Belen Marquez

Belen Marquez
Museo Arqueologico y Paleontológico de la Comunidad de Madrid

PH.D.

About

77
Publications
26,895
Reads
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915
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
424 Citations
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Introduction
Use-wear analyst of lithic tools. Now working with quartz mousterian tools at Pinilla del Valle (Middle Palaeolithic archaeological sites at Madrid- Spain). Also interested in prehistoric hunting techniques.
Additional affiliations
March 2003 - present
Independent Researcher
Independent Researcher
Position
  • Archaeologist
August 2002 - December 2022
Museo Arqueológico y Paleontológico de la Comunidad de Madrid
Position
  • Proyecto de Investigación en los yacimientos de Pinilla del Valle (Madrid, Spain)
Description
  • Neanderthals, Mousterian, Upper Pleistocene, Middle Palaeolithic, Spain
August 1989 - present
Position
  • Proyecto de Investigación en los Yacimientos de Atapuerca
Description
  • Lower palaeolithic, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis, Lower Pleistocene, Middle Pleistocene, Spain
Education
January 2013 - December 2016
Universidad de Valladolid
Field of study
  • Traceology, Lithic Technology
January 1995 - May 1998
September 1987 - June 1991

Publications

Publications (77)
Article
The present work describes a preliminary study of a primarily quartz-based Mousterian lithic assemblage deposited about 75,000 years ago by Neanderthals in Navalmaíllo rockshelter (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid, Spain). Although archaeological assemblages dominated by quartz are not common in the central Iberian Peninsula, they are more common in perip...
Article
Full-text available
This work examines the possible behaviour of Neanderthal groups at the Cueva Des-Cubierta (central Spain) via the analysis of the latter’s archaeological assemblage. Alongside evidence of Mousterian lithic industry, Level 3 of the cave infill was found to contain an assemblage of mammalian bone remains dominated by the crania of large ungulates, so...
Article
Neanderthals have been claimed to have had a selective adaptation to rugged, wooded landscapes that would have partially compensate their high basal metabolic rate and locomotor energetic costs through reducing search time and increasing diet breadth. The archaeological site of the Navalmaíllo rockshelter (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid), located in a m...
Article
Full-text available
Los yacimientos del Calvero de la Higuera (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid) son un referente para comprender la forma de vida, relación con el medio y capacidad simbólica de los grupos de neandertales que habitaron este territorio durante el Pleistoceno Superior. Los trabajos arqueológicos que, sobre todo desde 2002, se desarrollan en dicho enclave, situ...
Article
The interior of the Iberian Peninsula has few Middle Palaeolithic sites, especially when compared to other areas of the Mediterranean Basin and the northern Spanish region. Few in number too are the zooarchaeological and taphonomic studies that throw light on the relationships between Neanderthal groups, their environment, and the use they made of...
Book
Special issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. This special issue compiles recent research on the reconstruction of prehistoric technologies and the identification of function and the uses of ancient tools made of stone, bone, shell and other materials used by early humans. This extensive volume stems from two scientific session...
Article
Studying lithic raw material sourcing, processing and distribution is helpful when trying to reconstruct the territory, ecology, and cultural practices of Neanderthal groups. The use of multiple methods in such analyses allows for more refined characterizations to be made, helping to distinguish between materials better than any single method. Alth...
Article
Traceological method is based on the identification and analysis of the stone tools surface modifications as a result of the use, hafting or manufacturing procedures, among others. Traditionally, use-wear analyses have been conducted using Optical Light Microscopy (OLM) or even, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), normally basing the interpretation...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, reports on bone breakage at archaeological sites have become more common in the taphonomic literature. The present work tests a recently published method, based on the use of machine learning algorithms for analysing the processes involved in bone breakage, to identify the agent that broke the bones of medium-sized animals at the M...
