Ben Bederson

Ben Bederson
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Computer Science

About

240
Publications
49,686
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
14,369
Citations
Citations since 2016
3 Research Items
3452 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (240)
Article
A research project, begun in the fall of 2002, expects to tap the potential of the Internet for breaking down barriers and building tolerance and understanding through access to exemplary children’s books from all over the world. The creation of the International Children’s Digital Library (ICDL) is the focus of a five-year project being conducted...
Article
In 2011, Maricopa County adopted voluntary restaurant hygiene grade cards (A, B, C, D). Using inspection results between 2007 and 2013, we show that only 58 percent of the subsequent inspections led to online grade posting. Although the disclosure rate in general declines with inspection outcome, higher-quality A restaurants are less likely to disc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Programming-by-Example (PBE) enables users to create programs without writing a line of code. However, there is little research on people's ability to accomplish complex tasks by providing examples, which is the key to successful PBE solutions. This paper presents an online user study, which reports observations on how well people decompose complex...
Article
Full-text available
End-user programming (EUP) is a common approach for helping ordinary people create small programs for their professional or daily tasks. Since end-users may not have programming skills or strong motivation for learning them, tools should provide what end-users want with minimal costs of learning –i.e., they must decrease the barriers to entry. Howe...
Article
An enormous potential exists for solving certain classes of computational problems through rich collaboration among crowds of humans supported by computers. Solutions to these problems used to involve human professionals, who are expensive to hire or difficult to find. Despite significant advances, fully automatic systems still have much room for i...
Article
Full-text available
We believe that children as young as ten can directly benefit from opportunities to engage in computational thinking. One approach to provide these opportunities is to focus on social game play. Understanding game play is common across a range of media and ages. Children can begin by solving puzzles on paper, continue on game boards, and ultimately...
Conference Paper
We use visual analytics to explore participation in five MOOCs at the University of Maryland. In some of these courses, our analysis reveals interesting clustering patterns of student behavior. For other courses, visualizations provide "color" to help us better understand the range of student behavior.
Conference Paper
The wealth of resources online has empowered individuals and businesses with an unprecedented volume of information to aid in decision making processes. However, finding the many details needed for a non-trivial decision can be very labor-intensive. We present AskSheet, a general system that leverages human computation to acquire the inputs to an a...
Article
Full-text available
Demo Hour highlights new prototypes and projects that exemplify innovation and novel forms of interaction. Audrey Desjardins, Editor
Article
Full-text available
Today's mobile devices are equipped with a variety of tools that enable users to capture and share their daily experiences. However, designing authoring tools that effectively integrate the discrete media-capture components of mobile devices to enable rich expression—especially by children—remains a challenge. Evaluating such tools authentically, a...
Article
Today’s mobile devices are equipped with a variety of tools that enable users to capture and share their daily experiences. However, designing authoring tools that effectively integrate the discrete media-capture components of mobile devices to enable rich expression---especially by children---remains a challenge. Evaluating such tools authenticall...
Article
Full-text available
Targeted paraphrasing is a new approach to the problem of obtaining cost-effective, reasonable quality translation, which makes use of simple and inexpensive human computations by monolingual speakers in combination with machine translation. The key insight behind the process is that it is possible to spot likely translation errors with only monoli...
Article
Full-text available
The challenges encountered in building the International Children's Digital Library (ICDL), a freely available online library of children's literature are described. These challenges include selecting and processing books from different countries, handling and presenting multiple languages simultaneously, and addressing cultural differences. Unlike...
Article
The wealth of information and social resources online has raised the bar for the quality of decisions that individuals and businesses can make. Human computation and social mediums have also increased the potential for finding relevant information or opinions and making them a part of a decision-making process. However, the strategies that individu...
Article
Full-text available
MonoTrans2 is a translation system that com-bines machine translation (MT) with human computation using two crowds of monolin-gual source (Haitian Creole) and target (En-glish) speakers. We report on its use in the WMT 2011 Haitian Creole to English trans-lation task, showing that MonoTrans2 trans-lated 38% of the sentences well compared to Google...
Poster
Full-text available
In this paper we describe CTArcade, a web application framework that seeks to engage users through game play resulting in the improvement of computational thinking (CT) skills. Our formative study indicates that CT skills are employed when children are asked to define strategies of common games such as Connect Four. In CTArcade, users can train the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we report our experience deploying the MonoTrans Widgets system in a public setting. Our work follows a line of crowd-sourced monolingual translation systems, and it is the first attempt to deploy such a system "in the wild". The results are promising, but we also found out that simultaneously drawing from multiple crowds with differ...
