Benjamin Rost

Benjamin Rost
Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen | DZNE · RG Network Dysfunction / Schmitzlab (Berlin)

PhD Medical Neuroscience

About

47
Publications
13,532
Reads
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2,190
Citations
Introduction
Benjamin Rost currently works at the Schmitzlab (Berlin), Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen. Benjamin does research in Neuroscience. Their current project is 'Development of novel tools for subcellular optogenetics.'
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2011 - June 2013
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Position
  • Post
January 2006 - December 2010
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Optogenetic actuators enable highly precise spatiotemporal interrogation of biological processes at levels ranging from the subcellular to cells, circuits and behaving organisms. Although their application in neuroscience has traditionally focused on the control of spiking activity at the somatodendritic level, the scope of optogenetic modulators f...
Article
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that leads to the death of upper and lower motor neurons. While most cases of ALS are sporadic, some of the familial forms of the disease are caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the RNA-binding protein FUS. Under physiological conditions, FUS readily phase separ...
Article
Full-text available
Synaptic plasticity is a cellular model for learning and memory. However, the expression mechanisms underlying presynaptic forms of plasticity are not well understood. Here, we investigate functional and structural correlates of presynaptic potentiation at large hippocampal mossy fiber boutons induced by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin. We...
Article
Information is carried between brain regions through neurotransmitter release from axonal presynaptic terminals. Understanding the functional roles of defined neuronal projection pathways requires temporally precise manipulation of their activity. However, existing inhibitory optogenetic tools have low efficacy and off-target effects when applied t...
Article
Full-text available
Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the major neuromodulators present in the mammalian brain and has been shown to play a role in multiple physiological processes. The mechanisms by which 5-HT modulates cortical network activity, however, are not yet fully understood. We investigated the effects of 5-HT on slow oscillations (SOs), a synchronized cortical ne...
Preprint
Full-text available
Information is carried between brain regions through neurotransmitter release from axonal presynaptic terminals. Understanding the functional roles of defined neuronal projection pathways in cognitive and behavioral processes requires temporally precise manipulation of their activity in vivo. However, existing optogenetic tools have low efficacy an...
Article
Full-text available
Optogenetic manipulations have transformed neuroscience in recent years. While sophisticated tools now exist for controlling the firing patterns of neurons, it remains challenging to optogenetically define the plasticity state of individual synapses. A variety of synapses in the mammalian brain express presynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) upon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Synaptic plasticity is a cellular model for learning and memory. However, the expression mechanisms underlying presynaptic forms of plasticity are not well understood. Here, we investigate functional and structural correlates of long-term potentiation at large hippocampal mossy fiber boutons induced by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin. We p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Serotonin (5-HT) affects multiple physiological processes in the brain and is involved in a number of psychiatric disorders. 5-HT axons reach all cortical areas; however, the precise mechanism by which 5-HT modulates cortical network activity is not yet fully understood. We investigated the effects of 5-HT on slow oscillations (SO), a synchronized...
Preprint
Full-text available
Optogenetic manipulations have transformed neuroscience in recent years. While sophisticated tools now exist for controlling the firing patterns of neurons, it remains challenging to optogenetically define the plasticity state of individual synapses. A variety of synapses in the mammalian brain express presynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) upon...
Article
Full-text available
Optogenetics enables manipulation of biological processes with light at high spatio-temporal resolution to control the behavior of cells, networks, or even whole animals. In contrast to the performance of excitatory rhodopsins, the effectiveness of inhibitory optogenetic tools is still insufficient. Here we report a two-component optical silencer s...
Article
Full-text available
The subiculum is the gatekeeper between the hippocampus and cortical areas. Yet, the lack of a pyramidal cell-specific marker gene has made the analysis of the subicular area very difficult. Here we report that the vesicular-glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) functions as a specific marker gene for subicular burst-firing neurons, and demonstrate that...
Article
Endogenous cannabinoids are diffusible lipid ligands of the main cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R). In the central nervous system endocannabinoids are produced in an activity-dependent manner and have been identified as retrograde modulators of synaptic transmission. Additionally, some neurons display a cell-autonomous slow self-in...
Preprint
The subiculum is the gatekeeper between the hippocampus and cortical areas. Yet, the lack of a pyramidal cell-specific marker gene has made the analysis of the subicular area very difficult. Here we report that the vesicular-glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) functions as a specific marker gene for subicular burst-firing neurons, and demonstrate that...
Article
The ability to study cellular physiology using photosensitive, genetically encoded molecules has profoundly transformed neuroscience. The modern optogenetic toolbox includes fluorescent sensors to visualize signaling events in living cells and optogenetic actuators enabling manipulation of numerous cellular activities. Most optogenetic tools are no...
Article
Full-text available
The tight spatial coupling of synaptic vesicles and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaVs) ensures efficient action potential-triggered neurotransmitter release from presynaptic active zones (AZs). Rab-interacting molecule-binding proteins (RIM-BPs) interact with Ca2+ channels and via RIM with other components of the release machinery. Although human R...
Article
View largeDownload slide See Zekeridou and Lennon (doi: 10.1093/aww213 ) for a scientific commentary on this article . Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor are suspected to underlie anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Kreye et al. provide direct evidence by showing that monoclonal human NR1 antibodies are sufficient to downregulate...
Article
Full-text available
Acidification is required for the function of many intracellular organelles, but methods to acutely manipulate their intraluminal pH have not been available. Here we present a targeting strategy to selectively express the light-driven proton pump Arch3 on synaptic vesicles. Our new tool, pHoenix, can functionally replace endogenous proton pumps, en...
Article
Neurotransmission depends on synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis driven by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex formation of vesicular synaptobrevin/VAMP2 (Syb2). Exocytic fusion is followed by endocytic SV membrane retrieval and the high-fidelity reformation of SVs. Syb2 is the most abundant SV protein...
Article
Neurons can fire at extremely high rates. To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles must be recycled locally at synapses. Two models for synaptic vesicle endocytosis have been put forward based on the morphological studies in frog neuromuscular junctions. Heuser and Reese proposed that endocytosis occurs via a slow mechanism using clathrin sc...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrafast endocytosis can retrieve a single, large endocytic vesicle as fast as 50-100 ms after synaptic vesicle fusion. However, the fate of the large endocytic vesicles is not known. Here we demonstrate that these vesicles transition to a synaptic endosome about one second after stimulation. The endosome is resolved into coated vesicles after 3 s...
Article
Full-text available
To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated approximately 20 s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or in approximately 1 s by the reversal of fusion pores via 'kiss-and-run' endocytosis. Here we use optogenetics to...
Article
Full-text available
During development, axonal projections have a remarkable ability to innervate correct dendritic subcompartments of their target neurons and to form regular neuronal circuits. Altered axonal targeting with formation of synapses on inappropriate neurons may result in neurodevelopmental sequelae, leading to psychiatric disorders. Here we show that alt...
Article
Full-text available
Neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals is under the tight control of various metabotropic receptors. We report here that in addition to the regulation of Ca(2+) channel activity, metabotropic GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)Rs) at murine hippocampal glutamatergic synapses utilize an inhibitory pathway that directly targets the synaptic vesic...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we describe a novel missense mutation in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) causing a lysine-to-asparagine substitution at position 687 (APP770; herein, referred to as K16N according to amyloid-β (Aβ) numbering) resulting in an early onset dementia with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. The K16N mutation is located exactly at the α-...
Article
Full-text available
The aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, as soluble oligomers are intimately linked to neuronal toxicity and inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In the C-terminal region of Abeta there are three consecutive GxxxG dimerization motifs, which we could previ...
Article
Non-selective cation influx through canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) is thought to be an important event leading to airway inflammation. TRPC6 is highly expressed in the lung, but its role in allergic processes is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of TRPC6 in airway hyperresponsivenes...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsyndromic mental retardation is one of the most important unresolved problems in genetic health care. Autosomal forms are far more common than X-linked forms, but, in contrast to the latter, they are still largely unexplored. Here, we report a complex mutation in the ionotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (GRIK2, also called "GLUR6") that cosegreg...
Article
Given a hypothesised role for CCK in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for the sensation of pain, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether the increased CCK release could be affected by two different analgesic drugs, morphine and the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac. Since opioids stimulate CCK release in other CNS...
Article
Smooth muscle cells (SMC) are essential components of many tissues of the body. Ion channels regulate their membrane potential, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and their contractility. Among the ion channels expressed in SMC cation channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily allow the entry of Na(+), Ca(2+) a...
Article
Full-text available
Among the "classical" or "canonical" transient receptor potential (TRPC) family, the TRPC3, -6, and -7 channels share 75% amino acid identity and are gated by exposure to diacylglycerol. TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7 interact physically and coassemble to form functional tetrameric channels. This review focuses on the TRPC3/6/7 subfamily and describes the...

