr...
Article
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Although the ability to sprint repeatedly is crucial in road cycling races, the changes in aerobic and anaerobic power when sprinting during prolonged cycling has not been investigated in competitive elite cyclists. Here, we used the gross efficiency (GE)-method to investigate: (1) the absolute and relative aerobic and anaerobic contributions durin...
Article
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Background: Lifestyle therapy with resistance training is a potent measure to counteract age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. Unfortunately, many individuals fail to respond in the expected manner. This phenomenon is particularly common among older adults and those with chronic diseases (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) an...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decade numerous review articles have been published on how concurrent strength and endurance training affect cycling performance. However, none of these have reviewed if there are any sex differences in the effects of concurrent training on cycling performance, and most research in this area has been performed with male cyclists. Th...
Article
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This study investigated the acute effects of including 30-s sprints during prolonged low intensity cycling on muscular and hormonal responses and recovery in elite cyclists. Twelve male cyclists (VO2max, 73.4±4.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed a randomized cross-over protocol, wherein 4 hours of cycling at 50% of VO2max were performed with and without in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rationale. Subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prone to accelerated decay of muscle strength and mass with advancing age. This is mediated by systemic pathophysiologies, which are also believed to impair responses to exercise training, a notion that remains largely unstudied. Objectives. To investigate the presence of imp...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to examine the test-retest reliability and agreement across methods for assessing individual force-velocity (FV) profiles of the lower limbs in athletes. Using a multicenter approach, 27 male athletes completed all measurements for the main analysis, with up to 82 male and female athletes on some measurements. The athletes...
Article
Full-text available
Background Human skeletal muscle responds to weight-bearing exercise with significant inter-individual differences. Investigation of transcriptome responses could improve our understanding of this variation. However, this requires bioinformatic pipelines to be established and evaluated in study-specific contexts. Skeletal muscle subjected to mechan...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate the effects of including repeated sprints in a weekly low-intensity (LIT)-session during a 3-week transition period on cycling performance 6 weeks into the subsequent preparatory period in elite cyclists. Methods: Eleven elite male cyclists (age: 22.0 [3.8]y, body mass: 73.0 [5.8]kg, height: 186 [7]cm, maximal oxygen uptake...
Article
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Background: The primary aim was to examine the relationship between lactate threshold (LT) expressed as percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running velocity at LT (LTV). A secondary aim was to investigate to what extent VO2max, oxygen cost of running (CR), and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) determined LTV. A third aim was to investigate...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of including 30-s sprints in one weekly low-intensity training (LIT) session during a 3-wk transition period in elite cyclists. Sixteen male elite cyclists (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max: 72±5 mL·kg-1·min-1) reduced their training load by ~60% for 3 wks from the end of competitive season and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Lifestyle therapy with resistance training is a potent measure to counteract age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. Unfortunately, many individuals fail to respond in the expected manner. This phenomenon is particularly common among older adults and those chronically diseased (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD), an...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of time‐ and effort‐matched high‐intensity intervals on physiological, endocrine and skeletal muscle molecular variables in elite cyclists. Eight elite cyclists performed short intervals (SI: 30‐s) and long intervals (LI: 5‐min) with work:recovery ratio 2:1, using a randomized crossover des...
Article
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PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate if endurance athletes, sustaining their normal endurance training, experience attenuated adaptations to strength training compared to untrained individuals.Methods Eleven non-strength-trained female endurance athletes (E + S) added 11 weeks of strength training to their normal endurance training (...
Article
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Performance-determining variables are usually measured from a rested state and not after prolonged exercise, specific to when athletes compete for the win in long-distance events. Purpose: (1) To compare cross-country skiing double-poling (DP) performance and the associated physiological and biomechanical performance-determining variables between...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To determine the impact of interval training frequency in elite endurance athletes. It was hypothesized that two longer sessions would elicit greater performance improvements and physiological adaptation than four shorter sessions at the same intensity. Methods: Elite cross-country skiers and biathletes were randomly assigned to either...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 3 weeks with three weekly sessions (ie, nine sessions in total) of short intervals (SI; n = 9; 3 series with 13 × 30-second work intervals interspersed with 15-second recovery and 3-minutes recovery between series) against effort-matched (rate of perceived effort based) long intervals (LI; n =...