Article
Zoomable User Interfaces (ZUIs), now over 15 years old, are an interface approach for searching and browsing visual information spatially. ZUIs organize information on a large flat surface with animated transitions to show movement through space. They have been the subject of research in the areas of implementation, design approach, efficacy, and a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Contextual help is effective for learning how to use GUIs by showing instructions and highlights on the actual interface rather than in a separate viewer. However, end-users and third-party tech support typically cannot create contextual help to assist other users because it requires programming skill and source code access. We present a creation t...
Conference Paper
The rapid growth of human computation within research and industry has produced many novel ideas aimed at organizing web users to do great things. However, the growth is not adequately supported by a framework with which to understand each new system in the context of the old. We classify human computation systems to help identify parallels between...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present MonoTrans2, a new user interface to support monolingual translation; that is, translation by people who speak only the source or target language, but not both. Compared to previous systems, MonoTrans2 supports multiple edits in parallel, and shorter tasks with less translation context. In an experiment translating children...
Conference Paper
The ongoing rise of human computation as a means of solving computational problems has created an environment where human workers are often regarded as nameless, faceless computational resources. Some people have begun to think of online tasks as a "remote person call". In this paper, we summarize ethical and practical labor issues surrounding onli...
Article
The source text provided to a machine translation system is typically only one of many ways the input sentence could have been expressed, and alternative forms of expression can often produce a better trans-lation. We introduce here error driven paraphras-ing of source sentences: instead of paraphrasing a source sentence exhaustively, we obtain par...
Conference Paper
In this paper we describe a new iterative translation process designed to leverage the massive number of online users who have minimal or no bilingual skill. The iterative process is supported by combining existing machine translation methods with monolingual human speakers. We have built a Web-based prototype that is capable of yielding high quali...
Article
Both handwriting recognition systems and their users are error prone. Handwriting recognizers make recognition errors, and users may miss those errors when verifying output. As a result, it is common for recognized documents to contain residual errors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Problems in the 2000 presidential election, especially in Florida, initiated a large-scale shift toward new voting technology. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data, we report on the effects of changes in voting systems in Florida and Michigan. The variety of initial conditions and the numerous changes make these excellent case studies. We fi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Targeted paraphrasing is a new approach to the problem of obtaining cost-effective, reasonable quality translation that makes use of simple and inexpensive human computations by monolingual speakers in combination with machine translation. The key insight behind the process is that it is possible to spot likely translation errors with only monoling...
Conference Paper
Rich text tasks are increasingly common on mobile devices, requiring the user to interleave typing and selection to produce the text and formatting she desires. However, mobile devices are a rich input space where input does not need to be limited to a keyboard and touch. In this paper, we present two complimentary studies evaluating four different...
Article
The rapid growth of human computation within research and industry has produced many novel ideas aimed at organizing web users to do great things. However, the growth is not adequately supported by an overarching framework with which to understand each new system in the context of the old. We give a human computation classification system that can...
Chapter
This chapter discusses experience in adapting and enhancing digital books, small-screen reading, in-context story creation, and collaborative storytelling for mobile platforms. It presents the current research landscape; the interface approaches chosen; the codesign methods used with children as our partners; the design challenges encountered; and...
Conference Paper
This paper explores how people read books online. Instead of observing individuals, we analyze usage of an online digital library of children's books (the International Children's Digital Library). We go beyond typical webpage-centric analysis to focus on book reading in an attempt to understand how people read books from websites. We propose a def...
Article
The arrival of electronic voting has generated considerable controversy, mostly about its vulnerability to fraud. By comparison, virtually no attention has been given to its usability, i.e., voters’ ability to vote as they intend, which was central to the controversy surrounding the 2000 US presidential election. Yet it is hard to imagine a domain...
Conference Paper
Text location in scanned documents is important for selection, search, and other interactions with visual presentations of scanned books. In this paper, we describe a work flow to extract and verify text locations using commercial software, along with free software products and human proofing. Our method uses Adobe Acrobat's OCR functionality, but...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on an adaption of the existing PopoutText and ClearText display techniques to mobile phones. It explains the design rationale for a freely available iPhone application to read books from the International Children's Digital Library. Through a combination of applied image processing, a zoomable user interface, and a process of wor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Informal educational experiences with grandparents and other older adults can be an important component of children"s education, especially in circumstances where high quality educational services and facilities are not readily available. Mobile devices offer unique capabilities to support such interactions. We report on an ongoing participatory de...
