Benjamin R Bates

Benjamin R Bates
Ohio University · School of Communication Studies

PhD

About

103
Publications
16,678
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Introduction
Benjamin R. Bates (Ph.D., University of Georgia) is the Barbara Geralds Schoonover Professor of Health Communication in the School of Communication Studies. He is also an affiliated faculty member in the Communication and Development Studies Program and in the Center for African Studies and for Asian Studies. Dr. Bates is an affiliated researcher with the Infectious and Tropical Disease Institute, the Appalachian Rural Health Institute, and the Translational Biomedical Sciences doctoral program. He also serves as an affiliate member of the University’s Social Medicine faculty in the Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine Dr. Bates served as President of the Eastern Communication Association (ECA), the nation’s oldest professional organization for communication academics and pr
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - August 2003
University of Georgia
Position
  • Graduate Teaching and Research Associate

Publications

Publications (103)
Chapter
Rapid economic growth, industrialization, mechanization, sedentary lifestyle, high calorie diets, and processed foods have led to increased incidence of obesity in the United States of America. Prominently affected by the obesity epidemic are the most vulnerable such as the rural poor and those who have less access to nutritious and healthy foods d...
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Background Access to professional health care providers in Loja Province, Ecuador can be difficult for many citizens. The Health Care Access Barrier Model (HCAB) was established to provide a framework for classification, analysis, and reporting of modifiable health care access barriers. This study uses the HCAB Model to identify barriers and themes...
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Although vaccines have been developed to prevent COVID-19, vaccine hesitancy is a significant barrier for vaccination programs. Most research on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has blamed misinformation and misstated concerns about effectiveness, safety, and side effects of these vaccines. The preponderance of these studies has been performed in the Glo...
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Background: Recent studies in the United States have shown that between 56 to 74% are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. A significant portion of the population should be vaccinated to avoid severe illness and prevent unnecessary deaths. We examined correlates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among a representative sample of adults residing in...
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Most development communication scholarship uses adeficits-based approach to social change. The asset-based community development (ABCD) emphasizes identifying acommunity’s strengths to promote social change. We offer an asset mapping that uses participatory mural painting as its discovery method. As part of an ongoing engagement in rural Ecuador, w...
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Charitable organizations continue to increase in the United States. Procuring charitable donations and meeting fundraising goals can be challenging for new organizations. Mental representations, or construals of phenomena, often drive charitable behaviors, preferences, and choices. Healthy Homes for Healthy Living (HHHL) focuses on reconstructing h...
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Background COVID-19 threatens health systems worldwide, but Venezuela’s system is particularly vulnerable. To prevent the spread of COVID-19, individuals must adopt preventive behaviors. However, to encourage behavior change, we must first understand current knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) that inform response to this health threat. Met...
Chapter
Rapid economic growth, industrialization, mechanization, sedentary lifestyle, high calorie diets, and processed foods have led to increased incidence of obesity in the United States of America. Prominently affected by the obesity epidemic are the most vulnerable such as the rural poor and those who have less access to nutritious and healthy foods d...
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Full-text available
Preventing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (causative agent for COVID-19) requires implementing contact and respiratory precautions. Modifying human behavior is challenging and requires understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding health threats. This study explored KAPs among people in Ecuador. A cross-sectional, internet-base...
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Preventing the spread of COVID-19 requires the modification of behavior, including social distancing, mask-wearing, and regular handwashing. Modifying behavior requires understanding people's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding health threats. We explored KAPs among Colombians to examine whether KAPs affect adherence to recommended...
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Narrative messages are a useful tool in communicating health prevention. This study examines differences in the persuasiveness of narratives when they are ethnicity-incongruent or ethnicity-congruent. Many researchers claim that, because of a history of colonization and marginalization, the Chinese public favours foreigner messages that feature whi...
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Following Brett Kavanaugh’s controversial testimony to the Senate Judiciary Committee, memes containing his image during his statement and questioning emerged across social media platforms. We examine these memes as a collective visual ideograph of the . They display a shared visual representation while enacting competing ideological frameworks. Th...
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The virus SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes (COVID-19) are unfamiliar topics to most publics. One mechanism used by political leaders to make the strange and unfamiliar more understandable and familiar to their publics is using metaphor. In his responses to SARS-CoV-2, US President Donald Trump used the WAR metaphor to shape public understanding...
