Benjamin King Sutton Woods

Benjamin King Sutton Woods
University of Bristol | UB · Department of Aerospace Engineering

PhD

About

108
Publications
80,222
Reads
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1,928
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2020 - present
University of Bristol
Position
  • Senior Lecturer
Description
  • Senior Lecturer in Aerospace Structures. Researching Morphing Aircraft, Composite Truss Structures, 3D printed composites. EPSRC Early Career Fellow in Adaptive Aerostructures for Power and Transportation Sustainability (AdAPTS). PI on H2020 Program: Shape Adaptive Blades for Rotorcraft Efficiency (SABRE), sabreproject.eu.
August 2015 - August 2020
University of Bristol
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Lecturer in Aerospace. Researching Morphing Aircraft, Composite Truss Structures, 3D printed composites. PI on SABRE: Shape Adaptive Blades for Rotorcraft Efficiency, an H2020 research programme (sabreproject.eu).
January 2012 - July 2015
Swansea University
Position
  • Research Officer
Description
  • Post-Doc researching compliance based morphing aircraft concepts; including the FishBAC active camber airfoil, the AdAR span morphing wing, morphing flap transitions, and negative stiffness mechanisms.

Publications

Publications (108)
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the design, analysis, manufacturing, experimental testing, and multiobjective optimization of a new family of ultra-efficient composite truss structures. The continuously wound truss concept introduced here is a versatile, low cost and scalable method of manufacturing truss structures based on a simple winding process. A prototy...
Article
Full-text available
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a 3D printing technique which allows layer-by-layer build-up of a part by the deposition of thermoplastic material through a nozzle. The technique allows for complex shapes to be made with a degree of design freedom unachievable with traditional manufacturing methods. However, the mechanical properties of the the...
Article
Full-text available
Composite materials have now been adopted in a wide range of applications, primarily due to their weight-saving potential. Overwhelmingly so, these materials have been used in laminated or monolithic structural components. Moving towards lattice configurations, in which the structure is formed from a network of connected members, can offer unparall...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates modal characteristics presented by a slender beam supporting an axially elastic tendon guided across a series of points placed eccentrically along the beam span. The nonlinear structural model is developed based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method, incorporating an energy-based approach combined with a shape function discretisation....
Conference Paper
Morphing aircraft wings are one of the proposed solutions to reducing aviation’s environmental impact as they seek to improve the aircraft’s aerodynamic efficiency and thereby reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The competing structural requirements of morphing skins, which are required to have a high out-of-plane stiffness to resist aerodynamic loadi...
Article
A common issue with morphing structures is that the actuators must work against significant structural and aerodynamic stiffness. The concept of passive energy balancing (PEB) aims to ameliorate this, and thereby reduces system mass, by connecting negative stiffness elements to the actuated degrees of freedom. However, these devices can be complex...
Conference Paper
This paper develops a first order model of a cantilevered wing with a viscoelastic cord tethered between an intermediate spanwise position and a fixed anchor point. The structural model is developed with the help of the shape function discretisations using the Rayleigh-Ritz approach, with the unsteady aerodynamic loads modelled using the ONERA mode...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the development and demonstration of a novel blade morphing system within a whirl tower facility. The scope is to investigate the behavior of the proposed architecture under representative loads, demonstrating its capability to alter the blade original shape in operation under centrifugal, aerodynamic, and internal forces. The...
Article
Full-text available
Morphing aircraft are one promising solution to reducing the aviation industry's environmental impact because they can make aircraft more aerodynamically efficient, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The design of morphing skins is inherently challenging due to the competing design constraints of needing to be stiff out-of-plane to resist p...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new design concept for morphing aircraft skins which combines three key design principles to create compliance-based morphing structures that are capable of large morphing deformations. These skins take advan- tage of additive manufacturing methods and thermoplastic elastomers of different stiffnesses to allow for strategic...
Article
Vacuum-packed particle (VPP) systems have been recently used in the development of smart structures due to their ability to actively change material stiffness through the mechanism of granular jamming. By altering the strength of the vacuum pressure applied to the particles, the material can be proportionally and reversibly transitioned from a liqu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new modular Fish Bone Active Camber morphing wing with novel 3D printed skin panels. These skin panels are printed using two different Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) formulations: a soft, high strain formulation for the deformable membrane of the skin, reinforced with a stiffer formulation for the stringers and mounting ta...
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-0172.vid A common issue with morphing structures is that the actuators must work against significant structural and aerodynamic stiffness. The concept of Passive Energy Balancing (PEB) aims to ameliorate this, and thereby reduce system mass, by connecting negative stiffness elements to the act...
Chapter
