Ben Jones

Ben Jones
University of Strathclyde · School of Psychological Sciences and Health

About

391
Publications
256,972
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16,299
Citations
Citations since 2016
169 Research Items
7991 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
Introduction
Face perception and stuff
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (391)
Article
Full-text available
Mate preferences and mating-related behaviors are hypothesized to change over the menstrual cycle to increase reproductive fitness. Recent large-scale studies suggest that previously reported hormone-linked behavioral changes are not robust. The proposal that women's preference for associating with male kin is down-regulated during the ovulatory (h...
Preprint
Sutherland and Young (2022) provide a comprehensive and timely overview of recent developments in research on social judgments of faces, emphasising the utility of data-driven approaches. Here we expand on this theme, focusing on how data-driven approaches can provide new insights into the physical characteristics in face images that best predict s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intergroup biases are widespread across cultures and time. The current study tests an existing hypothesis that has been proposed to explain such biases: the mind has evolved to interpret outgroup membership as a cue to pathogen threat. In this registered report, we test a core feature of this hypothesis. Adapting methods from earlier work, we exami...
Article
Full-text available
Intergroup biases are widespread across cultures and time. The current study tests an existing hypothesis that has been proposed to explain such biases: the mind has evolved to interpret outgroup membership as a cue to pathogen threat. In this registered report, we test a core feature of this hypothesis. Adapting methods from earlier work, we exami...
Preprint
The Compensatory Prophylaxis Hypothesis proposes that women will show increased pathogen disgust at points in the menstrual cycle when progesterone is high, compensating for the immunosuppressive effects of progesterone. However, evidence for the Compensatory Prophylaxis Hypothesis from studies that used longitudinal designs to investigate whether...
Preprint
Although many researchers have proposed that women will show stronger preferences for male facial masculinity when conception probability is high, empirical tests of this hypothesis have produced mixed results. One possible explanation for these inconsistent findings is that effects of conception probability on women’s preferences for facial mascul...
Article
Full-text available
While most studies on sexuality in later life report that sexual desire declines with age, little is known about the exact nature of age effects on sexual desire. Using self-reported dyadic sexual desire relating to a partner, dyadic sexual desire relating to an attractive person, and solitary sexual desire from a large (N > 8000) and age diverse (...
Preprint
While most studies on sexuality in later life report that sexual desire declines with age, little is known about the exact nature of age effects on sexual desire. Using self-reported dyadic sexual desire relating to a partner, dyadic sexual desire relating to an attractive person, and solitary sexual desire from a large (N > 8000) and age-diverse (...
Preprint
Salivary steroid immunoassays are widely used in psychoneuroendocrinology to investigate the psychological effects of menstrual cycle phase. Though manufacturers advertise their assays as suitable, they have not been rigorously validated for this purpose. We collated data from eight studies across more than 1,200 women and more than 9,500 time poin...
Preprint
There is growing concern that artificial intelligence (AI) conversational agents (e.g., Siri, Alexa) reinforce voice-based social stereotypes. Because little is known about social perceptions of conversational agents’ voices, we investigated the perceptual dimensions that underpin social perceptions of these synthetic voices and the role that acous...
Preprint
Over the past decade, a small literature has tested how trait-level pathogen avoidance motives (e.g., disgust sensitivity) and exposure to pathogen cues relate to preferences for facial symmetry and sexual dimorphism. Results have largely been interpreted as suggesting that the behavioral immune system influences preferences for these features in p...
Article
Over the past decade, a small literature has tested how trait-level pathogen-avoidance motives (e.g., disgust sensitivity) and exposure to pathogen cues relate to preferences for facial symmetry and sexual dimorphism. Results have largely been interpreted as suggesting that the behavioral immune system influences preferences for these features in p...
Article
The dominant theory of facial attractiveness judgments is that they evolved to identify healthy individuals with strong immune systems. Here, we summarize results of recent tests of this hypothesis, concluding that it has little compelling empirical support. We then propose an alternative perspective that emphasizes the effects of lifestyle health.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives A large literature exists investigating the extent to which physical characteristics (e.g., strength, weight, and height) can be accurately assessed from face images. While most of these studies have employed two-dimensional (2D) face images as stimuli, some recent studies have used three-dimensional (3D) face images because they may con...
