Benjamin J. Darien

Benjamin J. Darien
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Department of Medical Sciences

M.S, D.V.M, Diplomate ACVIM

About

90
Publications
6,925
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1,507
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Additional affiliations
September 1991 - January 2016
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Position
  • Internal Medicine

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Periodic lack of availability and high cost of commercially produced isotonic fluids for intravenous (IV) use in horses have increasingly led to use of home-made or commercially compound fluids by veterinarians. Data regarding the quality control and safety of compounded fluids would be of benefit to equine veterinarians. Objectives:...
Article
Full-text available
The probiotic function to impact human health is thought to be related to their ability to alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the human innate immune system. The ability to function as a probiotic is believed to be strain specific. Strains of Lactobacillus casei are commonly utilized as probiotics that when consumed alter the...
Data
Fold change in gene expression of antimicrobials, tight junction proteins, and pattern recognition receptor in the ileum of mice administered L. casei 12A, ATCC 334, 32G, CRF28, UW-1, BL23 or M36. The strains were administered 1 dose (108 CFU/ mouse) daily for 1 week and sacrificed 3.5h after the last dose; * p<0.05: significant differences from th...
Data
Bacterial phyla detected in cecum content of mice administered saline (control) or Lactobacillus casei strains. (PDF)
Data
Alpha rarefaction plots based on Chao1 (A) and Shannon index (B). (PDF)
Data
Primers used in qPCR analysis. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Lactobacilli have been associated with a variety of immunomodulatory effects and some of these effects have been related to changes in gastrointestinal microbiota. However, the relationship between probiotic dose, time since probiotic consumption, changes in the microbiota, and immune system requires further investigation. The objective of this stu...
Data
Expression profile of Lactobacillus casei 32G gene at 3.5h time point. (PDF)
Data
pH of mouse cecum content after sacrificing. (PDF)
Data
Alpha rarefaction plots based on Chao1 (A) and Shannon index (B). (PDF)
Data
PCoA plot of weighted UniFrac distances generated from mouse cecum content in the control group and L. casei 32G groups; 106 CFU/ mouse (low), 107 CFU/ mouse (medium) and 108 CFU/ mouse (high), at 0.5, 3.5, 12, and 24 h after the last administration. Symbols represent data from individual mice, color-coded by the indicated metadata. (PDF)
Data
qPCR standard curve for quantification of L. casei 32G in mouse cecum. The standard curves were generated by amplification of DNA isolated from cecum content spiked with 108, 107, 106, 105, or 104 CFU/ml of L. casei 32G culture, (n: 3 for each concentration). A) Standard curve. B) Melting curves. (PDF)
Data
Microbial communities of individual mouse cecum content at genus level in the control and L. casei 32G groups; 106 CFU/ mouse (low), 107 CFU/ mouse (medium) and 108 CFU/ mouse (high). (PDF)
Data
Comparison of predominant genera in the microbiota of mice cecums sorted based on dose. The major microbial communities of mouse cecum content at genus level in the control group and L. casei 32G groups; 106 CFU/ mouse (low), 107 CFU/ mouse (medium) and 108 CFU/ mouse (high), at 0.5, 3.5, 12, and 24 h after the last administration. Only genera with...
Data
Bacterial genera detecteda in cecum content of mice administered saline (control) or Lactobacillus casei 32G once per day by oral gavage sorted based on dose. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
The majority of antibiotic-induced diarrhea is caused by Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Hospitalizations for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have tripled in the last decade, emphasizing the need to better understand how the organism colonizes the intestine and maintain infection. The mucus provides an interface for bacterial-host inter...
Article
Full-text available
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is principally responsible for hospital acquired, antibiotic-induced diarrhea and colitis and represents a significant financial burden on our healthcare system. Little is known about C. difficile proliferation requirements and a better understanding of these parameters are critical for development of new thera...
Patent
Full-text available
Both liquid and dry form Morinda citrifolia enhanced animal food products are provided for increasing CD8+ T cell activation in new born animals. Both contain M. citrifolia fruit puree and other M. citrifolia plant products.
