Benoit Lemaire

Benoit Lemaire
Université Grenoble Alpes

PhD in computer science

About

92
Publications
17,910
Reads
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1,261
Citations
Introduction
Computational cognitive modeling - Models of working memory - Models of eye movements in information search - Models of inductive learning - Models of semantic association (mainly using Latent Semantic Analysis) - Models of text comprehension and summarization - Models of text assessment and educational applications
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - present
December 1992 - December 1993
University of Pittsburgh
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
One way of maintaining information in working memory is through attentional refreshing, a process that was recently shown to be independent from verbal rehearsal. In the classical working memory complex span task, the usual assumption is that memoranda are refreshed in a cumulative fashion, starting from the first item, going in a forward order unt...
Article
Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system allowing short-term maintenance and processing of information. Maintaining information in WM consists, classically, in rehearsing or refreshing it. Chunking could also be considered as a maintenance mechanism. However, in the literature, it is more often used to explain performance than explicitly investiga...
Article
It is well known that working memory performance changes with age. Two recent computational models of working memory, TBRS* and SOB-CS, developed from young adults WM performances are opposed regarding the postulated causes of forgetting, namely time-based decay and interference for TBRS* and SOB-CS, respectively. In the present study, these models...
Article
Full-text available
Previously reported simulations using the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control suggest that the patterns of eye movements observed with children versus adult readers reflect differences in lexical processing proficiency. However, these simulations fail to specify precisely what aspect(s) of lexical processing (e.g., orthographic processing) acc...
Article
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Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading, and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (...
Article
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Compression, the ability to recode information in a denser format, is a core property of working memory (WM). Previous studies have shown that the ability to compress information largely benefits WM performance. Importantly, recent evidence also suggests compression as freeing up WM resources, thus enhancing recall performance for other, less compr...
Conference Paper
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Are mental additions of single-digit numbers solved through direct retrieval from long-term memory or through persistent use of an automatized counting procedure along a mental line? In this paper, we present an experiment based on small additions along an artificial mental line, which tends to show that for very small addends (+2 to +4), counting...
Article
It is now firmly established that long-term memory knowledge, such as semantic knowledge, supports the temporary maintenance of verbal information in Working Memory (WM). This support from semantic knowledge is well-explained by models assuming that verbal items are directly activated in long-term memory, and that this activation provides the repre...
Article
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The maintenance of serial order information is a core component of working memory (WM). Many theoretical models assume the existence of specific serial order mechanisms. Those are considered to be independent from the linguistic system supporting maintenance of item information. This is based on studies showing that psycholinguistic factors strongl...
Article
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Maintenance of verbal information within human working memory occurs through two main complementary mechanisms: articulatory rehearsal and refreshing. Both are well-described in the literature but very few computational models have attempted to describe the ways they interact to maintain information. Because these interactions are difficult to appr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is now well-established that long-term memory (LTM) knowledge, such as semantic knowledge, supports the temporary maintenance of verbal information in working memory (WM). This is for instance characterized by the recall advantage observed for semantically related (e.g. leaf-tree-branch) over unrelated (e.g. mouse-wall-sky) lists of items in imm...
Article
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We investigated how two different reading tasks, namely reading to memorize [Read & Memorize (RM)] and reading to decide whether a text was relevant to a given topic [Read & Decide (RD)], modulated both eye movements (EM) and brain activity. To this end, we set up an ecological paradigm using the eye fixation-related potentials (EFRP) technique, in...
Article
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There is still a strong debate in the working memory literature about the cause of forgetting, with many articles providing evidence for the existence of temporal decay and as many publications providing evidence compatible with interference being the only mechanism involved in forgetting. In order to reconcile the two views, this article describes...
Article
Understanding the factors that make working memory (WM) traces stable over time is important because WM is the keystone of general cognitive achievement. Two views of attentional WM maintenance have been suggested to account for the long‐term retention of WM information. First, the distractors in a WM task are thought to foster the creation of epis...
