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Becky L. Hooey

Becky L. Hooey
NASA · Ames Research Center

PhD

About

79
Publications
21,388
Reads
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779
Citations
Citations since 2017
8 Research Items
256 Citations
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Publications

Publications (79)
Conference Paper
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-2404.vid Context: The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is a voluntary confidential aviation safety reporting system. The ASRS receives reports from pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants and other involved in aviation operations. The reports are de-identified and coded...
Conference Paper
Context: The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) is a voluntary confidential aviation safety reporting system. The ASRS receives reports from pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants and others involved in aviation operations. The reports are de-identified and coded by ASRS expert safety analysts and a short descriptive synopsis...
Conference Paper
NASA’s Resource Prospector mission is an unmanned lunar exploration mission currently in the concept development stage. Early tests have shown that the unique mission characteristics may combine to create the potential for very high workload for operators. This paper applies a taxonomy of workload drivers to identify the contextual variables expect...
Article
This paper identifies and characterizes factors that contribute to operator workload in unmanned vehicle systems. Our objective is to provide a basis for developing models of workload for use in design and operation of complex human–machine systems. In 1986, Hart developed a foundational conceptual model of workload, which formed the basis for argu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A harmonized concept of operations (ConOps) for future surface operations that considers the surface management practices and policies that currently exist in the U.S. and Europe was developed by NASA and DLR. The high-level concept vision is to develop the framework for surface traffic scheduling systems that generate conflict-free four-dimensiona...
Article
Full-text available
The process of understanding the causes of adverse events associated with complex engineered systems can be time consuming and expensive. It often requires substantial human and physical resources ranging from a few engineers up to multiple teams of domain specialists from collaborating organisations. The research presented in this article aims to...
Article
Full-text available
A pilot-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to assess the feasibility of a Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO) concept [1]. The STBO concept was investigated from the pilot perspective by evaluating pilot conformance to a four-dimensional trajectory (4DT) while taxiing under manual control. Simulation conditions included a Current-Day Equip...
Article
The results of three piloted simulations investigating flight-deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) are presented. Commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and speed components on the primary flight display and were required to taxi to the departing runway or intermediate intersections. Results show that when pilot...
Conference Paper
An integrated flight deck and controller human-in-the-loop taxi-out operations simulation was conducted in the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) environment. In this first integrated Pilot-Controller Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) simulation, ATC Ground and Local Controllers used the SARDA decision support tool to plan and issue spot-release clear...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes an evidence-based process and engineering design tool for linking human error identification taxonomies, and human error prevention and mitigation design principles with the system engineering design process. The process synthesizes the design evidence generated and used during the design and analysis process to clearly demonstr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pilot Conformance when Contingency Hold was Not Released • All pilots appropriately braked and stopped prior to the hold point. • Consistent with the fail-safe intent of the contingency-hold concept.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An integrated flight deck and controller human-in-the-loop taxi-out operations simulation was conducted in the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) environment. In this first integrated Pilot-Controller Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) simulation, ATC Ground and Local Controllers used the SARDA decision support tool to plan and issue spot-release clear...
Data
Full-text available
The objectives of the current research were to: Develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and landing operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and, draw conclusions regarding flight deck displays and pilot roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSP...
Data
Full-text available
To meet the expected increases in air traffic demands, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and their industry and academic partners are researching and developing Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concepts. It is expected that these NextGen concepts will include subs...
Data
Modeling and simulation tools can provide a valuable resource to evaluate human performance in complex, to-be-built systems. These tools help designers predict the effects of potential design changes before the system is actually built. This early evaluation can save time and money by avoiding sub-optimal designs that produce poor human-system perf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To meet the expected increases in air traffic demands, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are researching and developing Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concepts. NextGen will require substantial increases to the data available to pilots on the flight deck (e.g....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We review 25 articles presenting 5 general classes of computational models to predict pilot error. This more targeted review is placed within the context of the broader review of computational models of pilot cognition and performance, including such aspects as models of situation awareness or pilot-automation interaction. Particular emphasis is pl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Control of the robotic arm on the International Space Station is a challenging endeavor, not only due to the high consequence of failure, but also because the limited number and arrangement of cameras greatly increases the difficulty of maneuvering the arm. There is great potential for automation to reduce such effort, but developing the right kind...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Validation is critically important when human performance models are used to predict the effect of future system designs on human performance. A model of flight deck operations was validated using a rigorous, iterative, model validation process. The process included the validation of model inputs (task trace and model input parameters), process mod...
