Benedict Du Boulay

Benedict Du Boulay
University of Sussex · Department of Informatics

About

254
Publications
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3,582
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1984 - present
University of Sussex
January 1974 - November 1980
The University of Edinburgh

Publications

Publications (254)
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present the concept of AI Readiness, along with a framework for developing AI Readiness training. ‘AI Readiness’ can be framed as a contextualised way of helping people to understand AI, in particular, data-driven AI. The nature of AI Readiness training is not the same as merely learning about AI. Rather, AI Readiness recognises t...
Chapter
Many universities aim to improve students’ 'learning to learn' (LTL) skills to prepare them for post-academic life. This requires evaluating LTL and integrating it into the university’s curriculum and assessment regimes. Data is essential to provide evidence for the evaluation of LTL, meaning that available data sources must be connected to the typ...
Chapter
Many universities aim to improve students' 'learning to learn' (LTL) skills to prepare them for post-academic life. This requires evaluating LTL and integrating it into the university's curriculum and assessment regimes. Data is essential to provide evidence for the evaluation of LTL, meaning that available data sources must be connected to the typ...
Chapter
This paper explores the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, and the mental models of those who develop or use them. In particular, we consider unsupervised models, as well as the ‘organisational co-learning process’ that creates them, as learning affordances. The co-learning process involves inputs originating both from the h...
Conference Paper
This paper briefly examines the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, the learning affordances that such models offer, and the mental models of those who use them. We consider the unsupervised models as learning affordances. We use a case study involving unsupervised modelling via commonly used methods such as clustering, to ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper briefly examines the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, the learning affordances that such models offer, and the mental models of those who use them. We consider the unsupervised models as learning affordances. We use a case study involving unsupervised modelling via commonly used methods such as clustering, to ar...
Article
Full-text available
Many previous studies have highlighted the influence of learners' affective states on learning with tutoring systems. However, the associations between learning and learners' meta-affective capability are still unclear. The goal of this paper is to analyse meta-affective capability and its influence on learning outcomes as well as the dynamics of a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, and the mental models of those who develop or use them. In particular, we consider unsupervised models, as well as the ‘organisational co-learning process’ that creates them, as learning affordances. The co-learning process involves inputs originating both from the h...
Article
Full-text available
Mark and Greer’s (International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 4(2/3), 129–153, 1993) review was very influential in setting out effective goals and methods for evaluating adaptive educational systems of all kinds. A later review brought the story up to date (Greer, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26...
Article
Intelligent Tutoring systems (ITSs) and Intelligent Learning Environments (ILEs) have been developed and evaluated over the last 40 years. Recent meta‐analyses show that they perform well enough to act as effective classroom assistants under the guidance of a human teacher. Despite this success, they have been criticised as embodying a retrograde b...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides an introduction to the topic of motivation from the point of view of those interested in the design or use of intelligent tutoring systems. To that end it introduces some of the complexities of motivational states and processes together with a range of motivational theories and their application in intelligent tutoring systems...
Chapter
We observe achievement gaps even in rich western countries, such as the UK, which in principle have the resources as well as the social and technical infrastructure to provide a better deal for all learners. The reasons for such gaps are complex and include the social and material poverty of some learners with their resulting other deficits, as wel...
Book
This two volume set LNAI 10947 and LNAI 10948 constitutes the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2018, held in London, UK, in June 2018. The 45 full papers presented in this book together with 76 poster papers, 11 young researchers tracks, 14 industry papers and 10 workshop papers were car...
Article
The field of artificial intelligence in education (AIED) uses techniques from AI and cognitive science to better understand the nature of learning and teaching and to build systems to help learners gain new skills or understand new concepts. This article studies metareviews and meta-analyses to make the case for blended learning, wherein the teache...
Article
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Sharing user information between systems is an area of interest for every field involving personalization. Recommender Systems are more advanced in this aspect than Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and Intelligent Learning Environments (ILEs). A reason for this is that the user models of Intelligent Tutoring Systems and Intelligent Learning Envi...
Article
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In 1999 we reported a study that explored the way that Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development could be used to inform the design of an Interactive Learning Environment called the Ecolab. Two aspects of this work have subsequently been used for further research. Firstly, there is the interpretation of the ZPD and its associated theory that was used...
Conference Paper
Creating narrative-based computer games is a complex and challenging task. Narrative Threads is a suite of software tools designed to aid young people (aged 11-15) in creating their own narrative-based games as a writing development activity. A participatory design process highlighted the areas where additional support was required, and informed th...
Article
Motivation and metacognition are strongly intertwined, with learners high in self-efficacy more likely to use a variety of self-regulatory learning strategies, as well as to persist longer on challenging tasks. The aim of the research was to improve the learner’s focus on the process and experience of problem-solving while using an Intelligent Tuto...
Article
This paper describes an experiment that compared learners with contrasting learning styles, Active vs. Reflective, using three different strategies for learning programming via worked-examples: Paired- method, Structure-emphasising, and Completion. The quality of the learners’ acquired cognitive schemata was assessed in terms of their post-test per...
Conference Paper
Learners need to acquire insight into their own learning as well as developing the skill to manage and regulate it. A key question for this workshop is whether instructional technology can be as effective in fostering such metacognitive skills as it is in teaching domain-specific skills and knowledge. This workshop will focus on modeling metacognit...
Chapter