Article
Methods: Young (mean age = 21.62; SD = 2.51) and healthy older (mean age = 71.92; SD = 5.18) participants performed a complex WM task. They had to remember five images while reading three words presented after each image. We compared trials in which every word was new (inducing high interference) with trials where words were repeated (inducing low...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
SOB-CS is an interference-based computational model of working memory that explains findings from simple and complex span experiments. According to the model’s mechanism of interference by superposition, high similarity between memory items and subsequently processed distractors is beneficial because the more a distractor is similar to an item, the...
Chapter
The SOB-CS computational model of working memory explains findings from simple and complex span experiments. According to the model’s mechanism of interference by superposition, high similarity between memory items and subsequently processed distractors is beneficial because the more a distractor is similar to an item, the more they share similar u...
Article
Full-text available
The causal role of verbal rehearsal in working memory has recently been called into question. For example, the SOB-CS (Serial Order in a Box-Complex Span) model assumes that there is no maintenance process for the strengthening of items in working memory, but instead a process of removal of distractors that are involuntarily encoded and create inte...
Article
Short-term memorization of items while performing a concurrent distracting task requires maintenance processes. The time-based resource-sharing model of working memory (Barrouillet et al. in Psychol Rev 118:175–192, 2011) and its computational version TBRS* (Oberauer and Lewandowsky in Psychon Bull Rev 18:10–45, 2011) proposed that items are refres...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory capacity is limited and much work has been done for decades on estimating its value. However, if stimuli contain redundancies, compression mechanisms probably appear which change the point of view on that capacity. By means of a behavioral study and a computational simulation, we aim at showing that working memory is not just a fixed...
Article
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This paper presents a cognitive computational model of the way people read a paragraph with the task of quickly deciding whether it is better related to a given goal than another paragraph processed previously. In particular, the model attempts to predict the time at which participants would decide to stop reading the current paragraph because they...
Article
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Document foraging for information is a crucial and increasingly prevalent activity nowadays. We designed a computational cognitive model to simulate the oculomotor scanpath of an average web user searching for specific information from textual materials. In particular, the developed model dynamically combines visual, semantic, and memory processes t...
Article
This paper presents a computational model of the way humans inductively identify and aggregate concepts from the low-level stimuli they are exposed to. Based on the idea that humans tend to select the simplest structures, it implements a dynamic hierarchical chunking mechanism in which the decision whether to create a new chunk is based on an infor...
Article
Most e-learning systems engage successively students in reading, writing and assessment activities. In the third phase, the teacher gives feedback on student comprehension, which is often processed a long time after the others, letting the students alone with their difficulties. Thus, there is room to devise automated assessment systems on course c...
Article
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This report presents Version 1 of the support and feedback services (delivering recommendations based on interaction analysis and on students' textual production) that can be integrated within an e-learning environment. Further steps toward the implementation of Version 2 of these services and their future integration with all the LTfLL services ar...
Conference Paper
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One of the most important tasks on the Web is fora ging information. In this study, we present a computational model whi ch simulates human eye movements during information seeking in Web pages. Human visual scanpaths are guided by their information needs, by the visua l features of the stimuli and by what they previously processed. Our model takes...
Conference Paper
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This study aims at presenting a computational model of visual search including a visual, a semantic and a memory process in order to simulate human behavior during information seeking. We implemented the memory process, which is the most im- portant part of the model based on the Variable Memory Model (Arani, Karwan, & G., 1984; Horowitz, 2006). To...
Article
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This paper applies machine learning techniques to student modeling. It presents a method for discovering high-level student behaviors from a very large set of low-level traces corresponding to problem-solving actions in a learning environment. Basic actions are encoded into sets of domain-dependent attribute-value patterns called cases. Then a doma...
Article
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This paper presents a threefold model of information seeking. A visual, a semantic and a memory map are dynamically computed in order to predict the location of the next fixation. This model is applied to a task in which the goal is to find among 40 words the one which best corresponds to a definition. Words have visual features and they are semant...
