Beatriz Prieto

Beatriz Prieto
University of Santiago de Compostela | USC · Department of Edafology and Agricultural Chemistry

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125
Publications
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Publications

Publications (125)
Article
High moisture is one of the main factors favouring the growth of algae and other organisms on stone surfaces. However, little is known about the specific effects of subsurface moisture on this process. Some regions will be exposed to longer periods of humidity and rainfall as a result of climate change. Understanding the role and internal dynamics...
Article
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Variations in environmental conditions in the context of climate change are expected to affect biofilm-associated organisms on granite heritage buildings. The number and duration of drought periods should be considered, as these factors will affect the availability of water for the microorganisms. In this study, mature biofilms were exposed to vari...
Presentation
PAM fluorometry is used as a non-invasive, non-destructive technique to assess the quantity and physiological state of epilithic phototrophic organisms on heritage stone buildings and structures. The various PAM fluorometers available can yield different results depending on the properties of the instruments. The aim of this study was to compare th...
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Combined laboratory and field research examining the possible alterations caused by herbicide treatments applied to the construction materials (schist and some granite, bound with mortar) in the Roman wall of Lugo (NW Spain), declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2000, was performed in three separate studies in the past 20 years. In the summe...
Article
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Local granite has been used throughout history in Galicia (NW Spain), forming the basis of much of the region’s architecture. Like any other rock, granite provides an ecological niche for a multitude of organisms that form biofilms that can affect the physical integrity of the stone. In this study, for the first time, characterization of the microb...
Article
2020 marks 25 years since Olivier Guillitte defined the term ‘bioreceptivity’, to describe the ability of a building material to be colonised by living organisms. Although Guillitte noted in his 1995 paper that several issues required further investigation, to the best of our knowledge the bioreceptivity concept has not been restated, reviewed, rea...
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Organisms living at the stone-air interface are expected to be affected by changes in the atmospheric composition due to greenhouse gases emissions. Increased CO 2 concentrations may particularly affect phototrophic microorganisms that colonize stone cultural heritage and form subaerial biofilms. However, little is known about the effects of the en...
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The former Artistic and Industrial Recreation Pavilion, which was designed by Antonio Palacios (1874–1945) and built for the Galician Regional Exhibition held in 1909 in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, north-western Spain), and which currently houses a nursery school, was completely restored in 2018. The main purpose of the restoration was to reco...
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The society has become increasingly interested in using natural products over chemicals for cleaning activities. In this study, the cleaning potential of formulations embedded in a hydrogel matrix and composed respectively of essential oils (EOs) of Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris, and Calamintha nepeta, and their respective main active component...
Article
Like all objects exposed to the atmosphere, cultural heritage monuments and buildings must face the effects of global change. Some of environmental factors that are predicted to change and that are likely to affect the development of subaerial biofilms include water regime and CO2 concentration. This study investigated, for the first time, the infl...
Presentation
Green products are receiving more and more attention in the research landscape, especially when they can replace synthetic products, which have proved to be potentially dangerous to human health and the environment. This green revolution has started to spreading in the cultural heritage conservation field, where there is a recent increased interest...
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Illustrated glossaries on stone pathologies help to describe deterioration forms in built heritage without resorting to any laboratory analyses. In this way, terms such as crust, deposit, and soiling which according to ICOMOS-ISCS: Illustrated Glossary on Stone Deterioration Patterns may include exogenic material, a patina which results from ageing...
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Between 2005 and 2008 a research project about the deterioration causes of the petroglyphs of Campo Lameiro (Pontevedra) was developed. The substrate of the carvings was characterised as a two mica-granite, fine to medium grained, with granular allotriomorphic texture. Intense cracking is present in the rock at all levels, which is responsible of i...
Article
Schist weathering induced by the presence of lichen is one of the main concerns in the Côa Valley (northeast Portugal)and Siega Verde (northwest Spain)Archaeological Parks. In this study, different types of lichens, including mainly crustose forms (Caloplaca pellodella, Candelariella vitellina, Circinaria hoffmanniana, Diploschistes actinostomus an...
Presentation
Full-text available
Although biodeterioration of building materials is a critical problem for maintenance of heritage constructions, lime and earth-based mortars have been poorly explored in this regard. This study examines the damage resulting from the biodeterioration of four different lime mortar novel formulations. Mortars of plaster, reintegration, joints and inj...
