Bennett Shaywitz

Bennett Shaywitz
Yale-New Haven Hospital | YNHH · Yale Center for Dyslexia & Creativity

About

343
Publications
87,491
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26,410
Citations

Publications

Publications (343)
Article
Full-text available
The spread of COVID-19 has led to the disruption of K-12 education for about 90% of the world's student population. The effects on children's academic development are unknown. We examined how disruption in schooling over three consecutive summers in disadvantaged minority children affects reading and whether an intensive intervention can ameliorate...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate and efficient early screening is important for providing effective early intervention for dyslexic readers. While family history is often considered a contributing risk factor for dyslexia, some have suggested that it could serve as a proxy for identification of dyslexia. We examined the classification accuracy of family history as a scree...
Article
Purpose of review: Within the past decade tremendous advances have occurred in our understanding of dyslexia. Recent findings: Reliable data now validate the definition of dyslexia as an unexpected difficulty in reading in an individual who has the ability to be a much better reader. That dyslexia is unexpected is now codified in US federal law...
Article
Full-text available
Dyslexia is defined in recent federal legislation as an unexpected difficulty in reading for an individual who has the intelligence to be a much better reader. Despite its high prevalence (20%), there have been few studies of the experience and outcome of dyslexic students at selective 4-year colleges. We examined academic and social experiences in...
Article
We review the evolution of the conceptualisation of dyslexia and along with it the current, 21st century definition of dyslexia. Our starting point is the seminal report by Pringle Morgan in 1896, followed by early 20th century reports by Hinshelwood, and continuing with concepts of brain injury and minimal brain dysfunctions then to the emergence...
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Full-text available
Left temporal-parietal white matter structure is consistently associated with reading abilities in children. A small number of longitudinal studies show that development of this area over time is altered in children with impaired reading. However, it remains unclear how brain developmental patterns relate to specific reading skills such as fluency,...
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Identifying change at the individual level is an important goal for researchers, educators, and clinicians. We present a set of statistical procedures for identifying individuals who depart from a normative change. Using Latent Change Scores models (LCS), we illustrate how the Individual Likelihood computed from a statistical model for change (IL)...
Article
We systematically assessed the relationships between growth of four components of verbal ability—Information, Similarities, Vocabulary, and Comprehension subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale–Revised—and longitudinal growth from Grades 1 to 9 of the Woodcock–Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery Passage Comprehension subtest while controlling fo...
Article
While much is known about dyslexia in school-age children and adolescents, less is known about its effects on quality of life in adults. Using data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, we provide the first estimates of the monetary value of improving reading, speaking, and cognitive skills to dyslexic and nondyslexic adults. Using a stated-pref...
Chapter
Dyslexia (or specific reading disability) is the most common and extensively studied of the learning disabilities, affecting 80% of all individuals identified as learning disabled. Not only is dyslexia the most thoroughly characterized of all learning disabilities but it is historically the oldest. In fact, the first description of dyslexia in chil...
Article
We examine the dilemmas faced by a medical student with dyslexia who wonders whether he should "out" himself to faculty to receive the accommodations entitled by federal law. We first discuss scientific evidence on dyslexia's prevalence, unexpected nature, and neurobiology. We then examine the experiences of medical students who have revealed their...
Article
Objectives: Evaluated the effects of atomoxetine on the reading abilities of children with dyslexia only or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid dyslexia. Methods: Children aged 10-16 years (N = 209) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for dyslexia onl...
Article
To determine if differences between dyslexic and typical readers in their reading scores and verbal IQ are evident as early as first grade and whether the trajectory of these differences increases or decreases from childhood to adolescence. The subjects were the 414 participants comprising the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, a sample survey cohort,...
Article
Unlabelled: Abstract Objective: This study assessed the efficacy of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children and adolescents having ADHD with comorbid dyslexia (ADHD+D) and the effects of the treatment on reading measures. Methods: The analyses in this report used data from a study designed to examine t...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate atomoxetine treatment effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-only), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid dyslexia (ADHD+D), or dyslexia only on ADHD core symptoms and on sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT), working memory, life performance, and self-concept. Meth...
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Full-text available
Functional connectivity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data are a powerful tool for characterizing brain networks and how they are disrupted in neural disorders. However, many such analyses examine only one or a small number of a priori seed regions. Studies that consider the whole brain frequently rely on anatomic atlases to def...
Article
Many children and adults have specific reading disabilities; insight into the brain structure underlying these difficulties is evolving from imaging. Previous research highlights the left temporal-parietal white matter as important in reading, yet the degree of involvement of other areas remains unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-bas...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in reading in individuals who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for fluent reading, and who also have had reasonable reading instruction. Identifying factors associated with normative and impaired reading development has implications for diagnosis, in...