Article
Full-text available
The results of four piloted medium-fidelity simulations investigating flight deck surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) will be reviewed. In these flight deck STBO simulations, commercial transport pilots were given taxi clearances with time and/or speed components and required to taxi to the departing runway or an intermediate traffic interse...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The Man–machine Integration Design and Analysis (MIDAS) human performance model was augmented to improve predictions of multi-operator situation awareness (SA). In MIDAS, the environment is defined by situation elements (SE) that are processed by the modeled operator via a series of sub-models including visual attention, perception, an...
Data
The present work followed a three-phase approach to characterize pilot performance in off-nominal scenarios relevant to ASDO operations. In Phase 1, detailed task analyses for current-day approaches and departures were generated, and nominal and off-nominal scenarios for NextGen operations were projected. These scenarios were used to guide Phase 2...
Article
Full-text available
Pilot response to off-nominal (very rare) events represents a critical component to understanding the safety of next generation airspace technology and procedures. We describe a meta-analysis designed to integrate the existing data regarding pilot accuracy of detecting rare, unexpected events such as runway incursions in realistic flight simulation...
Article
The objective is to validate a computational model of visual attention against empirical data--derived from a meta-analysis--of pilots' failure to notice safety-critical unexpected events. Many aircraft accidents have resulted, in part, because of failure to notice nonsalient unexpected events outside of foveal vision, illustrating the phenomenon o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In complex human-machine systems, the human operator is often required to intervene to detect and solve problems. Given this increased reliance on the human in these critical human-machine systems, there is an increasing need to validly predict how operators allocate their visual attention. This paper describes the information-seeking (attention-gu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the results of a medium-fidelity piloted flight deck simulation of future surface operations. Sixteen commercial transport pilots conducted time-based taxi-out operations at DFW airport under two next generation airspace (NextGen) implementations. In the limited NextGen implementation, time-based operations were defined by prov...
Article
Full-text available
NASA research is focused on flight deck display technologies that may significantly enhance situation awareness, enable new operating concepts, and reduce the potential for incidents/accidents for terminal area and surface operations. The display technologies include surface map, head-up, and head-worn displays; 4DT guidance algorithms; synthetic a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A parameter meta-analysis was conducted to characterize human responses to off-nominal events. The probability of detecting an off-nominal event was influenced by characteristics of the offnominal event scenario (phase of flight, expectancy, and event location) and the presence of advanced cockpit technologies (head-up displays, highway-in-the-sky...
Article
As in many areas in Human Factors, human performance modeling has a long history in the aviation community. The real-time dynamism and safety criticality of the domain calls for the most advanced tools possible, and also provides a strong testbed for any modeling formalism Recent work has demonstrated significant advances in this field in the last...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge facing system designers is to ensure that a system that has been successfully evaluated in the laboratory will be successfully fielded. Off-nominal testing, in which unexpected conditions are evaluated, is proposed as a method to meet this challenge. Off-nominal testing allows for increased understanding of the humanmachine system...
Article
Full-text available
An understanding of the design rationale, or the justification for design decisions made throughout the design process, is necessary in order to understand, recreate, or modify a design. However, this information is rarely captured in a systematic and usable format because there are no tools that adequately facilitate and support the capture of the...
Chapter
The aviation community is continuously striving to increase the efficiency and safety of the entire aviation system, which includes human operators (e.g., commercial airline pilots, general aviation pilots, and air traffic controllers [ATCs]), technology (i.e., hardware, software, automation, displays, and controls), and the interactions among huma...
Book
Based on the six-year NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program Human Performance Modeling project, a collaboration of five teams from industry and academia, Human Performance Modeling in Aviation chronicles the results of modeling NASA-supplied data on two aviation flight deck problems: pilot surface operations taxi errors, and approach and landin...
Article
Full-text available
Automated surface management systems are being developed that utilize dynamic algorithms to calculate the most efficient movement of all surface traffic in order to increase the efficiency with which airport surfaces are utilized. If these systems are to be implemented, pilots will be required to comply with 4-D taxi clearances, in which a pilot is...
Article
Full-text available
A taxonomy of navigation errors (pilot deviations) during taxi operations was developed that defines 3 classes of errors: planning, decision, and execution errors. This taxonomy was applied to error data from 2 full-mission simulation studies (Hooey, Foyle, Andre, & Parke, 2000; McCann et al., 1998) that included trials that replicated current-day...
Article
Full-text available
Five modeling teams from industry and academia were chosen by the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program to develop human performance models (HPM) of pilots performing taxi operations and runway instrument approaches with and without advanced displays. One representative from each team will serve as a panelist to discuss their team's model archi...
Article
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The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) system is a prototype augmented reality commercial airline cockpit display suite developed to increase efficiency and enhance situation awareness (SA) during airport surface taxi operations. The T-NASA system consists of a head-up display (HUD) and an electronic moving map (EMM), which allow f...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract A part-task simulation study of commercial,transport approach,and landings operations with and without a synthetic vision system (SVS) was conducted,in order to generate empirical data and descriptive information for the development,of cognitive models,of this task environment. Control inputs, eye-tracking, questionnaire, and video recordi...
Article