Article
Salt crystallisation is a very common and powerful weathering agent that can modify the petrophysical properties of building stone such as granite. In addition, the weathering can affect the susceptibility of the stone to biological colonisation. The aims of the present study were to examine the properties of a granite weathered by sodium chloride...
Article
Cyanobacteria, pioneering microorganisms that create a conditioning layer on substrates and act as a source of nutrients for successive colonization by heterotrophic microbes, are commonly studied in relation to the microbial ecology of stones in indoor and outdoor habitats. They are well known for producing greenish-yellow, bluish-green or occasio...
Article
Bioreceptivity is a fundamental concept in the ornamental stone industry and in the fields of cultural heritage and civil engineering to understand the susceptibility of stone constructions to biological colonisation and subsequent biodeterioration. However, a bioreceptivity index (BI) has not yet been established for any construction material. The...
Article
As any stone substrate is susceptible to biological colonisation, the choice of lithotype used for construction is a key strategy for preventing biodeterioration. For this purpose, a comprehensive evaluation of the primary bioreceptivity to phototrophic biofilms of eleven varieties of granitic rocks, commonly used as building material, was carried...
Article
The quantity (duration and intensity) and quality (colour or wavelength) of light are key factors involved in regulating growth and physiological processes in photosynthetic organisms. As a preliminary approach to developing biocolonization control strategies based on urban ornamental lighting, this study aimed to evaluate how coloured cellophane f...
Article
Simulated environmental colonisation of granite was induced under laboratory conditions in order to develop an experimental protocol for studying bioreceptivity. The experimental set-up proved suitable for producing subaerial biofilms by inoculating granite blocks with planktonic multi-species phototrophic cultures derived from natural biofilms. Th...
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Salt crystallisation is a major cause of deterioration of porous building materials, strongly related to the fluctuation of the environmental parameters. This paper explores the application of different methodologies to assess the potential damage caused by soluble salts to a series of sixteenth century frescoes with the thermo-hygrometric variatio...
Article
The aim of the present study was to optimize a protocol for extracting extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from biofilms on rocky substrata, as the EPS matrix is considered key to understanding the biofilm mode of life. For this purpose, we tested the extraction efficacy of NaOH and H2SO4 at different concentrations, temperatures and times for...
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Contradictory evidence from biogeomorphological studies has increased the debate on the extent of lichen contribution to differential rock surface weathering in both natural and cultural settings. This study, undertaken in Côa Valley Archaeological Park, aimed at evaluating the effect of rock surface orientation on the weathering ability of dominan...
Article
The present work aims to investigate for the first time the materials used in Ribeira Sacra's 16th century murals, as this knowledge would be valuable for research in Technical Art History and for interventions of conservation. A multi-analytical approach is proposed for the investigation of the pictorial palette and technique, and the degradation...
Article
Microbial communities of natural subaerial biofilms developed on granitic historic buildings of a World Heritage Site (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain) were characterized and cultured in liquid BG11 medium. Environmental barcoding through next-generation sequencing (Pacific Biosciences) revealed that the biofilms were mainly composed of species of...
Article
This study addresses the primary and secondary bioreceptivity of schist used as a support for Prehistoric rock-art in the Côa Valley Archaeological Park (north-east Portugal) and provides some parameters that can be related to the risk of biologically induced schist weathering. Samples of freshly quarried and naturally weathered schist were charact...
Article
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We have tested the practical application of color measurements in the study of organic matter properties (C and N content, C/N ratios, degree of peat humification-DPH) of a 335 cm long peat core sampled at Tremoal do Pedrido bog. Usual and unusual CIELAB color parameters were measured on samples that were sectioned at high resolution (slices of 1 c...
Article
In this paper we characterise the mineralogical and elemental composition and the colour (CIELab space) of Bronze Age pottery sherds from NW Spain, using X-Ray diffraction, X-Ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. For half of the samples we also determined the content in secondary iron oxi-hydroxides (sFe, iron extracted with...
Article
Forest fires constitute a major environmental problem. Information about fire severity would enable the application of measures to offset the effects of forest fires on the ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of soil colour measurement as a rapid inexpensive method of determining fire severity. For this purpose, we subjected samp...