Article
Full-text available
We have previously reported that Morinda citrifolia (noni) puree modulates neonatal calves developmental maturation of the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, the effect of noni puree on respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI), health in preweaned dairy calves on a farm with endemic salmonellosis was examined. Two clinical trials were c...
Article
Inflammation-induced P-selectin (CD62P) expression on platelets and endothelial cells facilitates interactions among platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and can also promote coagulation. The effects of clopidogrel and aspirin (ASA) on equine platelet CD62P expression were investigated. Six horses were treated in a cross-over design wi...
Article
To report surgical treatment of severe otitis media in an alpaca by a modification of a subtotal ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy technique used in dogs. Case report. An 11-week-old female alpaca cria. The cria had a 2-week history of right otitis media, nonresponsive to medical treatment, as well as right facial nerve paralysis, and...
Article
The tropical fruits and fruit products of Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, are consumed as a food or dietary supplement with purported health benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive effects of noni fruit puree extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethyl acetat...
Article
A 3-month-old Hereford heifer calf was presented for lethargy. Blood gas analysis and plasma biochemical testing revealed severe metabolic acidosis, azotemia, hyponatremia, hyperchloremia, and normal anion gap. Results of a urinalysis were consistent with acute tubular necrosis with inadequate acidification of urine based on the degree of acidemia....
Article
SummaryA 22-year-old Arabian mare was examined for evaluation of haematuria of 2 months' duration. Complete blood cell count and chemistry revealed anaemia of chronic disease (i.e. normocytic, normochromic) and hypoproteinaemia. Cystoscopy revealed a haemorrhagic mass protruding into the lumen of the urinary bladder in the apical region. The mass w...
Article
Full-text available
Selected compounds isolated from Morinda citrifolia modulate prostate cancer cell growth - Volume 69 Issue OCE3 - V. Nitteranon, J. Cai, J. Xu, R. G. Godbee, K. L. Parkin, B. J. Darien
Article
Full-text available
Developmental immaturity of the immune system renders neonatal calves vulnerable to infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. Juice made from the Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) reportedly has immune enhancing, antibacterial, and antiinflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential immune-modulating effects of fee...
Article
Equine PSGL-1 (ePSGL-1) is widely expressed on equine PBMC as a homodimer with sialylation (sLeX) modifications that contribute to P-selectin binding affinity. To investigate the role of other potential post-translational modifications required for high-affinity P-selectin binding, ePSGL-1 was transfected into CHO cells expressing equine FucT-VII a...
Article
Accurate determination of commonly measured coagulation values would be useful in the diagnosis and management of coagulopathies in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). We are unaware of reports of coagulation times in this species. The purpose of this study was to determine reference values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thrombo...
Article
Although adequate colostrum intake and properly used antibiotics can provide much protection for the bovine neonate, increased antibiotic scrutiny and consumer demand for organic products have prompted investigations of natural immunomodulators for enhancing calf health. One plant-based immunomodulator, Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit, is a well-re...
Article
P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL-1) is a widely distributed adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in regulating lymphocyte homing and leukocyte trafficking during inflammation. The lack of specific reagents for equine PSGL-1 (ePSGL-1) has prevented mechanistic studies regarding its function and regulation in the horse. We synthesized a e...
Article
The recent molecular characterization and sequencing of equine P-selectin (ePsel), and its glycoprotein ligand, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), have provided the tools for further investigation into their role in leukocyte trafficking. Here, we report the generation of a genetically engineered chimeric protein (ePsel-IgG) in which the eq...
Article
This prospective study compared survival rates of critically ill and septic foals receiving 1 of 2 different types of commercial equine plasma and analyzed admission variables as possible predictors of survival. Standardized clinical, hematologic, biochemical, and hemostatic admission data were collected and foals received either conventional comme...