Article
Full-text available
Navalmaíllo Rock Shelter is an Upper Pleistocene archaeological site in the Lozoya River Valley (Madrid, Spain) with a quartz-based Mousterian lithic assemblage. To understand the reasons behind an intense use of quartz over flint and quartzite, a mechanical experiment was carried out. Flakes from flint, quartzite, and local quartz were tested unde...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo supone una actualización de la documentación disponible sobre la necrópolis del Cerro Ortega, que incluye nuevas data-ciones absolutas y su contexto cultural. Se aportan datos y materiales inéditos sobre algunos sitios arqueológicos fundamentales para comprender los procesos de cambio cultural entre los IV y III milenios cal BC en el i...
Article
The study of cut marks in archaeological contexts is of great importance for understanding the subsistence strategies of past human groups. Many authors have indicated differences to exist between the cut marks produced by different tools and when the same types of tool have been made from different raw materials. The present work examines the cut...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Use-wear analyses are based on the assumption that the different activities undertaken with lithic tools are reflected in a series of surface alterations that can be recorded and interpreted in order to determine the type of action and worked material. However, for ancient periods use-wear studies are significantly scant, due to a series of constra...
Conference Paper
The Calvero de la Higuera (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid, Spain) is a unique archaeopaleontological complex to understand the relationship between Neanderthals and hyaenids during the Late Pleistocene (from the beginning of MIS 5 to late MIS 4). Pinilla del Valle archaeological sites are situated near the Lozoya River where five sites with different ta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Calvero de la Higuera (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid, Spain) is a unique archaeopaleontological complex to understand the relationship between Neanderthals and hyaenids during the Late Pleistocene (from the beginning of MIS 5 to late MIS 4). Pinilla del Valle archaeological sites are situated near the Lozoya River where five sites with different ta...
Chapter
The shouldered point with abrupt retouch (SP) is one of the most characteristic elements of the hunting tools from the end of the Solutrean period in Iberia outside the Cantabrian region. Its morphological and volumetric variability allowed a large variety of hafts with the intention of creating composite projectiles. To test different hafting tech...
Article
Full-text available
El yacimiento de Navalmaíllo es un abrigo kárstico localizado en un entorno de montaña cerca del río Lozoya. La ubicación del yacimiento permite un control del entorno, siguiendo las migraciones de animales y para el establecimiento temporal de los grupos humanos. Las dificultades asociadas con la temporalidad relacionada con los procesos ocupacion...
Article
Full-text available
The Navalmaíllo site is a karstic rockshelter located in a mountain environment near the Lozoya river. The location of the site allows for the close monitoring of the surrounding area, for following the migrations of animals and for the temporary residence of human groups. The difficulties associated with temporality as it relates to occupational p...
Poster
Full-text available
There is less information about raw material procurement on the center of the Iberian Peninsula when comparing with coastal areas. By studying lithic raw material choices and the implications it may have on the technological adaptation we are looking to understand the relation between the chaîne opératoire, raw materials and how they influence each...
Article
Full-text available
Los denticulados y las muescas son dos de los elementos más frecuentes en la panoplia musteriense. El creciente interés por el estudio de estos tipos permite vislumbrar su complejidad. La aparente estandarización de sus formas no lo es tal a la luz de nuevos estudios tipométricos. Así mismo, la especialización supuesta del denticulado parece encont...
Conference Paper
El Abrigo de Navalmaíllo es uno de los yacimientos en contexto kárstico más grandes de la Meseta ibérica con unos 300 m2. Este enclave, descubierto en 2002 y excavado ininterrumpidamente hasta la actualidad, es uno de los yacimientos de Paleolítico medio localizados en el conjunto arqueopaleontológico de Pinilla del Valle (Madrid, España). El Abrig...