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This study investigated pilots' taxi performance, situation awareness and workload while taxiing with three different head-up display (HUD) symbology formats: Command-guidance, Situation-guidance and Hybrid. Command-guidance symbology provided the pilot with required control inputs to maintain centerline position; Situation-guidance symbology provi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated pilots' taxi performance, situation awareness and workload while taxiing with three different head-up display (HUD) symbology formats: Command-guidance, Situation-guidance and Hybrid. Command-guidance symbology provided the pilot with required control inputs to maintain centerline position; Situation-guidance symbology provi...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive tunneling occurs when the pilot's attention becomes locked on non-conformal, superimposed head-up display (HUD) symbology, while neglecting to scan the out-the-window scene, as a result of locating the HUD symbology near (in visual angle) the outside scene information (Foyle, McCann, Sanford & Schwirzke, 1993). Previous studies have shown...
Article
Between 1988 and 2000 the U.S. Runway Safety Program Office (ATP-20) reported 3,420 runway incursions: 38% of these incursions were caused by pilots deviating from taxi clearances issued to them by air traffic control (ATC). Research at Ames Research Center has been conducted to identify the factors that contribute to these incidents and to develop...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers at NASA Ames Research Center have developed a suite of displays for low- visibility taxi operations for commercial aircraft. The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) system is comprised of a head-up display and head-down electronic moving map that collectively provide navigation and traffic surveillance information to the...
Article
Full-text available
Two full-mission simulation studies of surface operations conducted at NASA Ames Research Center revealed that, in low-visibility and night conditions, pilots committed navigation errors on 17% of trials. A post-hoc analysis of these navigation errors uncovered three distinct classes of errors: Planning Errors, Decision Errors, and Execution Errors...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive tunneling, the inefficient joint processing of superimposed head-up display (HUD) symbology and the out-the-window scene, was found in an earlier study to occur as a result of locating the HUD symbology near (in visual angle) the outside scene information (Foyle, McCann, Sanford & Schwirzke, 1993). They concluded that cognitive tunneling...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) system of surface navigation aids have been shown to increase taxi speeds, almost eliminate taxi navigation errors, increase pilots’ situational awareness, decrease pilot workload, and increase traffic awareness [1, 2, 3]. In this paper, we investigate how these aids affect task management and...
Article
Full-text available
A suite of cockpit navigation displays for low-visibility airport surface operations has been designed by researchers at NASA Ames Research Center following a human-centered process. This paper reports on the final research effort in this process that examined the procedural integration of these technologies into the flight deck. Using NASA Ames' h...
Article
Full-text available
The Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) system is a suite of cockpit displays (com- posed oi a head-up display (HUD), and an electronic moving map (EMM) as shown in figure 1) designed in support of the Aero-Space Technology Enterprise research objective to maintain safety while tripling throughput in all weather conditions. The T-NA...
Article
Full-text available
New technologies to help pilots navigate in low- visibility conditions were evaluated in a high-fidelity simulation. Navigation performance with a paper Jeppesen chart was compared with 1) an electronic moving map and 2) an electronic moving map plus a HUD. The impact of these new technologies on crew roles, procedures, and interactions is examined...
Article
The Terminal Area Productivity Program/Low- Visibility Landing and Surface Operations element is developing cockpit technologies to enable safe and efficient surface operations in Category IIIB (300-700-feet runway visual range) visibility conditions. Ames Research Center is developing an integrated display system, the T-NASA (Taxiway Navigation an...
Article
Full-text available
This papers discusses the human factors of conducting field research, within the context of a recent field evaluation of a new aircraft taxi navigation and situation awareness (T-NASA) system developed at NASA Ames Research Center. Several critical issues that were confronted in the process of the field evaluation effort are presented, followed by...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of an electronic moving map and a HUD on ground taxi performance in reduced visibility were examined in a high-fidelity simulation. Sixteen commercial flight crews completed 21 trials, each consisting of an autoland arrival to Chicago O'Hare and taxi to an apron area. Relative to a baseline (paper-chart only) condition, the EMM/HUD comb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of a field evaluation of an advanced taxi navigation and situation awareness (T-NASA) system, aimed at improving the efficiency of aircraft ground taxi operations under low-visibility conditions. T-NASA consists of two main components: 1) a panel-mounted electronic taxi map display and 2) a heads-up scene-linked displ...
Article
The requirement to evaluate the differential impacts of simulator sickness on performance assessments was explored. Simulator sickness and performance data were analyzed in two phases that indicated: 1) an experimental display condition by age interaction with regard to development of simulator sickness; and 2) associated detrimental effects of sim...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the application of human factors research tools to the design of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Three studies are described that address human performance issues with ITS each using tools that sere selected on the basis of explicit research objectives.
Article
Full-text available
Transparency in integrated human performance models (HPMs) is needed to support model verification, validation, and credibility. However, model transparency can be difficult to attain because of the complex interactions that can exist among the cognitive, physical, environment and crewstation models, and because the cognitive models embedded within...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated Human Performance Model (HPM) validity is a paramount concern when HPM predictions are used for next-generation aviation system development. HPM validity is a challenge because of the integrated nature of the HPM and because many of the embedded behaviors may not be readily observed. A rigorous validation process is required to arrive at...
Article
Full-text available
1.0 ABSTRACT A suite of cockpit navigation displays for low-visibility taxi operations was developed by researchers at NASA Ames Research Center. The displays, called the Taxiway Navigation and Situation Awareness (T-NASA) system, were created using a human- centered design and evaluation approach that involved over 300 commercial pilots participat...