This paper introduces Narrative Threads, a suite of tools designed to support 11-15 year olds in creating their own narrative-based computer games. Authoring interactive stories in game form has strong educational potential, but although there are tools which make game creation possible for young people, they have provided little to no interface su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A motivationally intelligent tutor should determine the motivational state of the learner and also determine what caused that state. Only if the causation is taken into account can an efficient pedagogic strategy be selected to find an effective way to maintain or improve the learner’s motivation. Thus we argue that motivation is more constructivel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the incorporation of metacognitive and motivational feedback into an existing Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Both types of feedback are formulated by using the learners’ prior experiences and motivational states to improve their ability to successfully engage in problem-solving tasks. KeywordsMotivation–metacognition–feedba...
Chapter
Full-text available
Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1990) and Goal Orientation Theory (Ames, 1990) provide human teachers with useful guidelines to help them understand students’ motivation and personalize their choice of educational activities. Such theories can assist teachers by informing the way they may interact with students in real class settings. However, it is le...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter delineates some of the pedagogy needed by a motivationally intelligent tutoring system. The learner in a negative motivational state (e.g. demotivated, unmotivated or poorly motivated) may present with behavioural symptoms such as lack of effort, avoiding risk, “gaming the system” and so on. Such states are accompanied by a variety of...
Article
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This paper describes educational systems built by members of the Human-Centred Technology Research Group at the University of Sussex that address different aspects of motivation. These systems have been described elsewhere, so this paper is essentially a drawing together of existing work. In particular, we have recently set out a view of motivation...
Article
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This paper describes a Conceptual Framework underpinning "Systems that Care" in terms of educational systems that take account of motivation, metacognition and affect, in addition to cognition. The main focus is on motivation, as learning requires the student to put in effort and be engaged, in other words to be motivated to learn. But motivation i...
Chapter
This chapter examines part of the broad question: "How compelling is the evidence for the effectiveness of e-Learning in the post-16 sector? It concentrates, largely from a UK perspective, on higher education and on policy issues. In the first section the UK Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) e-Learning strategy is outlined and pr...
Conference Paper
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Many tutoring systems have employed problem-focused strategies for helping students regulate their emotional states. This paper describes an affective tutoring system that added an emotion-focused strategy (a relaxation exercise) to a standard problemfocused strategy (programming advice and feedback) in order to help students better regulate their...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Worked-examples play an important role in learning and problem solving and are crucial to cognitive skill acquisition. However students' learning styles are a factor in how much they are willing to expend serious effort on understanding worked-examples, with active students tending to be more impatient of them than reflective students. In employing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Embodied interaction has been claimed to offer important advantages for learning programming. However frequently claims have been based on intuitions and work in the area has focused largely around system-building rather than on evaluation and reflection around those claims. Taking into account research in the area as well as in areas such as tangi...
Conference Paper
The 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2009) is being held July 6--10 2009 in Brighton, UK. AIED2009 is part of an ongoing series of biennial international conferences for top quality research in intelligent systems ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students use both domain-dependent strategies (such as seeking specific domain,help) and domain-independent strategies (such as relaxation exercises) to help regulate their affective states when,learning. This paper reports a study that compared,students’ performance,in learning data-structures across two systems. While both systems supported domai...
Conference Paper
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We propose a design model for guiding learning in exploratory environments through representational choices. Selecting the appropriate representations at the correct granularity can foreground the salient activities and background the irrelevant.. We demonstrate how this model can be applied via learner-centred design to ensure that the engaging fa...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the role that feedback based on past actions and motivational states of the learner can have in a motivationally and metacognitively aware Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) focused on programming.
Conference Paper
A central challenge in the design of motivationally intelligent tutoring systems lies in defining and diagnosing a learner's motivational state: in particular, in distinguishing between the learner's motivational and affective states. We discuss existing AIED approaches and outline an alternative approach that incorporates reflective peer collabora...
Article
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This paper investigates whether adding interactivity to diagrammatic representations aids learning. More specifically, the analyses focus on the extent to which 3D interactive diagrams facilitate the comprehension of a geometry concept, the stereographic projection, that is usually taught using 2D diagrams. Four Interactive Learning Environments (I...
Article
Computer programming is generally understood to be highly challenging and since its inception a wide range of approaches, tools and methodologies have been developed to assist in managing its complexity. Relatively recently the potential benefits of collaborative software development have been formalised in the practice of pair programming. Here we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Improving children’s writing skills is a significant concern in schools. A key problem identified is a lack of engagement and motivation with writing tasks, something which can be particularly pronounced with boys. Computer game creation has potential as an activity for improving writing skills. It can be very motivating, especially for boys, and o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe an innovative educational system designed to, firstly, motivate young people to engage with computational concepts and secondly, provide them with tools to do so in an embodied manner. The interface is designed as a "magic mirror" in which users can, through augmented reality technology, take on the role of a character and control the c...
Article
Full-text available