Article
Lagomorph remains at Pleistocene sites may accumulate through the action of hominins, raptors or carnivores. Actualistic studies have described reliable taphonomic indicators that allow human and nonhuman involvement in such accumulations to be distinguished. However, discriminating between possible animal predators is not easy, because the prey re...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Solutrean shouldered point with abrupt retouch is one of the most characteristic hunting tools at the end of Solutrean period in the outer-Cantabric area. Its morphological and volumetric variability permitted a large variety of hafts with the intention of creating composed projectiles. For that reason, our main aim is to carry out an experimen...
Thesis
The technological and traceological study of the mousterian lithic sample from the Level F of the Navalmaíllo Rockshelter (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid) is presented. Its most characteristic feature is that it is mostly made of quartz and has microlithic tendencies. The traceological studies undertaken confirm the use of some quartz tools in butcherin...
Article
The study of wear marks on Palaeolithic quartz tools allows an understanding of how they were used. The present work reports a functional study of a sample of Mousterian quartz industry from Level F of the Navalmaíllo Rock Shelter (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid, Spain). This level, a palimpsest, preserves the remains of a Neanderthal occupation. Traceo...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to describe the conservation and restoration procedures applied to the Pleistocene archaeological sites of Camino Cave, Navalmaíllo Rock Shelter and Buena Pinta Cave of Pinilla del Valle, Madrid (Spain). Clear-cut and timely decisions must be made when retrieving fossils and the close collaboration of a multidisciplinary te...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to describe the conservation and restoration procedures applied to the Pleistocene archaeological sites of Camino Cave, Navalmaíllo Rock Shelter and Buena Pinta Cave of Pinilla del Valle, Madrid (Spain). Clear-cut and timely decisions must be made when retrieving fossils and the close collaboration of a multidisciplinary te...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The karst dolomite hill of Calvero de la Higuera (Pinilla del Valle, Comunidad de Madrid, Spain) is extraordinarily rich in sites that were occupied by hominids and carnivores. Signs abound that Homo neanderthalensis used the area’s caves and rockshelters as camps, and that these structures also provided dens for hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) [1]. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Calvero de la Higuera hill (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid, Spain), at the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, has five archaeological sites: the Cueva del Camino, the Navalmaíllo Rock Shelter, the Cueva de la Buena Pinta, the Abrigo del Ocelado, and the Cueva Des- Cubierta sites. These are all of Late Pleistocene age, although some also have Middle Pl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fossil evidence of Neanderthals during MIS3 in central Spain is rather scarce. Until now, the few remains from Los Casares Cave, Jarama VI site and Los Torrejones Cave constituted the bony record for this species in this region for this period. Recently, two Neanderthal teeth were recovered in Buena Pinta cave, a site discovered in 2003 situated in...
Article
Full-text available
The locality of Calvero de la Higuera, near the village of Pinilla del Valle (Madrid Region) in Spain's Central System mountain range, is home to a number of karstic sites containing the fossils of vertebrates, mostly from the Late Pleistocene. Taphonomic studies have led to some of these sites being interpreted as the dens of spotted hyaenas (Croc...
Article
Full-text available
The Pinilla del Valle sites, located in the High Lozoya Valley, are a unique enclave to know more about the way of life and environment of Homo neanderthalensis during the Late Pleistocene. Its singularity lies on the existence of at least five archaeological sites with different models of occupation in a same promontory of 3 has. The Calvero de la...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the PhD project under the supervision of Nuno Bicho and Enrique Baquedano, which aims to study the origin of raw materials from the Mousterian lithic sets of the Calvero de la Higuera sites. At this first stage of the project the main objective is the determination and characterization of the raw materials present at the sites...
Article
Full-text available
Barbed and tanged points (BTP) are one of the specific elements which characterize extracantabrian Solutrean. This type of projectile points are characterized from morphological and typometrical parameters. A model is proposed to explain the manufacturing processes and their effect on the archaeological record. From analysis of the BTP are establis...