Conference Paper
In this panel, academic, non-profit, and industry professionals will discuss their global perspectives on mobile technologies for the world's children. Panelists will explore such issues concerning children's access to mobile devices, the decreasing age that children have access to these technologies, mobile innovations for learning, and challenges...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet has led to an explosion of users throughout the world. Low-cost computing options are now emerging for developing countries that are changing the world's educational landscape. Given these conditions, there is a critical need to understand the obstacles and opportunities in designing and deploying technologies for children worldwide. T...
Article
Distributed Human Computation (DHC) holds great promise for using computers and humans together to scaling up the kinds of tasks that only humans do well. Currently, the literature describing DHC efforts so far is segmented. Projects that stem from different perspectives frequently do not cite each other. This can be especially problematic for rese...
Article
Full-text available
As the capabilities of smartphones and similar mobile devices advance, opportunities increase to use them for meaningful creative tasks. Incorporating text, images, and sounds in documents is commonplace when using desktop office or graphics software. However, multimedia authoring interfaces for mobile devices remain undeveloped. Working with a par...
Article
There are many interface schemes that allow users to work at, and move between, focused and contextual views of a dataset. We review and categorize these schemes according to the interface mechanisms used to separate and blend views. The four approaches are overview+detail, which uses a spatial separation between focused and contextual views; zoomi...
Article
Number of words in abstract, text and references: 6774 Number of figures: 6 Total effective # words = 6,820 + (6 * 250) = 8,274 TRB 2008 Annual Meeting CD-ROM Paper revised from original submittal. 2 ABSTRACT Computers are extremely powerful for data processing, but less adept at handling problems that involve subjective reasoning. People, on the o...
Article
The International Children's Digital Library (ICDL), is a website of exemplary and freely available children's books with a child-friendly interface for finding and reading books online. The design, implementation, and deployment of the ICDL is done thorough a process called Cooperative Inquiry, which offers search parameters of various books. An I...
Article
Electronic voting systems were developed, in part, to make voting easier and to boost voters' confidence in the election process. Using three new approaches to studying electronic voting systems—focusing on a large-scale field study of the usability of a representative set of systems—we demonstrate that voters view these systems favorably but that...
Conference Paper
While public policy is a recognized important topic within human-computer interaction, not enough attention has been paid to public policy efforts outside of the USA. We propose a panel at CHI 2008 to focus on CHI policy issues around the world. Specifically, we plan to address at least three major topics: accessibility, privacy, and voting.
Conference Paper
Displaying scanned book pages in a web browser is difficult, due to an array of characteristics of the common user's configuration that compound to yield text that is degraded and illegibly small. For books which contain only text, this can often be solved by using OCR or manual transcription to extract and present the text alone, or by magnifying...
Conference Paper
Supporting one-handed thumb operation of touchscreen- based mobile devices presents a challenging tradeoff between visual expressivity and ease of interaction. ThumbSpace and Shift—two new application-independent, software-based interaction techniques—address this tradeoff in significantly different ways; ThumbSpace addresses distant objects while...
Article
Full-text available
The 2000 election called attention to the need for assessing the usability of voting systems and accelerated the introduction of electronic voting systems across the United States. An expert review, usability laboratory study, and field study were conducted to assess six electronic voting systems and four vote-verification/election audit systems. T...
Article
Full-text available
The vision of ubiquitous digital photos has arrived. Yet, despite their broad popularity, significant shortfalls remain in the tools used to manage them. We believe that with a bit more creativity and effort, the photo industry can solve many of these problems, offering tools which better support accurate, rapid, and safe shared annotations with co...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present ThumbSpace, a software-based interaction technique that provides general one-handed thumb operation of touchscreen- based mobile devices. Our goals are to provide controlled and accurate selection of all interface objects, especially small and far targets, which are traditionally difficult to interact with using the thumb....
Article
Elementary-age children (ages 6-11) are among the largest user groups of computers and the Internet. Therefore, it is important to design searching and browsing tools that support them. However, many interfaces for children do not consider their skills and preferences. Children are capable of creating Boolean queries using category browsers, but ha...
Article
Managing a large number of digital photos is a challenging task for casual users. Personal photos often don’t have rich metadata, or additional information associated with them. However, available metadata can play a crucial role in managing photos. Labeling the semantic content of photos (i.e., annotating them), can increase the amount of metadata...