Article
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for dissemination) This report is about the way to deliver relevant feedback to students' written production, either for free texts (e.g., essays, syntheses, notes) or chat conversation, in order for the students to build knowledge. This report presents an overview and a selection of existing models, methods and resources for: 1) the automatic anal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the most important tasks on the Web is foraging information. In this study, we present a computational model that simulates human movements of a web user during an information seeking task. Eye movements are guided by the need for information, by the visual characteristics of the stimuli and by what has already been processed and stored. Our...
Article
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This paper applies a MDL-based computational model of inductive learning to the problem of word segmentation. The main idea is that syllables are grouped into words as soon as this operation decreases the size of the overall representation of the data, that is the codelength of information. When exposed to a stream of artificial words, our model (M...
Article
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The general aim of this study is to validate the cognitive relevance of the geometric model used in the semantic atlases (SA). With this goal in mind, we compare the results obtained by the automatic contexonym organizing model (ACOM)--an SA-derived model for word sense representation based on contextual links--with human subjects' responses on a w...
Article
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This paper presents an iterative model of knowledge acquisition of gender information associated with word endings in French. Gender knowledge is represented as a set of rules containing exceptions. Our model takes noun-gender pairs as input and constantly maintains a list of rules and exceptions which is both coherent with the input data and minim...
Article
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A preliminary model based on a child corpus In contrast to many LSA semantic spaces in the literature which are based on domain - specific corpora, we chose to build a general child corpus intended to model children's semantic memory (Denhière, Lemaire, Bellissens & Jhean - Larose, 2004) and to offer a layer of basic semantic associations on top of...
Article
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A computational model of the construction of word meaning through exposure to texts is built in order to simulate the effects of co-occurrence values on word semantic similarities, paragraph by paragraph. Semantic similarity is here viewed as association. It turns out that the similarity between two words W1 and W2 strongly increases with a co-occu...
Article
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La lemmatisation des corpus est une procédure répandue que l'on effectue parfois par simple respect d'une tradition. Cet article met en évidence les limites de cette opération dans le cas de l'extraction automatique d'informations sémantiques, c'estàdire lorsque le contexte d'apparition des mots est utilisé. Nous montrons dans une première partie q...
Article
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Notre approche consiste à concevoir un modèle cognitif de l'apprentissage inductif de concepts basé uniquement sur le principe de simplicité. Nous utilisons une formulation mathématique de ce principe appelée Minimum Description Length, dans le but de créer un modèle informatique capable de générer automatiquement des hypothèses à partir d'un ensem...
Article
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Many researchers consider interactive learning environments to be interesting solutions for overcoming the limits of classical one-to-many teaching methods. However, these environments should incorporate accurate representations of student knowledge to provide relevant guidance. In a problem-solving environment, one way to build and update this stu...
Article
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This paper presents a model based on LSA which attempts to simulate the way humans assess student summaries. It is based on the automatic detection of 5 cognitive operations that student may use in writing a summary. Comparisons with dataand the construction of a new proposition denoting a global from 33 human raters show the strengths and limits o...
Article
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This paper attempts to answer a threefold question: from what kind of cues gender can reliably be assigned to French nouns? How the usage of these sublexical cues is acquired by children? What kind of computational models could account for the human data? We conducted an experiment with 74 1st and 2nd grade children to assess their knowledge about...
Article
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This paper presents a general method for identifying student intermediate mental steps from sequences of actions stored by problem solving-based learning environments, in order to provide feedback to teachers on knowledge that statistically seems to be used by a particular student. When many intermediate mental steps are possible, ambiguity is remo...
Article
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In the present article, we outline the architecture of a computer program for simulating the process by which humans comprehend texts. The program is based on psycholinguistic theories about human memory and text comprehension processes, such as the construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1998), the latent semantic analysis theory of knowledge rep...