Article
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In this study, we compare the effects of isocaloric high (HIGH: 2 g.kg‐1.d‐1, n = 19) and low protein diet (LOW: 1 g.kg‐1.d‐1, n = 19) on changes in body composition, muscle strength, and endocrine variables in response to a 10‐day military field exercise with energy deficit, followed by seven days of recovery. Body composition (DXA), one repetitio...
Article
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New findings: What is the central question of this study? We set out to test the hypothesis that hemoglobin mass and red blood cell volume would become increased in elite cyclists training in a hot environment compared to control group training in normal temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that five weeks of he...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effects of a 1-week high-intensity aerobic-training shock microcycle composed of either 5 short-interval sessions (SI; n = 9, 5 series with 12 × 30-s work intervals interspersed with 15-s recovery and 3-min recovery between series) or 5 long-interval sessions (LI; n = 8, 6 series of 5-min work intervals with 2.5-min recover...
Article
Purpose: Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a widely used tool to assess subjective perception of effort during exercise. The authors investigated between-subject variation and effect of exercise mode and sex on Borg RPE (6-20) in relation to heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and capillary blood lactate concentrations. Methods: A total of...
Article
Full-text available
Key points: For individuals showing suboptimal adaptations to resistance training, manipulation of training volume is a potential measure to facilitate responses. This remains unexplored. Here, 34 untrained individuals performed contralateral resistance training with moderate and low volume for 12 weeks. Moderate volume led to larger increases in...
Article
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Endurance athletes usually achieve performance peaking with 2–4 weeks of overload training followed by 1–3 weeks of tapering. With a tight competition schedule, this may not be appropriate. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of a compressed variant of the recommended overload and tapering approach (EXP; n=9, VO2peak=77±5 mL·min−1...
Article
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Background: Cycling competitions are often of long duration and include repeated high-intensity efforts. Purpose: To investigate the effect of repeated maximal sprints during 4 hours of low-intensity cycling on gross efficiency (GE), electromyography patterns, and pedaling technique compared with work-matched low-intensity cycling in elite cycli...
Article
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Purpose: Maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) is a key determinant of endurance performance. Therefore, devising high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that maximizes stress of the oxygen-transport and -utilization systems may be important to stimulate further adaptation in athletes. The authors compared physiological and perceptual responses elicited...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Accumulated time at a high percentage of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is important for improving performance in endurance athletes. The present study compared the acute effect of a roller-ski skating session containing work intervals with a fast start followed by decreasing speed (DEC) with a traditional session where the work interv...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Block periodization (BP) has been proposed as an alternative to traditional (TRAD) organization of the annual training plan for endurance athletes. Objective: To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the effect BP of endurance training on endurance performance and factors determinative for endurance performance in...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo compare the effects of short-sprint training (SST) and heavy-strength training (HST) following a 4-week strength-training period on sprint and endurance capacities in well-trained cyclists.Methods Twenty-eight competitive cyclists (age 29 ± 6 years) with maximal oxygen uptake () of 61.1 ± 5.9 mL⋅min–1⋅kg–1 participated. After a 4-weeks pr...
Article
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This paper reports temporal changes in physiological measurements of exercise performance in a young man transitioning from alpine skiing until he became a world junior champion time trial cyclist after only 3 yr of bike-specific training. At the time he became World Champion he also achieved among the highest reported maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o 2m...
Preprint
Full-text available
Resistance-exercise volume is a determinant of training outcomes. However not all individuals respond in a dose-dependent fashion. In this study, 34 healthy individuals (males n = 16, age 23.6 (4.1) years; females n = 18, 22.0 (1.3) years) performed moderate- (3 sets per exercise, MOD) and low-volume (1 set, LOW) resistance training contralateral f...