Article
The amino-acid precursors tryptophan and tyrosine, and the major metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, indoleacetic acid, homovanillic acid and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol, related to the central neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, were measured in 62 samples of cerebrospinal fluid from human neonates. Means are re...
Article
Extraordinary progress in functional brain imaging, primarily advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging, now allows scientists to understand the neural systems serving reading and how these systems differ in dyslexic readers. Scientists now speak of the neural signature of dyslexia, a singular achievement that for the first time has made wh...
Article
The past two decades have witnessed an explosion in our understanding of dyslexia (or specific reading disability), the most common and most carefully studied of the learning disabilities. We first review the core concepts of dyslexia: its definition, prevalence, and developmental course. Next we examine the cognitive model of dyslexia, especially...
Article
The authors applied linear dynamic models to longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of reading and cognition from 1st to 12th grade. They used longitudinal data (N=445) from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study (S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, J. M. Fletcher, & M. D. Escobar, 1990) to map the dynamic interrelations of various scales of the Wechsle...
Article
Developmental dyslexia is characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading in children and adults who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for accurate and fluent reading. Dyslexia is the most common and most carefully studied of the learning disabilities, affecting 80% of all individuals identified as learning...
Article
We studied error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) during a discrimination task in 319 unmedicated children divided into subtypes of ADHD (Not-ADHD/inattentive/combined), learning disorder (Not-LD/reading/math/reading+math), and oppositional defiant disorder. Response-locked ERPs contained a frontocentral ERN and posterior Pe. Erro...
Article
To examine age-related changes in the neural systems for reading in nonimpaired and dyslexic children and adolescents. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study age-related changes in the neural systems for reading in a cross-sectional sample of 232 right-handed children 7 to 18 years of age (113 dyslexic readers and 119 nonimpaired r...
Article
Full-text available
Within the last two decades, evidence from many laboratories has converged to indicate the cognitive basis for dyslexia: Dyslexia is a disorder within the language system and, more specifically, within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Converging evidence from a number of laboratories using functional brain imaging...
Article
Converging evidence from a number of lines of investigation indicates that dyslexia represents a disorder within the language system and more specifically within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Recent advances in imaging technology, particularly the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), prov...
Chapter
Developmental dyslexia is characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading in children and adults who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for accurate and fluent reading. More formally, ‘Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accur...
Article
Full-text available
DYX2 on 6p22 is the most replicated reading disability (RD) locus. By saturating a previously identified peak of association with single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we identified a large polymorphic deletion that encodes tandem repeats of putative brain-related transcription factor binding sites in intron 2 of DCDC2. Alleles of this compound r...
Article
Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among th...
Article
Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish also contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encour...
Article
Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish also contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encour...
Article
Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish also contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encour...
Article
Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish also contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encour...
Article
Converging evidence from a number of lines of investigation indicates that dyslexia represents a disorder within the language system and more specifically within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Recent advances in imaging technology, particularly the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging, provide evi...
Article
Full-text available
Simulated data were used to demonstrate that groups formed by imposing cut-points based on either discrepancy or low-achievement definitions of learning disabilities (LD) are unstable over time. Similar problems were demonstrated in longitudinal data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, where 39% of the children designated as having LD in Grade...
Article
Brookings Papers on Education Policy 2005.1 (2005) 209-250 Over the past decade the root of certain education policies in the United States has shifted from philosophical and ideological foundations to the application of converging scientific evidence to forge policy directions and initiatives. This has been particularly the case for early (kinderg...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have suggested that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with abnormalities in basal ganglia and prefrontal cortical functioning. However, these studies have primarily relied upon cognitive tasks that reflect impulse control rather than attentional mechanisms. The authors used functional magnetic resonance im...
Article
Second- and 3rd-grade children with poor word-level skills were randomly assigned to 8 months of explicit instruction emphasizing the phonologic and orthographic connections in words and text-based reading or to remedial reading programs provided by the schools. At posttest, treatment children showed significantly greater gains than control childre...
Article
Full-text available