Chapter
Full-text available
The archaeological sites at Pinilla del Valle, to the north of the Autonomous Community of Madrid, are an exceptional location for learning about the evolution of the behaviour of human groups from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene. In Calvero de la Higuera, a headland of about 3.5 hectares, a number of sites of different origin and meaning co...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo pretende ofrecer una imagen global de los estudios que se han realizado sobre un soporte tan particular y definitorio cronol?gica y territorialmente del Paleol?tico superior como son las puntas solutrenses. Iniciaremos nuestro trabajo explicando los distintos tipos de puntas solutrenses que se han definido hasta el momento para posteri...
Article
The Sierra de Atapuerca sites offer a chronological sequence that allows the evolution of technology at a local scale during the Early and Middle Pleistocene to be reconstructed. This paper presents updated information on the main lithic assemblages recovered from the various levels of the Sima del Elefante, Gran Dolina, Galería, and Sima de los Hu...
Article
Full-text available
The Cueva del Camino site (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid) represents the most complete MIS 5 record from the Iberian Peninsula (away from the Mediterranean margin), including a large accumulation of fossilized remains of small and large vertebrates and two human teeth. The presence of carnivores (mainly hyenas) and humans suggests that the site should...
Article
Full-text available
We present here a study of some upper Pleistocene archaeological sites from central Spain. They are located at a karstic complex at de high Lozoya valley (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid). Navalmaíllo Shelter preserves lithics, hearths and highly anthropically altered fauna, which are common at camp sites. Buena Pinta Cave was mainly used as hyaena den,...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabajo pretende ofrecer una imagen global de los estudios que se han realizado sobre un soporte tan particular y definitorio cronológica y territorialmente del Paleolítico superior como son las puntas solutrenses. Iniciaremos nuestro trabajo explicando los distintos tipos de puntas solutrenses que se han definido hasta el momento para posteri...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper deals with results obtained by an interdisciplinary project, conceived for the rescue excavation of a site in which pits are the unique features. Such sites comprise one of the ubiquitous archaeological formations of the later prehistory of the central Spanish Meseta. A stratigraphical recording system, systematic recovery of find...
Article
Full-text available
La exposición "Atapuerca: nuestros antecesores" en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN) pone al alcance del gran público los resultados de 20 años de investigación. Para ello se han utilizado los recursos expositivos más innovadores, incluyendo las últimas tecnologías audiovisuales, maquetas, dioramas e interactivos no informáticos, al ti...
Chapter
Full-text available
The restitution of prehistoric agricultural techniques is a key element to understand the diffusion of farming in Western Mediterranean. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary results of a European working group composed of Spanish and French use-wear analysts and archaeobotanists. Cereal harvesting methods during the Early and Middle...
Article
Full-text available
Eighteen arrowpoints and three lams made of flint were recovered during the excavation of the funerary deposit of CuevaMaturras. This level can be dated into an imprecisemoment between late Neolithic and Upper Calcolithic. This sample,which is the only knapped lithic industry of all the goods, has been studied from both technologic and functional p...
Article
Full-text available
Durante la excavación del conjunto funerario de Cueva Maturras se recuperaron 18 puntas de flecha y tres láminas, todo en sílex. El nivel puede adscribirse a un momento impreciso entre el Neolítico final y el Calcolítico pleno. Este lote, que constituye la única industria lítica tallada de todo el ajuar, se ha analizado tanto desde el punto de vist...
Article
Full-text available
la campaña de excavaciones de 2005 en los ya-cimientos del Valle Alto del Lozoya, se descubrió, en terrenos pertenecientes al término municipal de Lozoya del Valle, un conjunto de industria lítica atribuible al tecnocomplejo ache-lense. Hasta la fecha las evidencias más antiguas conocidas de ocupaciones humanas en el Valle Alto del Lozoya habían si...
Article
Full-text available
Barbed and tanged points (BTP) are one of the specific elements which characterizes extracantabrian Solutrean. Its morphology contributes to fix the hypothesis that its possible function can be arrowheads propelled by a bow. However, until date there are not specific studies to contrast the idea. In this sense, we have carried out an experimental p...