Article
Full-text available
Although many researchers have argued that facial traits evolved as honest cues to women’s current fertility (possibly via changes in facial femininity), evidence that women’s facial attractiveness is significantly, positively related to probability of conception throughout menstrual cycle is mixed. These mixed results could reflect differences amo...
Article
Full-text available
Masculine characteristics in men’s faces are often assumed to function as health cues. However, evidence for this assumption from empirical tests is mixed. For example, research on Western women’s face perceptions found that masculinized versions of men’s faces were perceived to be older, but not healthier, than feminized versions. Since research o...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Because more attractive women may be better able to attract and/or retain masculine mates, many researchers have proposed that women who consider themselves to be more physically attractive will show stronger preferences for men displaying masculine facial characteristics. Empirical evidence for this putative association between women’s...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals who are more attractive are thought to show a greater preference for facial sexual dimorphism, potentially because individuals who perceive themselves as more physically attractive believe they will be better able to attract and/or retain sexually dimorphic partners. Evidence for this link is mixed, however, and recent research suggests...
Preprint
Previous research has suggested that heterosexual women show stronger preferences for images of male faces displaying masculine shape characteristics than do homosexual women. Because many other findings regarding individual differences in women’s masculinity preferences have not replicated in subsequent studies, we carried out a direct replication...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals who are more attractive are thought to show a greater preference for facial sexual dimorphism, potentially because individuals who perceive themselves as more physically attractive believe they will be better able to attract and/or retain sexually dimorphic partners. Evidence for this link is mixed, however, and recent research suggests...
Article
Full-text available
Science is often perceived to be a self-correcting enterprise. In principle, the assessment of scientific claims is supposed to proceed in a cumulative fashion, with the reigning theories of the day progressively approximating truth more accurately over time. In practice, however, cumulative self-correction tends to proceed less efficiently than on...
Article
Full-text available
Research on links between peoples’ personality traits and their voices has primarily focused on other peoples’ personality judgments about a target person based on a target person’s vocal characteristics, particularly voice pitch. However, it remains unclear whether individual differences in voices are linked to actual individual differences in per...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has found that women at peak fertility show greater interest in extra-pair sex. However, recent replications have failed to detect this effect. In this study, we add to this ongoing debate by testing whether sociosexuality (the willingness to have sex in the absence of commitment) is higher in women who are at peak fertility. A sa...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence–dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Full-text available
Many previous studies have investigated the effects of manipulating sexually dimorphic shape characteristics in face images on attractiveness judgments. However, results have been mixed and show considerable cross-cultural variability, particularly for women’s judgments of men’s facial attractiveness. Because very little research has investigated f...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Although it is widely assumed that men’s sexual desire and interest in casual sex (i.e., sociosexual orientation) are linked to steroid hormone levels, evidence for such associations is mixed.Methods We tested for both longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between salivary testosterone, cortisol, reported sexual desire and socios...
Preprint
Because more attractive women may be better able to attract and/or retain masculine mates, many researchers have proposed that women who consider themselves to be more physically attractive will show stronger preferences for men displaying masculine facial characteristics. Empirical evidence for this putative association between women’s self-rated...
Article
Full-text available
Many researchers have proposed that straight men prefer women’s faces displaying feminine shape characteristics at least partly because mating with such women will produce healthier offspring. Although a prediction of this adaptation-for-mate-choice hypothesis is that straight men will show stronger preferences for feminized versus masculinized ver...
Article
Full-text available
The tendency to attend to and avoid cues to pathogens varies across individuals and contexts. Researchers have proposed that this variation is partially driven by immunological vulnerability to infection, though support for this hypothesis is equivocal. One key piece of evidence (Miller & Maner, 2011) shows that participants who have recently been...
Article
In person perception research, femininity and masculinity are regularly conceived as 2 ends of 1 bipolar dimension. This unidimensional understanding permeates work on facial impressions, gender diagnosticity, and perceptions of LGBTQ individuals, but it is perhaps most prominent in evolutionary work suggesting that sexually dimorphic facial featur...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence that affective factors (e.g. anxiety, depression, affect) are significantly related to individual differences in emotion recognition is mixed. Palermo et al . (Palermo et al . 2018 J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 44 , 503–517) reported that individuals who scored lower in anxiety performed significantly better on two measures of fa...
