Benjamin van Wyk de Vries

Benjamin van Wyk de Vries
Université Clermont Auvergne | Univ BPC · Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans

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205
Publications
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5,284
Citations
Citations since 2017
43 Research Items
2296 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400

Publications

Publications (205)
Article
Full-text available
Morphometric studies of scoria cones have a long history in research. Their geometry and shape are believed to be related to evolution by erosion after their formation, and hence the morphometric parameters are supposed to be related with age. We analysed 501 scoria cones of four volcanic fields: San Francisco Volcanic Field (Arizona, USA), Chaîne...
Article
We describe sedimentological variations of the block-rich debris avalanche deposits and associated pyroclastic density current deposits emplaced around 1802 CE from Tutupaca volcano in southern Peru. We use these exceptionally well-preserved features to document the collisional shearing contact between the avalanche and coeval pyroclastic density c...
Article
Full-text available
Arequipa (Peru) is an area where volcanic activity has been persistent during the Quaternary. Studies carried out in this area have highlighted the emplacement of ignimbrite deposits, large volcanic clusters and stratovolcanoes. Monogenetic volcanism is also present, although poorly explored and studied. Due to its location over an ignimbrite plain...
Article
Volcano sector collapses are catastrophic events that can mobilize huge volumes of material and cause changes in the magmatic plumbing system, leading to variations in growth rate and/or composition. Dating pre-historic volcanic debris avalanche deposits is challenging. Geological materials directly recording avalanche formation and amenable to rad...
Chapter
Full-text available
The maar of Lechmine N'Aït El Haj (LNH) is a monogenetic Plio-Quaternary volcano, located in the volcanic province of the Middle Atlas (Morocco). It is represented by a 110 m deep crater hosted in Liasic limestones. The tephra deposits surrounding the crater are mainly made up of pyroclastic beds interpreted as deposits of phreatomagmatic origin. T...
Article
Full-text available
Scoria cones are favorite targets of morphometric research. However, in-depth, DTM-based studies have appeared only recently, and new methods are being developed. This study provides a classic evaluation of the cones of Chaîne des Puys (Auvergne, France) as well as introduces a more detailed and statistics-based set of properties. Beside the classi...
Article
High resolution topographic modeling has become more accessible due to the development of Structure from Motion (SfM) image matching algorithms in digital photogrammetry. Large archival databases of historical aerial photographs are available in university, public, and government libraries, commonly as paper copies. The photos can be in poor condit...
Article
The conservation of geosites in a region can foster its sustainability and develop geotourism. These geosites provide geoeducation, raise people’s awareness on natural hazards, and increase their resilience. Low-income cities located in tectonically active areas combine high geohazards with high vulnerability and low sustainability. Geosites in the...
Article
Several processes have been proposed as triggering mechanisms for the large sector collapses that affect most volcanoes, and which may occur several times in the volcano's lifetime. Here we present and discuss the case of Tutupaca volcano, located in southern Peru and part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Tutupaca is composed of an old, h...
Article
Full-text available
The aesthetic beauty of a landscape is an integral value reflected in artistic inspiration. Science, in contrast, tries to quantify the landscape using various methods. Of these, geodiversity indices have been found to be a useful approach, and this geomorphological diversity is characterized through derivatives made from digital terrain models (DT...
Chapter
Mount Meager, a glacier-clad volcanic complex in British Columbia, Canada, is known for its large landslides, as well as a major eruption about 2360 years ago. In 2010, after decades of glacier retreat, the south flank of Mount Meager collapsed, generating a huge (53 Mm³) landslide. In 2016, fumaroles formed ice caves in one of the glaciers on the...
Article
Full-text available
The Danakil Depression, located in the northern segment of the Afar rift, is a world-class example of active rifting and the birth of a new ocean. The unique, yet only partially interpreted geothermal system of Dallol in northern Danakil is currently receiving renewed attention by researchers and visitors despite its extreme climate since the recen...
Article
The Mekelle basin (area ~ 5500 km2) is located at the immediate western margin of the Afar Depression, which has a history of collision, subsidence, uplift, magmatism and now rifting. The evolution of such small to medium size basins as the Mekelle in a complicated geodynamic set-up is a subject of debate, because several different mechanisms of ba...
Article
Full-text available
In sprawling urban areas, geoheritage is suppressed into limited niches. Potential geosites are highly vulnerable and could disappear completely during construction, or their integrity could be irreversibly modified. Here, we create an inventory of urban geoheritage for Clermont-Ferrand in France, recording more than 50 sites using the French natio...