A range of neurobiological investigations shows a failure of left hemisphere posterior brain systems to function properly during reading in children and adults with reading disabilities. Such evidence of a disruption in the normal reading pathways provides a neurobiological target for reading interventions. In this study, we hypothesized that the p...
Article
A weakness in accessing the sounds of spoken language represents the most robust and specific correlate of reading disability in young school age children and adolescents. Neurological science and reading research that provides the scientific knowledge regarding this disability is presented.
Article
The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented collaboration between science and education, so that there has now been a sea of change, not only in understanding the underlying basis for reading and reading disability, but perhaps most critically, in the recognition that teaching reading must be driven by science. This article discusses evidence-ba...
Article
Considerable controversy surrounds the issue of whether estrogen influences cognitive function in postmenopausal women, and the results are far from consistent. For the most part, the cognitive processes studied have involved memory; to our knowledge, no previous studies have specifically examined the effects of estrogen on women's reading ability....
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Full-text available
This study examined whether and how two groups of young adults who were poor readers as children (a relatively compensated group and a group with persistent reading difficulties) differed from nonimpaired readers and if there were any factors distinguishing the compensated from persistently poor readers that might account for their different outcom...
Article
This paper elaborates on the components of a working definition of developmental dyslexia. It follows the general format of a paper by Lyon published in Annals of Dyslexia in 1995, which elaborated on a working definition proposed in 1994 (Lyon, 1995). The current definition agreed on by the work group updates and expands on the working definition...
Article
We investigated the impact of stimulus probability and sequence on performance and event-related potentials of 310 children classified into 12 combinations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Not-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Inattentive and Combined subtypes) with presence/absence of reading disorder and math disorder. Subject...
Article
Full-text available
Converging evidence indicates a functional disruption in the neural systems for reading in adults with dyslexia. We examined brain activation patterns in dyslexic and nonimpaired children during pseudoword and real-word reading tasks that required phonologic analysis (i.e., tapped the problems experienced by dyslexic children in sounding out words)...
Article
According to federal regulations, children with reading difficulties are eligible for special education services under the learning disability category if they display reading skills that are significantly lower than their scores on intelligence (IQ) tests. Children who are poor readers but do not display this discrepancy are not eligible for speci...
Article
This paper attempts to model the development of children's reading skills using the negative exponential curve with mixed effects model. The model describes the nature of growth in children's reading skills and accounts for intra-individual and inter-individual variations. In addition, we propose methods including cross-validation, regression, and...
Article
Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly consume. Its safety was further confirmed through st...
Article
Previous studies of the gifted have been inconsistent, portraying them as both more and less well adjusted than the nongifted or less gifted. We examined behavioral, cognitive, attentional, and family history dimensions among four groups of 87 boys: High Gifted (IQ 140-154), Low Gifted (IQ 124-I 39), Learning Disabled, and a Normal control group. F...
Article
Unlabelled: Evidence from neuroimaging studies, including our own, suggest that skilled word identification in reading is related to the functional integrity of two consolidated left hemisphere (LH) posterior systems: a dorsal (temporo-parietal) circuit and a ventral (occipito-temporal) circuit. This posterior system appears to be functionally dis...
Article
Converging evidence from a number of neuroimaging studies, including our own, suggest that fluent word identification in reading is related to the functional integrity of two left hemisphere posterior systems: a temporo-parietal system and a ventral occipito-temporal system. These posterior systems are functionally disrupted in developmental dyslex...
Article
This clinical practice guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This guideline, the second in a set of policies on this condition, is intended for use by clinicians working in primary care settings. The initiation of treatment requires the accurat...
Article
Within the last two decades overwhelming evidence from many laboratories has converged to indicate the cognitive basis for dyslexia: dyslexia represents a disorder within the language system and more specifically within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Recent advances in imaging technology and the development of ta...
Article
•Management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) encompasses two general domains: pharmacologic therapies and nonpharmacologic therapies, including educational, cognitive-behavioral, and other psychological and psychiatric approaches. •Within the past year there have been two seminal developments in treatment. The first is that the Ev...
Article
Full-text available
During a health supervision visit, the father of a 7.5-year-old African American second-grader asked about his son's progress in reading. He was concerned when, at a recent teacher-parent conference to review Darren's progress, the teacher remarked that Darren was not keeping up with reading skills compared with others in his class. She said that h...
Article
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we examined three important dimensions of attentional control (selective attention, divided attention, and executive function) in 25 neurologically normal, right-handed men and women, using tasks involving the perception and processing of printed words, spoken words, or both. In the context of language-pr...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to review research on the classification of learning disabilities. It begins by briefly reviewing the nature of classification research. The author discusses the evolution of definitions of LD, making explicit the classification hypothesis from which these definitions derive. An extensive literature review is offered an...