Article
Research on social judgments of faces often investigates relationships between measures of face shape taken from images (facial metrics), and either perceptual ratings of the faces on various traits (e.g., attractiveness) or characteristics of the photographed individual (e.g., their health). A barrier to carrying out this research using large numb...
Preprint
The tendency to attend to and avoid cues to pathogens varies across individuals and contexts. Researchers have proposed that this variation is partially driven by immunological vulnerability to infection, though support for this hypothesis is equivocal. One key piece of evidence finds that recently ill participants – who may have a reduced ability...
Preprint
In person perception research, femininity and masculinity are regularly conceived as two ends of one bipolar dimension. This unidimensional understanding permeates work on facial impressions, gender diagnosticity, and perceptions of LGBTQ individuals—but, it is perhaps most prominent in evolutionary work suggesting that sexually dimorphic facial fe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on links between peoples’ personality traits and their voices has primarily focused on other peoples’ personality judgments about a target person based on a target person’s vocal characteristics, particularly voice pitch. However, it remains unclear whether individual differences in voices are linked to actual individual differences in per...
Preprint
Full-text available
Masculine characteristics in men’s faces are often assumed to function as health cues. However, evidence for this assumption from empirical tests is mixed. For example, research on western women’s face perceptions found that masculinised versions of men’s faces were perceived to be older, but not healthier, than feminised versions. Since research o...
Article
Researchers have suggested that more attractive women will show stronger preferences for masculine men because such women are better placed to offset the potential costs of choosing a masculine mate. However, evidence for correlations between measures of women's own attractiveness and preferences for masculine men is mixed. Moreover, the samples us...
Article
Full-text available
Women’s preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s faces have been extensively studied. By contrast, little is known about how gay men respond to masculine facial characteristics. One area of disagreement in the emerging literature on this topic is the association between gay men’s partnership status and masculinity preference. One study fo...
Article
Full-text available
Both avoidance of individuals with cues of infectious illnesses and stigmatization of other types of individual (e.g., obese individuals) are hypothesized to reflect infectious disease avoidance. However, direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been somewhat rare. Consequently, we tested for possible relationships between subscales of the Th...
Preprint
Many researchers have proposed that straight men prefer women’s faces displaying feminine shape characteristics at least partly because mating with such women will produce healthier offspring. Although a clear prediction of this adaptation-for-mate-choice hypothesis is that straight men will show stronger preferences for feminized versus masculiniz...
Preprint
Many previous studies have investigated the effects of manipulating sexually dimorphic shape characteristics in face images on attractiveness judgments. However, results have been mixed and show considerable cross-cultural variability, particularly for women’s judgments of men’s facial attractiveness. Because very little research has investigated f...
Article
Previous research has found that physical characteristics in faces that influence perceptions of trustworthiness and dominance have context-contingent effects on leadership perceptions. People whose faces are perceived to be trustworthy are judged to be better leaders in peacetime contexts than wartime contexts. By contrast, people whose faces are...
Article
Objectives: Sexual orientation categories are commonly differentiated in the partner preference literature. Yet little is known about how the variability within each category influences partner preferences. Methods: We investigated women’s (N = 27,611) preferences for sexual dimorphism in male faces in relation to self-reports of sexual attraction...
Preprint
Much research in face perception relies on computer graphics techniques that require a significant delineation cost – the manual placement by individual researchers of a large number of landmarks, some of which are difficult to define, on a significant number of images. However, face detection algorithms that can quickly and automatically place the...
Preprint
A large literature exists investigating the extent to which physical characteristics (e.g., strength, weight, and height) can be accurately assessed from face images. While most of these studies have employed two dimensional (2D) face images as stimuli, some recent studies have used three dimensional (3D) face images because they may contain cues n...
Preprint
Previous research suggests that humans show positive assortative mating, i.e. tend to pair up with partners that are similar to themselves in a range of traits, including facial appearance. Facial appearance can function as a cue to genetic similarity and plays a critical role in human mate choice. Evidence for positive assortative mating for facia...