Article
Volcanoes display diverse morphologies as a result of the complex interplay of several constructive and destructive processes. Scaled analogue models offer a tool to isolate and characterize the different processes. Here, we investigate the interplay between volcano growth and deformation caused by an underlying strike-slip fault through simple ana...
Article
Full-text available
The Quaternary Middle Atlas Volcanic Province is the largest and youngest volcanic field in Morocco. It hosts a hundred of well-preserved strombolian cones and maars which emitted numerous mafic pyroclastic deposits and lava flows covering a surface of ca. 960 km 2. The 2.27 Ma Aguelmane Sidi Ali monogenetic scoria cone was emplaced in a tectonic b...
Preprint
Acidic lava domes are a special monogenetic volcano type with explosive eruption hazards. Such domes raise questions about the nature of monogenetic volcanism. We study the iconic Puy de Dôme (Chaîne des Puys, Auvergne) that gave its name to 'dome' landforms. It is asymmetric with one side more rugged and steeper than the other. Using mapping and p...
Article
Full-text available
Through the tabular morphology of northwestern part of the Middle-Atlas in Morocco, numerous uncovered monogenetic volcanoes arise structured of pyroclastic product layers and lava flows. Our fieldwork results witness a wide-ranging volcanic shape spectrum, as cones, maars, tuff-rings, and cone-maar mixes, generally associated with a later lava flo...
Article
Structures, lithofacies and semi-quantitative sedimentological analysis of volcanic debris-avalanche deposits are essential to constrain syn-emplacement processes along avalanche fault zones in the setting of mass-flow runout distances. At a distance of 28 km from the extinct Pichu Pichu compound volcano, we show how internal structures of thrust l...
Article
The Zebín Volcano, Czech Republic, is a quarried tuff cone that offers the opportunity to understand emplacement processes responsible for magma transport through a pyroclastic cone and magmatic processes involved in its development. A high-resolution ground magnetometry survey, electrical resistivity tomography, and refraction seismic were conduct...
Article
Areas undergoing pure extension are typically characterized by the formation of faults and fractures orthogonal to the maximum principal stress. In these conditions, the presence of a volcano and its magmatic system perturbs the local stress field, leading to changes in faulting magnitude and attitude. This process has been analyzed in many previou...
Article
Full-text available
Data on the evolution of magmatic plumbing systems are essential for the understanding of magma motion in monogenetic volcanoes and associated volcanic hazard. Combined field (relationships and petrography) and laboratory (rock magnetism, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and paleomagnetism) analysis of a quarried scoria cone offers a unique o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mt. Meager is a glacier-clad volcanic complex in southwest British Columbia. In the summer of 2010, melting snow and ice caused by warm weather triggered the collapse of 53 Mm 3 of rock and debris from Mt. Meager's south flank, generating the largest historic landslide in Canada. In 2016 fumaroles formed ice caves in one of its glaciers, raising co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital terrain models (DTMs) are used in geomorphometry. Coupled with field validation, their use makes the studies more comprehensive, and opens the way towards automation. DTMs are influenced by the acquisition technology, accuracy, and resolution and questions arise about whether results depend on the type of DTMs. To study this, we have chosen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El Valle del Colca, sur de Perú, es una zona geológicamente activa, afectada por la ocurrencia de deslizamientos. En este estudio nos centramos en la estratigrafía de los sedimentos desplazados por los movimientos de masas de Maca y Lari. El Río Colca va socavando constantemente una secuencia de sedimentos lacustres subyacentes a un depósito de la...
Article
Full-text available
Catastrophic volcanic eruptions triggered by landslide collapses can jet upwards or blast sideways. Magma intrusion is related to both landslide-triggered eruptive scenarios (lateral or vertical), but it is not clear how such different responses are produced, nor if any precursor can be used for forecasting them. We approach this problem with physi...
Poster
Full-text available
https://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2018/EGU2018-912.pdf
Article
Full-text available
A small, inconspicuous scoria cone in western Bohemia, known as Komorní hůrka Hill, played a crucial role during the controversy between Plutonists and Neptunists over the origin of rocks in the first half of the nineteenth century. The year 2017 represents the 180th anniversary of one successful resolution of this debate: at the instigation of J.W...
Chapter
Full-text available
We review the numerous experimental studies dedicated to unravelling the physics and dynamics of various parts of a volcanic plumbing system. A first section lists the model materials commonly used for model magmas or model rocks. We describe these materials’ mechanical properties and discuss their suitability for modelling sub-volcanic processes....