Article
Human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is a dimeric membrane mucin expressed on leukocytes that binds selectins. Here, we report that the open reading frame (ORF) of bovine PSGL-1 (bPSGL-1) cDNA is 1284 base pairs in length, predicting a protein of 427 amino acids including an 18-amino-acid signal peptide, an extracellular region with a mu...
Article
The cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) and the cardiac isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CKMB) are used extensively in human medicine to diagnose and provide valuable prognostic information in patients with ischemic, traumatic, and septic myocardial injury. We designed a study to establish normal values for these markers in healt...
Article
The cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) and the cardiac isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CKMB) are used extensively in human medicine to diagnose and provide valuable prognostic information in patients with ischemic, traumatic, and septic myocardial injury. We designed a study to establish normal values for these markers in healt...
Article
Full-text available
A pregnant quarterhorse mare became acutely lame as a result of severe swelling of its right hind leg, thought to have been caused by a fracture or a muscle tear. Diagnostic procedures ruled out a traumatic musculoskeletal cause and a physical examination revealed chronic pastern dermatitis ('scratches'/'grease heel'). Histopathological evaluation...
Data
On Aug 7, 2012 this sequence version replaced gi:70957350.
Article
P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162) is a dimeric, mucin-like, transmembrane glycoprotein constitutively expressed on leukocytes. A high baseline level of P-selectin expression in circulating equine platelets suggests a primed state toward inflammation and thrombosis via P-selectin/PSGL-1 adhesion. To investigate the potential role of e...
Article
Full-text available
Haemophilus somnus is a bacterial pathogen that causes respiratory disease and vasculitis in cattle. Thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME) and other severe forms of H. somnus-mediated vascular disease are characterized histopathologically by vasculitis, thrombosis, and infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. It has been reported previously that act...
Article
Although myocardial injury can be a significant component of multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) in association with septicemia in critically ill human patients, it is as yet an undefined clinical entity in equine septicemia. With septicemia as the leading cause of death in neonatal foals, a better understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and...
Article
Accurate determination of plasma endotoxin concentration is critical for ex vivo and in vitro cellular and molecular studies of endotoxemia in horses. However, reports are conflicting with respect to anticoagulant, handling, and sample preparation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood sample fraction and handling time on m...
Article
Acute inflammatory diseases, such as colic, septicemia and endotoxemia are common in equines and have been shown to be correlated to vascular injury and thrombosis. In humans with similar thrombotic conditions, P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1)-mediated platelet-leukocyte adhesion contributes to the pathogenesis of these diso...
Article
To evaluate the effect of controlled exposure to inhaled lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the pulmonary inflammatory response of anesthetized pigs. Forty-seven 8- to 12-week-old domestic pigs. Pigs were anesthetized with pentobarbital, instrumented for measurement of cardiopulmonary function, and randomly assigned to receive saline (0.9% NaCI) solution...
Article
Full-text available
Previous reports about the nucleotide receptor P2X(7), which exhibits ion channel and pore-forming activity and is known to promote IL-1beta processing, have centered largely on its role in macrophage function, whereas its participation in monocyte activity has been unclear. However, because extracellular ATP has been shown to affect monocytes with...
Article
Full-text available
A neonatal alpaca cria found to have minimal clinical abnormalities was diagnosed postmortem with an epithelial-type hepatoblastoma with combined embryonal and fetal patterns, based on previously reported morphological features. Camelid neoplasia and domestic animal hepatoblastomas are very rare, with only a single case of congenital hepatoblastoma...
Article
: Phagocytosis of particulate wear debris from arthroplasties by macrophages induces an inflammatory response that has been linked to implant loosening and premature failure of artificial joints. Inflammatory mediators released by phagocytic macrophages such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL...
Article
Because platelet-activating factor (PAF) is an important mediator of inflammation and heparin has anti-inflammatory effects, we hypothesized that low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) would inhibit PAF-induced activation and chemotaxis in porcine neutrophils. Citrated blood was obtained from pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs, and neutrophils were isola...