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Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that disproportionately affects impoverished rural communities. Insecticide-based approaches are inconsistently performed and exorbitantly priced for the communities affected. The present study considers an alternative approach to primary prevention of Chagas disease using entertainment education. As p...
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The United Nations Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals generally guide deployments of the term “development.” This understanding of development may contribute to the marginalization of local populations. We argue that communities can be better served if we listen to how they conceptualize and contextualize their definitio...
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Outgroup favoritism influences cross-group communication. At the intercultural/international level, one’s outgroup favoritism affects one’s communication with members of other cultures. However, our ability to measure outgroup favoritism at the intercultural/international level is limited. This paper examined the interrelations between and relative...
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Introduction Control of triatomine infestation is a key strategy for the prevention of Chagas disease (CD). To promote this strategy, it is important to know which antecedents to behavioral change are the best to emphasize when promoting prevention. Objective The aim of this study was to determine predictors for intention to prevent home infestati...
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During the height of same-sex marriage debate, the authors' research identified as an ideograph. This ideograph was defined synchronically by participants with shared concepts of commitment and love. Their data also demonstrated ideological differences in the then-current same-sex marriage debate. The previous paper was limited in that it only cons...
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In this essay, I draw on personal and institutional experiences to argue that, rather than false listening, and rather than speaking, white liberals need to engage in a more careful form of listening. I argue that we (by we, I mean, explicitly, white liberals) need to attend to whom we are listening and the reasons we are listening.
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When communicators use media and communication to address problems of development, we seek to assess whether those interventions are grounded in current development challenges and in patterns of media use. Additional challenges emerge, however, from patterns in media use between those used by development communication professionals and those that a...
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Previous research argues that readers should prefer messages featuring their own ethnicity. However, in China, messages featuring white people are common. We investigate Chinese participants evaluation of ethnicity-(in)congruent messages to understand why communication practices diverge from theoretical expectations. Two normative health prevention...
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The terms “health” and “well-being” are commonly used in health communication research. These terms, despite calls for a consensus definition, are rarely explicitly defined. We argue that, instead of imposing a universal definition of health or well-being, communities can be better served if we adopt a culture-centered approach (CCA) and listen to...
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Background Human transmission of Chagas disease (CD) most commonly occurs in domiciliary spaces where triatomines remain hidden to feed on blood sources during inhabitants’ sleep. Similar to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), sustainable control of CD requires attention to the structural conditions of life of populations at risk, in this cas...
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Background Chagas disease (CD) is a life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted by triatomine bugs. Triatomine bugs inhabit poorly constructed homes that create multiple hiding spots for the bugs. Modifying the actual structure of a home, along with the homeowners’ practices, can reduce triatomi...
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Scholars and practitioners are increasingly turning to maps as tools for promoting health and development communication. These maps are often criticized for privileging the interests of the global North and for authorizing (neo)colonial approaches. The authors offer a case of community mapping incorporating asset-based community development that of...
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LGBQ+ individuals experience worse health outcomes than do other individuals. Some communication research finds that LGBQ+ individuals report receiving poor care during the mid- to post-health care, but this research assumes that LGBQ+ individuals have already received care. Little research has examined the pre- to early encounter experience of LGB...
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In March 2012, Jenna Talackova was disqualified from the Miss Universe Canada pageant on the grounds that she was not a “naturally-born” female. Following this decision, Talackova and the media contested her exclusion, and Miss Universe allowed her to compete. This manuscript examines the ways that Talackova’s gender performance challenges notions...
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This article engages the Brazilian O Machismo graffiti project as an example of invitational visual rhetoric. Although most understandings of graffiti as communication consider it to be a persuasive artistic form, O Machismo invites viewers to respond to its invitation to help complete the art project and collectively share in co-creating its messa...
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Background: Fear of physicians is associated with a variety of negative relationship and clinical outcomes. Culturally competent communication has been suggested as a way for physicians to reduce patient fear. Previous research has not, however, assessed whether patients’ perceptions of physicians’ cultural competence are associated with the level...