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are simple mechanical actuators that consist of an elastomeric bladder within a braided mesh sleeve. Upon pressurization of the bladder, the actuator may either contract or extend axially, with the direction of motion dependent on the orientation of the braided sleeve fibers. PAMs that have been constructed for c...
Conference Paper
Active tendon concept with internal guides is put forward to avoid the significant resonant vibration of rotor blades with variable speed. However, the influence of the aerodynamic effects has not been taken into account in the previous studies. In this paper, a rotating pre-twisted flap-lag-torsion coupled blade axially loaded by a guided tendon i...
Article
Fused filament fabrication (FFF), which is a thermoplastic layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique, called as 3D printing, can quickly build complex geometries, reducing design limitations and production costs of conventional manufacturing methods. Using a fibrous reinforcement strengthens the thermoplastic matrix, allowing FFF to be used i...
Article
Full-text available
Morphing aircraft structures usually introduce greater compliance into aerodynamic sections, and therefore will affect the aeroelasticity with the potential risk of increased flutter. A low-fidelity model of an active camber morphing wing and its aeroelastic model are developed in order to investigate the potential critical speed by exploiting its...
Article
Full-text available
Unlike hinged flaps (e.g. ailerons, elevator and rudder), camber morphing devices vary camber distribution in a smooth and continuous way, resulting in aerodynamic efficiency improvements due to the absence sharp changes in airfoil camber. One such camber morphing concept, the Fish Bone Active Camber (FishBAC) device, has shown significant aerodyna...
Article
Full-text available
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a widely used additive layer manufacturing process that deposits thermoplastic material layer-by-layer to produce complex geometries within a short time. Increasingly, fibres are being used to reinforce thermoplastic filaments to improve mechanical performance. This paper reviews the available literature on fibre...
Article
Full-text available
A parametrically driven structural model based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory is developed to capture the three-dimensional deflections of a compliance-based morphing trailing edge device with severe structural discontinuities. The model is used to study the Fish Bone Active Camber (FishBAC) device, which is represented as a discontinuous plate s...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, aligned discontinuous fibre composite (ADFRC) tapes were developed and investigated as precursors for a novel 3D printing filament. ADFRCs have the potential to achieve mechanical performance comparable to continuous fibre reinforced composites, given sufficient fibre length and high level of alignment, and avoid many of the manufactu...
Article
Cactus fibres have previously shown unusual mechanical properties in terms of bending and axial stiffness due to their hierarchical structural morphology. Bioinspiration from those cactus fibres could potentially generate architected materials with exciting properties. To that end we have built bioinspired artificial analogues of cactus fibres to e...
Article
Full-text available
Wrapped Tow Reinforced (WrapToR) trusses are ultra-efficient structures that are produced from composite materials using a novel winding process. In this study, a structural model based on the stiffness method is developed for the novel truss configuration to predict the pre-failure mechanical response. To validate the model, the mechanical respons...
Conference Paper
It has been recently suggested to incorporate a tendon into a rotorcraft blade to provide a means of controlling the blade’s dynamic properties. While the previous studies demonstrated the functionally of such a system, no systematic evaluation of the effect of the tendon cross-sectional location and the effect of the cross-sectional parameters on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A spiral pulley based mechanism is used to passively balance the energy between the morphing structure and actuation system. Applying the energy balancing concept has the potential to improve the performance of the actuation system by reducing the external energy consumption. In the current study, the energy balancing concept is adopted in a morphi...
Conference Paper
The paper introduces the actuation requirements of an active tendon concept that is being developed under the Horizon 2020 SABRE project (Shape Adaptive Blades for Rotorcraft Efficiency). The basic idea of the concept is to incorporate a tensile structural member (referred to as a tendon) into a rotorcraft blade to introduce a means of controlling...
Article
Full-text available
Wrapped Tow Reinforced (WrapToR) trusses are ultra-efficient composite structural members that are produced using a novel winding process. In this study, a novel technique is employed during the manufacturing process to improve structural efficiency. By twisting the fibre tow bundle during winding, more consistent shear members were produced that d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Fish Bone Active Camber (FishBAC) is a compliance-based morphing trailing edge device that represents an alternative to traditional trailing edge hinged control surfaces. Capable of generating large, smooth and continuous changes in camber (i.e. without gaps and/or surface discontinuities), the FishBAC has the potential to reduce aircraft fuel...
Article
Full-text available
One of the persistent challenges facing the development of morphing aerostructures is the need to have material and structural solutions which provide a compromise between the competing design drivers of low actuation energy and high stiffness under external loads. This work proposes a solution to this challenge in the form of a novel switchable st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The actuation system of morphing aircraft plays an important role in any promising morphing design. If the structure of the morphing wing needs to be deformed elastically, the actuation system will be required to provide an adequate actuation force while the weight and cost added to the morphing aircraft should be limited to the extent that the per...