Article
Particulate wear debris found around joint arthroplasties has been linked to the premature failure of artificial joints. Cytokines and eicosanoids released by macrophages are known mediators of inflammation and osteolysis. Previous in vitro studies of wear debris-mediated inflammation have relied upon poorly characterized particulates and periphera...
Article
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity, platelet and neutrophil degranulation and margination, and increased vascular permeability are central to the pathophysiology of endotoxin-mediated acute lung injury. Nonanticoagulant activities of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) include solubilization of the TNF-alpha receptor protein, inhibiti...
Article
The technique used most commonly to quantitate pulmonary edema in in vivo animal models is postmortem gravimetric analysis (wet:dry) ratio. To determine whether lung water can be quantitated morphometrically, as accurately as by the commonly used gravimetric analysis, perivascular edema (cuff) area to vessel area ratio was correlated to wet:dry rat...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ischemia and reperfusion on the biochemical integrity of equine colonic mucosa to assess the relative roles of ischemic- and reperfusion-induced damage. Two hours of no-flow ischemia experimentally induced by 720 degrees counterclockwise ascending colon volvulus followed by 2 hours reperfusion...
Article
Cytokines and eicosanoids are well documented important mediators of endotoxemia. Bicyclic imidazoles are a novel class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds that display unique pharmacological profiles by reducing cytokine production and arachidonic acid metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the bicyclic imidazole, SK&F 8600...
Article
Cytokines and eicosanoids are well documented important mediators of endotoxemia. Bicyclic imidazoles are a novel class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds that display unique pharmacological profiles by reducing cytokine production and arachidonic acid metabolism, In this study, we evaluated the ability of the bicyclic imidazole, SK&F 8600...
Article
Naturally occurring and experimentally induced ascending colon volvulus (ACV) result in transmural compression, increased microvascular permeability and thrombosis and necrosis of the intestinal mucosa analysis of haemostatic variables in horses with naturally occurring ACV have identified changes in plasma antithrombin III (AT III) activity as the...
Article
A 24-hour-old Hackney ony filly developed signs of weakness, depression and a poor suck reflex, with harsh lung sounds over both fields, and a 48-hour-old Arabian colt from a normal birth which had sucked vigorously developed loose stools and became depressed, weak and anorectic. Both foals had serum IgG concentrations greater than 800 mg/dl, but e...
Article
Full-text available
The morphologic changes following ascending colon volvulus result from the interaction of inflammatory and coagulation mediators. The objective of this study was to establish a quantifiable histopathologic scoring system to evaluate the serial pathomorphologic changes during ischemia and reperfusion. Such a scoring system could then be applied to s...
Article
Albumin was conjugated to 16 nm gold particles (Alb-Au16) and infused into anesthetized pigs to determine if plasma, tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid concentrations of gold could be quantitated by neutron activation (Au198). Additionally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of lung and liver samples was evaluated for sites of gold d...
Article
Volvulus of the ascending colon (ACV) in the horse results in microvascular injury and necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. This study investigated the site and type of microvascular injury which occurs within the mucosa and submucosa following ACV. Histopathology of volvulus treated ponies demonstrated mucosal necrosis with microvascular hemorrhage...
Article
A modification of the Roux-en-Y anastomosis procedure was used to bypass a pyloroduodenal mass in a 12-year-old Arabian stallion. Clinical signs had consisted of a 4-week progression of ventral and hind limb edema, hypoproteinemia, fecal occult blood, intermittent abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric reflux. On exploratory celiotomy, an obstruc...
Article
Serial transabdominal amniocentesis was performed on eight mares in late gestation. Ultrasonography was used to identify the two placental fluid sacs and the foetus. A biopsy guide attached to the transducer allowed visualisation of the needle path during insertion. Amniotic fluid was obtained in 85 per cent of the attempts, although as mares appro...
Article
Thirty-three Standardbred foals received a physical examination and had blood drawn for anti-thrombin III (AT III), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and haemostasis evaluation between 24 and 72 h of age. Based on physical examination, a normal haemogram within reference intervals and serum IgG concentration >600 mg/dl, 19 foals remained in the study. AT III...