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“Birth tourism” has rarely been addressed by scholars. The ways that pregnant women are encouraged to leave their homelands and give birth abroad have not been investigated. Birth tourism agencies may seek to persuade women that particular destinations—such as the US—are ideal places for giving birth. An examination of how birth tourism agencies fr...
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Existing literature has found that Appalachia is a region with slow economic growth, health disparities, and a unique culture. However, little is known about the intersection of health and culture in an Appalachian context. To that end, we surveyed 306 participants from the patient base at a local clinical system serving three Appalachian Ohio coun...
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Pentadic cartography is a useful way to examine the motivational vocabularies of discourses and to provide alternative vocabularies for negotiating rhetorical terrains. Pentadic cartographers have used Kenneth Burke’s principles to examine and critique the motivational vocabularies of texts as their vocabularies compete against one another. This ar...
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This study examined how patients’ perceptions of doctors’ accommodative behaviors impact patient satisfaction with the direct clinical encounter. We used Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) as a theoretical framework to specifically explore and compare the level of patient satisfaction when patients viewed doctors employed communication accomm...
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The American public is increasingly concerned about risks associated with food additives like high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). To promote its product as safe, the Corn Refiners Association (CRA) employed two forms of straw-person arguments. First, the CRA opportunistically misrepresented HFCS opposition as inept. Second, the CRA strategically chose...
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Appeals to disgust may become an important tool in health communication messaging. There is little empirical support for measures of induced disgust in the communication literature. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate an English-language version of the German State Disgust Scale (the Ekel-State-Fragebogen) as a candidate measure for sta...
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Anderson and Prelli argued that pentadic cartography could be used to examine the motivational vocabularies of discourses and to provide alternative vocabularies for negotiating rhetorical terrains. Applications of pentadic cartography have used Kenneth Burke's principles to examine and critique the motivational vocabularies of a variety of texts b...
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This study advances our knowledge of the role of metaphor in deliberation in everyday speech (with an emphasis on the role of competition, cooperation, and connection metaphors), which up to now has not been studied as an important discursive strategy in deliberation. Furthermore, the study contributes to our understanding of the discursive practic...
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Contemporary cyborg theory tends to approach the integration of human bodies and technology innovations as if the cyborg were a unified whole. And, because of the potential of the cyborg body to help ameliorate disability, the cyborg has been suggested as a way to restore function to individuals living with disabilities. We investigate the deployme...
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There was an explosion of Black American newspapers in the United States in the period after the Civil War. These newspapers faced significant challenges of widespread illiteracy in the Black population and a hostile rhetorical environment. This analysis examines the ways in which the editorial cartooning of Henry J. Lewis allowed the Indianapolis...
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Procuring, preparing, and consuming foods are symbolic processes learned and reified within cultural boundaries. While many cultures have established tradition or taste as rules to guide food activities, contemporary Americans are mainly guided by a fascination with health and risk (Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma). As reflections of and contributor...
Book
Health Communication and Mass Media is a much-needed resource for those with a professional or academic interest in the field of health communication. The chapters engage and expand upon significant theories informing efforts at mediated health communication and demonstrate the practical utility of these theories in on-going or completed projects....
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This study examines the effectiveness of an entertainment education (EE) programme, Makgabaneng, in reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS in Botswana. If successful, this communication intervention should result in greater self-report of attitudes, actions and knowledge related to risk reduction goals among those who listen to Makgabaneng more often than...
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Although developmental delays are common in the United States, only about one third of developmental delays are identified before a child enters school. As challenging as use of developmental screening is on a national basis, the Appalachian region faces extreme lack of screening, diagnosis, and treatment for developmental delay. Local health care...
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This qualitative research report adopts a critical pedagogy perspective to examine the provision of classroom accommodations for postsecondary students with learning disabilities. Although instructors in the United States are bound to abide by disability rights laws, we also believe instructors can act in ways that allow students to feel comfortabl...
Book
Medical Communication in Clinical Contexts is an edited collection designed to show and tell how patient-centered medical communication can be performed in clinical contexts. Medical Communication in Clinical Contexts contains three primary themes: An integrated view of health communication in applied clinical contexts. An appreciation of medical c...