Article
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L'activité de résumé de textes peut être proposée pour favoriser la compréhension alors même que cette dernière est nécessaire pour bien résumer. Ce chapitre aborde ces deux aspects étroitement liés l'un à l'autre. Ainsi, développerons-nous pourquoi la pratique du résumé de textes influe positivement sur la compréhension de ces derniers et détaille...
Article
Full-text available
A computational model of the construction of word meaning through exposure to texts is built in order to simulate the effects of co-occurrence values on word semantic similarities, paragraph by paragraph. Semantic similarity is here viewed as association. It turns out that the similarity between two words W1 and W2 strongly increases with a co-occu...
Article
Full-text available
La modélisation automatique des connaissances de l’apprenant est nécessaire dès lors que l’on cherche à accompagner un apprentissage dans le cadre des EIAH. Dans ce rapport, nous présentons un travail en cours dans lequel des techniques de classification automatique permettent d’engendrer des modèles d’élèves interprétables par un enseignant ou un...
Article
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Cet article décrit l'architecture d'un EIAH d'aide à la production de résumés de textes. Nous appuyant sur des modèles psycho­linguistiques de cette activité, montrant que résumer un texte, c'est mettre en œuvre différentes macrorègles sur le texte source [Kintsch & van Dijk 78], nous avons implanté des règles de diagnostic de l'utilisation de ces...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proceedings CIL 2005, Colloque Interlabos 2005 : " La construction du sens en sciences du langage et en psychologie ". Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier III, 9-­‐10 juin 2005.
Article
This article assesses the computerized feedback effects due to the qualities of notes taken during the reading of a lesson. By inducing the connection between the existing knowledge and the information of a read lesson, the note-taking process entails a disturbing reorganization of knowledge. With an experimental approach, we describe the effects d...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a general computational cognitive model of the way a summary is assessed by teachers. It is based on models of two subprocesses: determining the importance of sentences and guessing the cognitive rules that the student may have used. All models are based on Latent Semantic Analysis, a computational model of the representation of...
Article
Full-text available
This article assesses the computerized feedback effects due to the qualities of notes taken during the reading of a lesson. By inducing the connection between the existing knowledge and the information of a read lesson, the note-taking process entails a disturbing reorganization of knowledge. With an experimental approach, we describe the effects d...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a computational model of the incremental construction of an associative network from a corpus. It is aimed at modeling the development of the human semantic memory. It is not based on a vector representation, which does not well reproduce the asymmetrical property of word similarity, but rather on a network representation. Compa...
Article
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A computational model of children's semantic memory is built from the Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) of a multisource child corpus. Three tests of the model are described, simulating a vocabulary test, an association test and a recall task. For each one, results from experiments with children are presented and compared to the model data. Adequacy i...
Article
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In : S. Porhiel & D. Klingler (Eds) (2004). L'unité texte (pp. 74-95). Pleyben : Perspectives. Envisagée du point de vue de la psychologie cognitive, l'étude expérimentale de la compréhension de textes peut faire l'objet d'approches différentes (voir Denhière, 1984 ; Denhière & Rossi, 1991) selon l'intérêt que les chercheurs accordent à des facteur...
Article
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This paper presents a computational model of referential metaphor comprehension. This model is designed on top of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a model of the representation of word and text meanings. Compre­hending a referential metaphor consists in scanning the semantic neighbors of the metaphor in order to find words that are also semantically...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents Apex, a system that can automatically assess a student essay based on its content. It relies on Latent Semantic Analysis, a tool which is used to represent the meaning of words as vectors in a high-dimensional space. By comparing an essay and the text of a given course on a semantic basis, our system can measure how well the ess...
Article
L’objet de cet article est de présenter l’analyse de la sémantique latente (LSA — Latent Semantic Analysis), un modèle cognitif de la représentation et de l’acquisition du sens des mots, ainsi que de la compréhension de textes. Nous présentons quatre types de modélisations cognitives fondées sur LSA, ainsi que les expérimentations qui les valident:...