Article
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Team sports like ice‐hockey require high levels of performance in numerous physical characteristics such as strength, power and endurance. As such, training is associated with a potential interference effect. The present study randomized well‐trained ice‐hockey players into a block periodization group (BP; n=8), focusing on development of either st...
Article
Full-text available
Eccentric cycling training induces muscle hypertrophy and increases joint power output in non-athletes. Moreover, eccentric cycling can be considered a movement-specific type of strength training for cyclists, but it is hitherto unknown if eccentric cycling training can improve cycling performance in trained cyclists. Twenty-three male amateur cycl...
Data
Baseline values and changes (delta) within each group. (DOCX)
Chapter
Amongst well-trained cyclists, there is a small difference in performance. Therefore, coaches and athletes strive for the optimal training strategies. As a consequence of this, strength training off the bike, as a mean of optimizing the performance on the bike, has received gradually more attention during the last decade. Particularly, the effects...
Chapter
Although exercise has been part of humanity since the antiquity, the initial attempts to scientifically investigate the physiology of human performance dates back to the early twentieth century. While a major corner stone in the science of progressive resistance training was achieved already at the end of World War II, the first study investigating...
Article
Full-text available
Elite endurance athletes possess a high capacity for whole body maximal fat oxidation (MFO). The aim was to investigate the determinants of a high MFO in endurance athletes. The hypotheses were that augmented MFO in endurance athletes is related to concomitantly increments of skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density (MitoVD) and mitochondrial f...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of accumulated time ≥90% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) to improve performance in well‐trained endurance athletes is well established. The present study compared the acute effects of adding vibrations (VIB; 40 Hz) to the work intervals during a high‐intensity cycling session (HIT) with a traditional HIT session without vibrat...
Article
Full-text available
Millet and Brocherie argue that responses to altitude could have occurred in our control group living and training at 1000‐1500 m. First, their argumentation is somewhat imprecise since the participants lived at 1035 m and spent 82% of total training time between 550 and 1100 m.¹ Second, their statement is surprising since in one of their own studi...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the effects of initial levels of cycling performance, peak oxygen uptake (O2peak) and gross efficiency (GE) on the subsequent adaptations of these variables and their relationship following high-intensity training (HIT) designed to increase O2peak in competitive cyclists. Sixty cyclists (O2peak = 61 ± 6 mL kg-1 min-1)...
Article
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Purpose: Although strength and sprint training are widely used methods in competitive cycling, no previous studies have compared the acute responses and recovery rates following such sessions among highly trained cyclists. The primary aim of the current study was to compare power production and biochemical markers of metabolic stress and muscle dam...
Article
Live high – train low (LHTL) using hypobaric hypoxia was previously found to improve sea-level endurance performance in well-trained individuals, however confirmatory controlled data in athletes are lacking. Here we test the hypothesis that natural-altitude LHTL improves aerobic performance in cross-country skiers, in conjunction with expansion of...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training with or without vibration to cross-country (XC) skiers' endurance training on double poling (DP) performance, physiological and kinematic adaptations. Twenty-one well-trained male XC skiers combined endurance- and upper-body strength-training three times per week,...
Article
This study investigated the effect of performing a preconditioning exercise with or without whole-body vibration (WBV) on a subsequent cycling sprint performance. Fourteen trained subjects performed two separate test sessions in randomized order. After a warm-up, the preconditioning exercise (body-loaded half squats) was applied: 30-seconds of half...
Article
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Purpose: To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with strength training only. Methods: Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions per week for 8 weeks. One group included plyometric exercises at the start of t...
Article
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Previous studies in endurance athletes has indicated that block periodization (BP) can be a good alternative to the more traditional organization of training despite the total volume and intensity of the training being similar. However, these studies usually last only 4-12 weeks. The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the conse...