Article
We propose a global framework for the Earth system to facilitate communication between the geoscience community, the public and policy makers. Geoscience research aims to understand the history and evolution of the Earth system. This combines the non-living and living parts of the Earth, especially through interactions of the lithosphere, biosphere...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
S3 – Volcanoes: from the plumbing system to the eruptive plume Keywords Laboratory models, volcano plumbing systems, review Since the 19th century, Earth scientists have tried to replicate geological processes in controlled laboratory experiments. This contribution (Galland et al., 2015) is a review of laboratory models designed to simulate the com...
Article
Full-text available
In 2010, the south flank of Mount Meager failed catastrophically, generating the largest (53 ± 3.8 × 10⁶ m³) landslide in Canadian history. We document the slow deformation of the edifice prior to failure using archival historic aerial photographs spanning the period 1948–2006. All photos were processed using Structure from Motion (SfM) photogramme...
Article
Structures and textures with sedimentological variations at different scales of the lithofacies assemblage help us to constrain the basal kinematic transition from non-depositional to depositional conditions during volcanic avalanche emplacement. In the well-exposed impact-sheared contact along volcanic avalanche fault zone in the French Massif Cen...
Poster
Full-text available
Topographic modeling is becoming more accessible due to the development of structure from motion (SFM), and multi-view stereo (MVS) image matching algorithms in digital photogrammetry. Many studies are utilizing SFM-MVS with either UAV or hand-held consumer-grade digital cameras. However, little work has been done in using SFM-MVS with digitized hi...
Article
Full-text available
Shallow-level sill emplacement can uplift Earth's surface via forced folding, providing insight into the location and size of potential volcanic eruptions. Linking the structure and dynamics of ground deformation to sill intrusion is thus critical in volcanic hazard assessment. This is challenging, however, because (1) active intrusions cannot be d...
Article
Full-text available
Karst formation geometry can be controlled by fractures and faults, and by other lithologies. Here we show the organization of kastic collapse features related to structures and to extensive basaltic lava flows in the Middle Atlas of Morocco. A lineament map of major faults and fractures has been created for the Middle Atlas using Landsat 7 ETM⁺ sa...
Article
Full-text available
A well-preserved set of partly eroded mid-Miocene scoria cones and tuff cones are exposed in the Jičín Volcanic Field, Czech Republic. Zebín Hill, a formerly quarried tuff cone with an exposed conduit and associated dikes, offers an opportunity to study magmatic processes within the high-level feeding system of a small monogenetic volcano. Two type...
Article
Full-text available
Volcanoes can store and drain water that is used as a valuable resource by populations living on their slopes. The water drainage and storage pattern depend on the volcano lithologies and structure, as well as the geological and hydrometric settings. The drainage and storage pattern will change according to the hydrometric conditions, the vegetatio...
Poster
Full-text available
This study examines the large landslide that occurred at Mt. Meager, 200 km NNW of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, on August 6, 2010. We studied the source area and deposits to reconstruct the failure of the south flank of Mt. Meager from slow deformation to catastrophic collapse, the subsequent transformation into a debris avalanche, and the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
RED-SEED stands for Risk Evaluation, Detection and Simulation during Effusive Eruption Disasters, and combines stakeholders from the remote sensing, modeling and response communities with experience in tracking volcanic effusive events. It is an informal working group that has evolved around the philosophy of combining global scientific resources,...
Conference Paper
Craters of elevation are uplifts with apical depressions that are caused by shallow magma intrusion. Forced folds are dome-like folds caused by magma intrusion that also have apical extensional structures. They are the same feature described from the different viewpoints of the volcanologist and the structural geologist. While working on such featu...
Article
Catastrophic volcanic landslides can involve different parts of a volcano that can be incorporated into any resulting debris avalanche. The different material properties may influence the mechanical behaviour and, hence, the emplacement mechanisms of the different avalanche units. We present data from a coupled hydrothermal- and magmatic-related vo...
Chapter
Volcanoes are growing mountains with hydrothermal and magmatic systems, which have strong controls on volcanic landslides and debris avalanches. Such landslides are conditioned by the nature of volcanic rock, which is highly fractured, usually in granular form, often clay-rich and water-saturated. In consequence, volcanic landslides are generally m...
Poster
Full-text available
Mount Meager is a strato-volcano massif in the Northern Cascade Volcanic Arc (Canada) that erupted in 2350 BP, the most recent in Canada. To study the stability of the Massif an international research project between France ( Blaise Pascal University), Italy (University of Turin) and Canada (Simon Fraser University) and private companies (TRE - sen...
Article
The northern Afar Depression is one of the most volcano-tectonically active parts of the East African Rift system, a place where oceanic rifting may be beginning to form an incipient oceanic crust. In its center, over an area that is ∼80 km long and ∼50 km wide, there are seven major NNW-SSE-aligned shield volcanoes/volcanic edifices surrounded by...