Article
Full-text available
The energy balancing concept seeks to reduce actuation requirements for a morphing structure by strategically locating negative stiffness devices to tailor the required deployment forces and moments. One such device is the spiral pulley negative stiffness mechanism. This uses a cable connected with a pre-tension spring to convert decreasing spring...
Presentation
Full-text available
One of the most persistent challenges hindering the development of effective morphing aerostructures is the need to have material/structural solutions which provide a viable compromise to the directly competing design drivers of low actuation energy requirements and high resistance to deformation under external loading. This work is proposing an en...
Poster
Full-text available
One of the most persistent challenges hindering the development of effective morphing aerostructures is the need to have material/structural solutions which provide a viable compromise to the directly competing design drivers of low actuation energy requirements and high resistance to deformation under external loading. This work is proposing an en...
Article
Full-text available
A new concept of an integrated bidirectional torsional negative stiffness mechanism is introduced which allows for passive energy balancing of mechanical systems by reducing actuation requirements and improving energy efficiency. This novel design is a modular device, is bidirectional and is easily integrated and customised for different applicatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traditional morphing concepts require external energy input to achieve the desired changes to the shape of aircraft structures, often working against the inherent stiffness of these structures. This can lead to a requirement for large actuators, and a significant negative impact on system level performance due to the added mass and energy requireme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Compliance-based camber morphing is a promising alternative to conventional aircraft control surfaces, such as rigid trailing edge plain flaps, which vary aerofoil camber in a sharp, sudden and discontinuous way. Unlike traditional trailing edge flaps, camber morphing based on compliant structural design achieves smooth and continuous changes in ca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the persistent challenges facing the development of morphing aerostructures is the need to have material and structural solutions which provide a compromise between the competing design drivers of low actuation energy and high stiffness under external loads. This work proposes a solution to this challenge in the form of a novel switchable st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The energy balancing concept seeks to reduce actuation requirements for a morphing structure by strategically locating negative stiffness devices to tailor the required deployment forces and moments. One such device is the spiral pulley negative stiffness mechanism. This uses a cable connected with a pre-tension spring to covert decreasing spring f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wrapped Tow Reinforced (WrapToR) trusses are a family of novel, ultra-efficient composite structures. They are produced by wrapping wet fibre tow around longitudinal members to form a continuous, co-bonded truss geometry. This paper details the development of a three degree-of-freedom winding machine for the manufacture of these continuously wound...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces the Shape Adaptive Blades for Rotorcraft Efficiency (SABRE) Horizon 2020 research program and presents initial comprehensive analysis results on the efficacy of adapting blade shapes as a means of reducing rotorcraft power requirements and emissions. The aims of the research program are introduced, followed by discussion of th...
Poster
Full-text available
1st place poster competition - Delegate Vote; Runner-up poster competition - Student Vote
Article
Full-text available
Camber morphing aerofoils have the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of fixed and rotary wing aircraft by providing significant lift control authority to a wing, at a lower drag penalty than traditional plain flaps. A rapid, mesh-independent and two-dimensional analytical model of the fish bone active camber concept is presented. Ex...
Article
This document presents the work done on generating initial aerodynamic data sets of the different morphing concepts for use in the comprehensive rotor analysis work. This work was split between three partners and focused on the morphing concepts which are expected to cause significant change to the cross-sectional shape of the rotor blade, namely t...
Presentation
Full-text available
An investigation of the aerodynamic performance of active camber morphing airfoils. Morphing is shown to provide significant increases in lift-to-drag ratio and increases in maximum lift coefficient for a wide range of airfoil across a broad spectrum of operating conditions. Comparisons are also made to traditional trailing edge flaps, with signifi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work presents progress on the design, analysis and manufacture of the first composite Fish Bone Active Camber (FishBAC) morphing wing. The FishBAC is a morphing trailing edge device that is able to generate large, smooth and continuous changes in aerofoil camber distribution from a biologically inspired compliant structure. It has already show...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Variable speed rotors have the potential to significantly improve the performance of modern rotorcraft if the associated resonance complications can be overcome. One proposed method for resonance avoidance is to employ compressive longitudinal loads to alter the rotor's dynamic properties. This method has been shown to successfully influence a blad...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a 3D printing technique which allows layer-by-layer build-up of a part by the deposition of thermoplastic material through a nozzle. The technique allows for complex shapes to be made with a degree of design freedom unachievable with traditional manufacturing methods. However, the mechanical properties of the the...