A motivationally-aware version of the Ecolab system was developed with the aim of improving the learners' motivation. To gain some insight into the effects of motivational modeling on students' affective states, we observed the affect of 180 students interacting with either Ecolab or M-Ecolab. The affective states considered were based on existing...
Article
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In this study we assess whether and how the Homework System was effective in creating greater continuity of understanding between home and school. Children in a mixed Year 1 and Year 2 class (aged 5–6 years old) were taught numeracy using the Homework System on tablet PCs, and they were assigned activities to carry out on the tablet PC for homework...
Conference Paper
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Pair programming claims to provide benefits over and above those offered by a programmer working alone. In particular, a number of studies have suggested that pair programming improves software quality. The literature speculates that the 'driver' (the programmer currently typing in the code) and 'navigator' work together in a complimentary manner,...
Article
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This article describes a methodology for the capture and analysis of hybrid data. A case study in the field of reasoning with multiple representations--specifically, in computer programming--is presented to exemplify the use of the methodology. The hybrid data considered comprise computer interaction logs, audio recordings, and data about visual at...
Article
This paper investigates the interplay between high level debugging strategies and low level tactics in the context of a multi-representation software development environment (SDE). It investigates three questions. 1. How do programmers integrate debugging strategies and tactics when working with SDEs? 2. What is the relationship between verbal abil...
Conference Paper
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Motivationally intelligent systems deploy resources and tactics dynamically to maintain or increase the student's desire to learn and her willingness to expend effort in so doing. Three categories of diagnostic inputs and feedback reactions are outlined each with its associated meta-level. The meta-level includes the account which learners tell the...
Article
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This paper addresses the subject of interactive educational TV and explores the issues involved in combining the production traditions of TV with the interactive theories derived from AI in Education. Of particular concern are notions of narrative coherence and collaborative learning. We describe initial steps towards realising a system, based on m...
Article
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We describe preliminary work using participatory design methods with teachers looking at how technology might be used to improve teacher awareness of individual students' comprehension of key concepts, progression through activities and engagement during classes. We are exploring the use of mobile devices and Learning Management Systems to support...
Article
There are two main arguments underlying the claims for the value of interactive computer programming used by students to model mathematical ideas. One is concerned with mathematical content, i.e. with mathematics as an object of study. The other is concerned with mathematical activity, i.e. doing mathematics, or ‘Mathematicking’ [1]. Both content a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The M-Ecolab was developed to provide motivational scaffolding via an on-screen character whose demeanour defended on modelling the learner's motivational state at interaction time. Motivational modelling was based on three variables: effort, independence and the confidence. A classroom evaluation was conducted to illustrate the effects of motivati...
Conference Paper
This paper considers the nature of pair programming. It focuses on using pair programmers’ verbalizations as an indicator of collaboration. A review of the literature considers the benefits and costs of co-operative and collaborative verbalization. We then report on a set of four one-week studies of commercial pair programmers. From recordings of t...
Article
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Tutoring systems are described as having two loops. The outer loop executes once for each task, where a task usually consists of solving a complex, multi-step problem. The inner loop executes once for each step taken by the student in the solution of ...
Article
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Designing new educational experiences, which utilize novel technologies, are usable by teachers and learners and integrate well into existing, everyday educational contexts is extremely difficult. In this paper we describe the process of Human Centred Design as a cyclic process of evolution. An initial system design vision is communicated to a rang...
Article
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The HOMEWORK research project provided individual Tablet PCs to a class of primary school children for use in school and at home. Here, we describe our use of both automated and manual data capture and analysis techniques to map out the nature of interaction with the tablets across multiple locations. Outside of school, the tablet PCs offered child...
Conference Paper
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Amidst all the enthusiasm and claims about technology transforming the way we teach and learn, is there also a body of evidence to support the premise that e-learning helps people learn: is it effective? A team at the University of Sussex has conducted a modified systematic review of the literature in order to investigate these questions: What work...
Conference Paper
Dialogues between children and parents about school are often uninformative providing little understanding of what a child is learning, how she is progressing and how a parent might better support this. We aim to help children, parents and teachers co-construct richer multi-perspective narratives linking home and school learning and hence improve o...
Article
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Over the past ten years or so Extreme Programming has been slowly gaining acceptance as a potentially beneficial technique both in the commercial and academic worlds. Here we review the existing literature to attempt to gain insight into the practice of pair programming across both educational and commercial context. We begin by considering the pai...
Article
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This paper discusses the importance of learning context with a particular focus upon the educational application of mobile technologies. We suggest that one way to understand a learning context is to perceive it as a Learner Centric Ecology of Resources. These resources can be deployed variously but with a concern to promote and support different k...
Conference Paper
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Although pair programming is becoming more prevalent in software development, and a number of reports have been written about it [10] [13], few have addressed the manner in which pairing actually takes place [12]. Even fewer consider the methods used to manage issues such as role change or the communication of complex issues. This paper highlights...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted to investigate the differences between learners when using computer based learning environments (CBLEs) that incorporated different levels of interactivity in diagrams. Four CBLEs were created with combinations of the following two interactivity properties: (a) the possibility to rotate the whole diagram (b) the possibil...