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This study describes the development of scales to measure patients' perception of physicians' cultural competence in health care interactions and thus contributes to promoting awareness of physician-patient intercultural interaction processes. Surveys were administrated to a total of 682 participants. Exploratory factor analyses were employed to as...
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p>In 1985, disability rights activists protested in Cleveland, Ohio. The story of this protest has been retold through performance to advocate making Cleveland more accessible to individuals with disabilities. This analysis explores the rhetorical performative work of the disability bus protest through interviews with a protest leader and examinati...
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Doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.s) have historically faced an uphill battle to gain professional legitimacy and credibility in a U.S. medical culture dominated by allopathic medicine. Today, struggles surrounding the negotiation of a professional osteopathic identity can be found among osteopathic medical students who actively debate the merit...
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The gay marriage debates, high divorce rates, and scandals involving polygamists have all drawn attention to the concept of marriage. After an analysis of qualitative survey data, this essay argues that participants' responses construct “marriage” as a term that functions as an ideograph, thus becoming marriage. Although marriage is abstract, it be...
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The present study applies psychological reactance theory (PRT) to examine the effectiveness of a 2 (frame: gain, loss) x 2 (efficacy: present, not present) experiment to determine best practices in dissuading excessive alcohol consumption among college students. Results from the structural model revealed no association between a perceived threat to...
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The purpose of this paper is to explore public interpretations of President George W. Bush's speaking errors. One interpretation of Bush's speech mistakes offered in the media is that he may have dyslexia. Therefore, we explore how an enthymeme using markers of dyslexia as a sign of bad leadership has been used to frame Bush's speaking errors. We p...
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Many studies have documented disparities in access to and satisfaction with medical care by race and ethnicity. Disparities are often attributed to providers’ failure to accommodate differences. Studies have yet to document the association between patients’ ethnocentric views and their perceptions of physicians’ cultural competence in health care i...
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This investigation examined antecedents associated with support for clean indoor air policies. Participants (N = 550) living in a Midwestern county (population = 62,223) were randomly sampled. Results suggest that beliefs in the health risks associated with secondhand smoke are positively associated with favorable attitudes toward clean indoor air...
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The academic credential awarded to osteopathic physicians is the doctor of osteopathy or doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO) degree. Public recognition of the degree has been disappointingly low, however, leading some members of the profession to argue for a change in the degree's name and formal designation. To investigate antecedents to the desir...
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This essay offers an analysis of the circulation of World War II and Holocaust analogies in discourses about American military involvement in Kosovo. The essay argues that the World War II/Holocaust analogy provided the public with a new vocabulary for understanding the situation in Kosovo. The essay uses Bill Clinton's speeches about Kosovo during...
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This paper explores a representation of overlapping categories of gender, disability and cyborgs in Bionic Woman (2007). The television show Bionic Woman (2007) is a popular culture representation that uniquely brings together these categories. Three themes emerged from an analysis of blogger discourse surrounding the show. The themes reveal signif...
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The current investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the causes of wildfire in the wildland–urban interface (WUI) and intentions on the part of members of the public to help mitigate wildfire. In doing so, antecedents from the theory of planned behavior were employed to enhance our understanding of the relationships amon...
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This investigation sought to examine the association between knowledge of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke and voter support for clean indoor air policies. In doing so, 2 antecedents were employed to enhance understanding of this relationship: attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, differences between nonsmokers and smoke...
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This article considers the manner in which the editorial cartooning of George H. Ben Johnson (c. 1917–1920) expanded current conceptions of Afrocentrism in order to open a space for Afrocentric visual rhetorics, which have been historically used by African Americans to disrupt European power structures. This article first defines and conceptualizes...
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The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (TSE) has shaped African Americans' views of the American health care system, contributing to a reluctance to participate in biomedical research and a suspicion of the medical system. This essay examines public discourses surrounding President Clinton's attempt to restore African Americans' trust by apologizing for...
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Formula One is the most technologically advanced and financially lucrative form of motorsport in the world with global audiences in the billions over the course of a season. A highly unusual and potentially deadly set of events took place during the Friday practice for the sixth annual United States Grand Prix at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Co...
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This essay explores the relationships among disability, performance, and dance studies. Individuals with disabilities are often marginalized in current dance scholarship. Heather Mills's performances on Dancing with the Stars insert a dancer with a disability into mainstream perceptions of dance. This essay discusses three themes that emerge from a...