Article
Full-text available
La localizaci?n en superficie en el t?rmino municipal de Lozoya (Madrid) de un conjunto de piezas de industria l?tica achelense permite retrotraer el primer poblamiento de esta zona al Pleistoceno medio, cuando hasta la fecha las evidencias m?s antiguas en el valle alto del r?o Lozoya se remontaban a inicios del Pleistoceno superior. El nuevo halla...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture technology during the Neolithic is poorly understood. This topic may be a good way to get some information about the spread of agriculture and the conditions in which agriculture was transmitted and practiced. In this paper we collect the data gathered by several specialists in use-wear analysis about harvesting techniques in different...
Article
Full-text available
The study of prehistoric lithic tools has carried out from a typological and technological point of view. Use wear analysis allows to solve objectively the problem of tool use. In addition, the application of the method to pre- historic samples of pointed tools has allowed us to answer questions which otherwise would not be solved. Palabras clave:...
Article
Full-text available
The archaeo-palaeontological survey carried out on a site located at Cerro de San Isidro (Madrid), because of a project of construction in that place, has led to the documentation of a small part of the ancient terrace which has almost totally disappeared as a result of quarrying. The study of the stratigraphic sequence, the recovery of several pie...
Article
Full-text available
During the Late Neolithic and the Chalcolithic in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula two main changes in the burials take place with respect to the previous period: the appearance of collective burials and the high proportion of projectile points among the tools recovered inside the monuments. What is the meaning of these projectile points? Without ru...
Book
Full-text available
Premio Prisma al Mejor Libro de Divulgación Científica editado en España en 2004 La historia evolutiva del ser humano abarca los últimos seis millones de años, desde nuestra separación del linaje de los chimpancés hasta la actualidad. La búsqueda de nuestros orígenes nos remonta a un tiempo perdido que los científicos tratan de recuperar a través d...
Article
Full-text available
: El registro paleontológico y arqueológico de los yacimientos de la Trinchera del Ferrocarril representa periodos clave en la evolución biológica y cultural de Homo y en la historia faunística, ambiental y climática de Europa. La parte inferior de la secuencia de Sima del Elefante (TE8-14) tiene una antigüedad proximo a 1 millón de años, y ha prop...
Article
Abstract -Methodological Perspectives of Usewear Analysis Applied to Lithic Assemblages from Atapuerca's (Burgos, Spain) Lower and Middle Pleistocene. This work presents a methodological revision of the usewear analysis applied to ancient lithic assemblages. The aim of this revision is the application of usewear to the Atapuerca sites. In this way,...
Article
This work presents a methodological revision of the usewear analysis applied to ancient lithic assemblages. The aim of this revision is the application of usewear to the Atapuerca sites. In this way, functional data recovered so far at the Gran Dolina and Galeria sites are presented. The conclusion obtained deals with the actual function of tools,...
Article
Full-text available
The topic related to the origin of bow use has been of great interest to prehistorians. Although there is no direct evidence of its use until mesolithic times, the morphology of some arrow points found in iberian solutrean contexts lead us to think that they could be used with a bow. Making experimental replicas of prehistoric bow and arrows allows...
Article
Full-text available
The ''Atapuerca: our ancestors" exhibition at the MNCN shows the results of 20 years of scientific research. Innovative exhibition resources have been applied, including the newest audio-visual technologies, models, dioramas, and non computer-based interactive elements. At the same time, fossils never exhibited before are shown. Other activities li...
Article
Full-text available
En: B / Ilustre Colegio Oficial de Doctores y Licenciados en Filosofía y Letras y en Ciencias Madrid 2000, n. 112, febrero ; p. 23-26 La exposición 'Atapuerca nuestros antecesores' pretende mostrar los resultados de más de 20 años de investigaciones de un equipo multidisciplinar en los yacimientos de Pleistoceno de la Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos)....