Article
Full-text available
Using two hypothetical effusive events in the Chaîne des Puys (Auvergne, France), we tested two geographical information systems (GISs) set up to allow loss assessment during an effusive crisis. The first was a local system that drew on all immediately available data for population, land use, communications, utility and building type. The second wa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mount Arayat is an inactive stratovolcano located in the plains of central Luzon, Philippines. It is a morphologically distinct cone that has ceased its constructional processes and is at a stage where erosional processes dominate. Using high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM) and freely available satellite imagery, details of its morphology a...
Article
Full-text available
The detection of active faults around volcanoes is of importance for both seismic and volcanic hazard assessment. The lower flanks of volcanoes are, however, often covered by debris avalanche deposits (DADs) that are highly faulted during transport. Such areas are dissected by faults that delineate deposit hummocks, making it hard to differentiate...
Chapter
Full-text available
We review the numerous experimental studies dedicated to unravelling the physics and dynamics of various parts of a volcanic plumbing system. Section 1 lists the model materials commonly used for model magmas or model rocks. We describe these materials’ mechanical properties and discuss their suitability for modelling sub-volcanic processes. Sectio...
Article
The little known Tutupaca volcano (17 degrees 01' S, 70 degrees 21' W), located at the southern end of the Peruvian arc, is a dacitic dome complex that experienced a large explosive eruption during historical times. Based on historic chronicles and our radiometric data, this eruption occurred 218 +/- 14 aBP, probably between 1787 and 1802 AD. This...
Conference Paper
Monitoring vertical deformation in analogue volcanological models is commonly performed with techniques such as photogrammetry or laser scanning. A new methodology for vertical monitoring of the models has been proposed recently, using Microsoft® Kinect sensor. Kinect v1 comprises color (RGB) and infrared (IR) cameras, together with an IR light emi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Earth scientists have, since the XIX century, tried to replicate or model geological processes in controlled laboratory experiments. In particular, laboratory modelling has been used study the development of volcanic plumbing systems, which sets the stage for volcanic eruptions. Volcanic plumbing systems involve complex processes that act at length...
Conference Paper
Uplifts caused by magma intrusion have been observed and mapped since the pioneering work of von Buch two hundred years ago. Von Buch's "Craters of elevation theory", developed in the Auvergne and Canaries, was, unfortunately, discredited and mostly forgotten until recent work has shown that the forced folds mapped in seismic sections in sedimentar...
Article
Full-text available
A well-preserved set of mid-Miocene scoria- and tuff-cones and their feeders crops out in the Jičín Volcanic Field, Czech Republic. The Trosky volcano is a scoria cone that has been eroded to reveal the volcano’s feeder system. This edifice offers the opportunity to improve the understanding how magma is transported through a monogenetic pyroclasti...
Article
Full-text available
La morfología de los volcanes refleja los episodios de deformación sufridos por el edificio, aunque procesos de deformación diferentes pueden provocar morfologías similares. La modelización análoga es una herramienta clave para comprender mejor las causas de la deformación en volcanes a partir de su morfología. En este trabajo se ha utilizado por p...
Chapter
Volcanoes are growing mountains with hydrothermal and magmatic systems, which have strong controls on volcanic landslides and debris avalanches. Such landslides are conditioned by the nature of volcanic rock, which is highly fractured, usually in granular form, often clay rich and water saturated. In consequence, volcanic landslides are generally m...
Conference Paper
Close to becoming part of a UNESCO world heritage site, the Chaine des Puys monogenetic alignment has > 80 effusive centers. Lava flows extending east enter valleys cut into the Limagne fault scarp. Flow emplacement dynamics depend on the slope of the terrain. We focus here on two cases: (i) the Grave Noire (60 ka) lavas – emplaced on steep slopes...
Article
The eighteenth/nineteenth century 'craters of elevation' theory required magma to uplift strata, doming the surface and creating a central down-fallen 'crater' or graben. Exponents of craters of elevation attempted to apply it to explain the origin of all volcanoes, and rapidly the contemporary competing 'craters of eruption' theory replaced it as...
Article
Mt Cameroon is characterized by an elongated summit plateau, steep flanks and topographic terraces around its base. Although some of these features can be accounted for by intrusion-induced deformation, we here focus on the contribution of edifice-scale gravitational spreading in the structure of Mt Cameroon. We review the existing geological and g...
Article
Full-text available
The monogenetic Lemptégy volcano in the Chaîne des Puys (Auvergne, France) was quarried from 1946 to 2007 and offers the possibility to study scoria cone architecture and evolution. This volcano was originally 50–80 m high, but scoria excavation has resulted in a 50-m-deep hole. Beginning in the 1980s, extraction was carried out with the advice of...