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Cultural competence in health care is gaining support as a useful and necessary strategy for providing quality health care and reducing health disparities. In this paper we ask if patient gender makes a difference in patients’ perceptions of physicians’ cultural competence in health care interactions. Hierarchical regression analysis was employed t...
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Recent growth and use of the internet as a source of health information has raised concerns about consumers' ability to comprehend this information. Although health scholars argue that writing web pages at an eighth-grade level or lower will help patients, few studies involve actual readers to investigate the effects of improved readability scores...
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Using the film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind as its object, this paper embodies, explores, and performs the connections and disjunctions between the critical perspectives of psychoanalysis and schizoanalysis. In so doing, we reject the perspectives that have heretofore binarized the two modes of thought as well as the applications that have...
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American physicians are increasingly concerned that they are losing professional control. Other analysts of medical power argue that physicians have too much power. This essay argues that current analyses are grounded in a structuralist reading of power. Deploying Michel Foucault's “care of the self” and rhetorician Raymie McKerrow's “critical rhet...
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Recent use of the Internet as a source of health information has raised concerns about consumers' ability to tell 'good' information from 'bad' information. Although consumers report that they use source credibility to judge information quality, several observational studies suggest that consumers make little use of source credibility. This study e...
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Critics of genetic discourse are concerned that deterministic and discriminatory views of genetics are increasingly becoming adopted. These views argue that current genetic discourse becomes a source of power whereby powerful institutions harm people with so-called "bad" genes. This essay argues that current analyses of the power of genetics discou...
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Critics of genetic discourse are concerned that deterministic and discriminatory views of genetics are increasingly becoming adopted. These views argue that current genetic discourse becomes a source of power whereby powerful institutions harm people with so-called “bad” genes. This essay argues that current analyses of the power of genetics discou...
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There is a growing movement in medical genetics to develop, implement, and promote a model of race-based medicine. Although race-based medicine may become a widely disseminated standard of care, messages that advocate race-based selection for diagnosing, screening and prescribing drugs may exacerbate health disparities. These messages are present i...
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This essay analyzes Senator Bill Frist's 2001 address to the American Society of Thoracic Surgeons. The author argues that the address represents an attempt to reframe physicians' political identity to authorize more active participation by them. Frist authorizes and demands such participation through the construction of a medical jeremiad. He argu...
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As the role of genetic science in everyday life has grown, policymakers have become concerned about Americans' understandings of this science. Much effort has been devoted to formal schooling, but less attention has been paid to the role of public culture in shaping public understanding of genetics. Research into public cultural messages about gene...
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This paper discusses how the American public accounts for the concerns that they have about genetic research and the benefits that they foresee. We develop a general framework for discussing public claims about genetic technology based on Stephen Toulmin's model of warrants in argumentation. After a review of the results from public opinion polls a...
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The effect of messages about genetics on lay audiences was assessed through an experimental study that exposed participants (n = 96) to a Public Service Announcement about race, genes, and heart disease. Participants who received a message that specified either 'Whites' or 'Blacks' as the subject of the message demonstrated elevated levels of racis...
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Some medical providers have advocated applied genomics, including the use of genetically linked racial phenotypes in medical practice, raising fear that race-based medication will become justified. As with other emerging medical genetic technologies, pharmaceutical companies may advertise these treatments. Researchers fear that consumers will uncri...
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This paper examines George Bush's Persian Gulf war addresses as a representative anecdote of Bush's campaign to build an international military coalition. The paper argues that in war rhetoric international audiences should be considered. A theorization of the international audience is offered. George Bush's public speeches are then analyzed as the...
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African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participa...
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To examine lay understandings of race. Fifteen focus groups were held in the southeastern United States from July to October of 2001. The lay understanding of race is multifactorial, conceptualizing race as defined in part by genetics and in part by culture. The multifactorial understanding of race used by lay people is important to geneticists for...
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To ascertain attitudes of prospective patients relevant to the delivery of race-based pharmacogenomics. Written anonymous survey and qualitative responses in two sets of reactance format focus groups over-sampled for minority groups in urban, suburban, and rural communities conducted from February through April, 2002 [N = 104] and August through No...