Questions

Questions (3)
Question
I consider buying a tablet or convertible computer for taking notes during conferences and meetings. However, I don't like writing on the display keyboard, instead I want to use a stylus to also create little sketches. So far I have not found any app/ program that brings the following features:
- stylus recognition
- conversion of handwriting
- indexing of keywords
- search function for keywords
- integrate pictures taking with the camera
- integration of other documents (pdfs!) as embedded links, cross-references between notes
- cloud storage, sharing with other users etc.
I read a lot about Evernote or Onenote, but does anyone have a good experience with these programs? I would not mind spending some money as long as the functionality is convincing.
Question
Did anybody check out the Poster on GCaMP6 on last year's SFN? I'm asking because Addgene offers three versions, GCaMP6f, m, s - which is fast, medium and slow I guess. However, I'm interested in real affinities, on- and off- kinetics.
Can anybody help?
Question
Our aim is to establish murine hippocampal slice cultures for electrophysiology (whole cell patch clamp). We are basically following the protocol developed by the Muller lab (Stoppini 1993, Journal of Neuroscience Methods). Our cells look good after 2-3 weeks in culture, however, they seem to have a high membrane tension and rupture easily when approached with a patch pipette. Does anybody have any ideas about how to improve this? Would changing to NBA media a couple of days before the recordings help?

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
I am interested in creating and applying new molecular tools to investigate signaling cascades underling synapse function. Deciphering these pathways will allow us to adress questions ranging from basic neuronal metabolism and electrophysiological function, to how they process signals, communicate, and shape information flow under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. I develop novel optogenetic tools, which we express in cultures of hippocampal neurons using lentiviral and adeno-associated viral particles. By combining optogenetic actuators and genetically encoded fluorescent indicators with subcellular targeting motives, these tools allow me to modulate and image neuronal activity with light.