Article
Full-text available
Networks have remained a challenge for information retrieval and visualization because of the rich set of tasks that users want to accomplish. This paper offers an abstract Content-Actor network data model, a classification of tasks, and a tool to support them. The NetLens interface was designed around the abstract Content-Actor network data model...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a case study of 12 children who used the International Children's Digital Library (ICDL) over four years and live in one of four countries: Germany, Honduras, New Zealand, and the United States. By conducting interviews, along with collecting drawings and book reviews, this study describes these children's interests in books, li...
Article
Complex multi-dimensional datasets are now pervasive in science and elsewhere in society. Better interactive tools are needed for visual data exploration so that patterns in such data may be easily discovered, data can be proofread, and subsets of data can be chosen for algorithmic analysis. In particular, synthetic research such as ecological inte...
Article
In this paper, we present ThumbSpace, a software-based interaction technique that supports one-handed thumb op- eration of touchscreen-based mobile devices. Our goals are to provide accurate selection of all interface objects, espe- cially small and far targets, which are traditionally difficult to interact with using the thumb. ThumbSpace is desig...
Article
Full-text available
Despite extensive research, it is still difficult to produce effective interactive layouts for large graphs. Dense layout and occlusion make food webs, ontologies, and social networks difficult to understand and interact with. We propose a new interactive Visual Analytics component called TreePlus that is based on a tree-style layout. TreePlus reve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Networks have remained a challenge for information retrieval and visualization because of the rich set of tasks that users want to accomplish. This paper offers an abstract content-actor network data model, a classification of tasks, and a tool to support them. The NetLens interface was designed around the abstract content-actor network data model...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the design and use of a system facilitating the sharing of calendar information between remotely located, multi-generational family members. Most previous work in this area involves software enabling younger family members to monitor their parents. We have found, however, that older adults are equally if not more interested in the activ...
Conference Paper
Networks have remained a challenge for information retrieval and visualization because of the rich set of tasks that users want to accomplish. This paper demonstrates a tool, NetLens, to explore a content-actor paired network data model. The NetLens interface was designed to allow users to pose a series of elementary queries and iteratively refine...
Conference Paper
In this paper we describe the goals of a one-day workshop to be held at CHI 2006 whose goal is to form an action plan for the SIGCHI U.S. Public Policy committee for the next year.
Article
Innovative user interface strategies, which support annotation, browsing, and sharing digital photographic databases, can add up to rich support for exploratory search. Appropriate annotation is necessary to be associated with the images, either by the camera or by users of the images, to support effective search on photos. Innovation in social exp...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a two-phase study conducted to determine optimal target sizes for one-handed thumb use of mobile handheld devices equipped with a touch-sensitive screen. Similar studies have provided recommendations for target sizes when using a mobile device with two hands plus a stylus, and interacting with a desktop-sized display with an in...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge faced in the design of mobile devices is that they are typically used when the user has limited physical and attentional resources available. We are interested in the circumstances when a user has only a single hand available. To offer insight for future one-handed mobile designs, we conducted three foundational studies: a field s...
Article
Full-text available
Elementary-age children (ages 3-13) are among the largest user groups of computers and the Internet, so it is important to design searching and browsing tools to support them. However, many such tools do not consider their skills and preferences. In this paper, we present the design rationale and process for creating the searching and browsing tool...
Article
In this paper we explore single handed mobile computing. Our approach is to understand how devices are currently used (habit), how users would prefer to interact with devices (desire) and the relationship between device size and thumb freedom (agility). We use a different methodology to study each factor: a field study, survey, and empirical evalua...
Article
Expert reviews, laboratory tests, and a large-scale field study of one paper/optical scan and five electronic voting systems suggested numerous possible improvements. Changes could be made in all aspects of the process-signing-on, navigating across the ballot, checking and changing votes, casting write-in votes, and reviewing and casting the ballot...
Article
The development and testing of systems to support users engaged in exploratory search activities (i.e., searches where the target may be undefined) is an challenge for the online search community. In this article we report on a workshop on exploratory search issues organized in conjunction with the University of Maryland Human-Computer Interaction...
Conference Paper
TreePlus is a graph browsing technique based on a tree-style layout. It shows the missing graph structure using interaction techniques and enables users to start with a specific node and incrementally explore the local structure of graphs. We believe that it supports particularly well tasks that require rapid reading of labels.
Article
The development and testing of systems to support users engaged in exploratory search activities (i.e., searches where the target may be undefined) is an challenge for the online search community. In this article we report on a workshop on exploratory search issues organized in conjunction with the University of Maryland Human-Computer Interaction...