Article
Findings for progesterone and anxiety in non-human animals led to the hypothesis that women's interpersonal anxiety will track changes in progesterone during the menstrual cycle. There have been few direct tests of this hypothesis, however. Consequently, we used a longitudinal design to investigate whether interpersonal anxiety (assessed using the...
Article
We investigated the impact of congruency between the witness interview and method used to construct a composite face. Experiment 1, using a typical feature-by-feature composite method, revealed that aligning cognitive processes during interview and face construction enhanced the effectiveness of composites compared with composites produced followin...
Article
Full-text available
Men are hypothesized to show stronger preferences for physical attractiveness in potential mates than women are, particularly when assessing the attractiveness of potential mates for short-term relationships. By contrast, women are thought to show stronger preferences for social status in potential mates than men are, particularly when assessing th...
Article
Secondary data analyses (analyses of open data from published studies) can play a critical role in hypothesis generation and in maximizing the contribution of collected data to the accumulation of scientific knowledge. However, assessing the evidentiary value of results from secondary data analyses is often challenging because analytical decisions...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Although it is widely assumed that men’s sexual desire and interest in casual sex (i.e., sociosexual orientation) are linked to steroid hormone levels, evidence for such associations is mixed. Methods: We tested for both longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between salivary testosterone, cortisol, reported sexual desire and so...
Preprint
Many researchers have suggested that more attractive women will show stronger preferences for masculine men, potentially because such women are better placed to offset the potential costs of choosing a masculine mate. Perhaps the most compelling evidence for this proposal has come from work reporting a positive association between third-party ratin...
Preprint
Facial-width-to-height ratio (fWHR) measured from 2D images using a fully automated method and a manual-landmark-placement method produce very similar results
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last ten years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgments of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Full-text available
Facial attractiveness plays a critical role in social interaction, influencing many different social outcomes. However, the factors that influence facial attractiveness judgments remain relatively poorly understood. Here, we used a sample of 594 young adult female face images to compare the performance of existing theory-driven models of facial att...
Preprint
Facial expressions of emotion play an important role in social interactions. Recent work has suggested that experimentally increasing body-weight cues makes faces displaying happy expressions look happier and makes faces displaying sad expressions look sadder. These results were interpreted as evidence that a ‘heavy people are happier’ stereotype i...
Preprint
Secondary data analyses (analyses of open data from published studies) can play a critical role in hypothesis generation and in maximizing the contribution of collected data to the accumulation of scientific knowledge. However, assessing the evidentiary value of results from secondary data analyses is often challenging because analytical decisions...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pathogen disgust is thought to function primarily to reduce exposure to infectious diseases. Recent work has found that viewing trypophobic images (i.e., images showing clusters of small holes or bumps) elicits stronger negative responses in people who report greater pathogen disgust. This association has been reported for responses to trypophobic...
Preprint
Women’s preferences for masculine characteristics in men’s faces have been extensively studied. By contrast, little is known about how gay men respond to masculine facial characteristics. One area of disagreement in the emerging literature on this topic is the association between gay men’s partnership status and masculinity preference. One study fo...
Preprint
Moral opposition to incest is thought to play an important role in preventing inbreeding. Some researchers have proposed that moral opposition to sibling incest is greater for individuals who have other-sex siblings. Empirical evidence for this claim is mixed, however. Consequently, we compared moral opposition to both third-party sibling and third...
Article
Full-text available
Social judgments of faces predict important social outcomes, including leadership decisions. Previous work suggests that facial cues associated with perceptions of dominance and trustworthiness have context-specific effects on leadership decisions. Facial cues linked to perceived dominance have been found to be preferred in leaders for hypothetical...
Article
Previous research has shown strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness judgments. However, these studies all used a theory-driven approach in which responses to specific facial characteristics are compared between cultures. This approach is constrained by the predictions that can be derived from existing theories and can therefore bia...
Preprint
Although many researchers have assumed that vocal attractiveness functions as a health cue, direct tests of this assumption have been rare. Consequently, we will test possible correlations between women’s vocal attractiveness and susceptibility to infectious illnesses. We will test correlations between women’s vocal attractiveness and both a range...
Article
Research on mate preference have often taken a theory-driven approach; however, such an approach can constrain the range of possible predictions. As a result, the research community may inadvertently neglect traits that are potentially important for human mate choice if current theoretical models simply do not identify them. Here, we address this l...