Chapter
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El estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar, mediante el análisis de las curvas temperatura – tiempo la influencia del contenido de humedad del suelo, en el impacto que provoca el calentamiento del mismo a altas temperaturas. Para ello se realizaron, en condiciones de laboratorio, simulando el efecto de los incendios de alta intensidad, tres tratamiento...
Chapter
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distinctive morphological features of a soil. As the colour of soil is strongly influenced by the type and amount of organic matter (O.M.) and Fe content, both of which are fire-sensitive components, colour and burn severity should be correlated. In this work we explore the usefulness of the CIELAB color space parameters of burnt soils as a tool fo...
Article
In this study, a digital CMOS camera was calibrated for use as a non-contact colorimeter for measuring the color of granite artworks. The low chroma values of the granite, which yield similar stimulation of the three color channels of the camera, proved to be the most challenging aspect of the task. The appropriate parameters for converting the dev...
Article
Repeated short–term exposures to: (1) a commercial isothiazoline biocide (Biotin T®), (2) constant temperature (37 °C) and (3) UV-C germicidal irradiation (254 nm) on planktonic culture of an aeroterrestrial cyanobacterium of the genus Nostoc was carried out to assess (1) the effectiveness of the three trial treatments, referred to here as biocide...
Article
We applied pyrolysis-GC/MS to archaeological potsherds from prehistoric settlements in north-west Spain, some of which are conspicuously black or exhibit a black inner core from incomplete burn-out. Virtually all pyrolysis products could be related to thermally modified material (partially polycondensed aromatics and short-chain alkyl moieties) tha...
Article
Full-text available
A combination of physical, chemical, spectroscopic and biochemical parameters, along with different plant assays, was used to assess the maturity and stability of nine finished composts obtained from several raw materials (biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste, green waste, sewage sludge, manure, and grape marc), and by different procedur...
Article
Full-text available
The use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is well documented in the literature as a non-destructive technique for structural diagnostics in the field of cultural heritage.. In the case of mural paintings the lack of adhesion between the plaster and the mural support is one of the most important risk factors that threaten their con...
Article
In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationship between the aesthetic parameters of color and brightness and conversely, chemical-mineralogical composition in roofing slates from different Spanish and Portuguese quarries. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of 50 commercial types of rooting slates was carried out using X-ray diffraction and fluorescen...
Article
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This paper addresses the detection and monitoring of the development of epilithic phototrophic biofilms on the granite façade of an institutional building in Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain), and reports a case study of preventive conservation. The results provide a basis for establishing criteria for the early detection of phototrophic colonizati...
Article
Nitrocellulose is one of the most commonly used compounds in ammunition and paint industries and its recalcitrance to degradation has a negative impact on human health and the environment. In this study the capability of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 13541 to degrade nitrocellulose as binder in paint was assayed for the first time. Nitrocellulos...
Article
a b s t r a c t Substitution of slate roofing tiles is a conventional operation during building restoration, since tiles are very difficult to restore or clean because of the high degree of alteration they suffer. Criteria for replace-ment of historical building stones must be based on geological, geotechnical and esthetic parameters, among which c...
Conference Paper
A Ribeira Sacra -the Holy Riverside- is a region in the Northwest of Spain that owes its name to the large number of monasteries and churches built since the Early Middle Ages by hermits in search of the quietness and isolation of this abrupt landscape. Afterwards, during the 16th century, many of these buildings got their interior walls decorated...
Article
Full-text available
Biological colonization of rock surfaces constitutes an important problem for maintenance of buildings and monuments. In this work, we aim to establish an efficient extraction protocol for chlorophyll-a specific for rock materials, as this is one of the most commonly used biomarkers for quantifying phototrophic biomass. For this purpose, rock sampl...
Article
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The effects of four of the most common types of surface finish on the appearance of five varieties of ornamental granite, all widely used in building construction and selected for their different colors, were analyzed by means of roughness, color, and gloss measurements. The results demonstrated that different surface finishes produce differences i...
Article
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Purpose The quantification of phytopigments in riverbed sediments deserves further attention because it provides information about eutrophic levels, and therefore about sediment and water quality. Due to the current interest in the study of eutrophication processes, there is a need for the development of a rapid, simple, cost-effective, and nondest...
Article
a b s t r a c t The rehabilitation of the degraded medieval quarter of A. Tinería, in Lugo (NW Spain) included the recov-ery of the traditional colours on plasters and woodwork. To achieve this aim, the paint materials on wooden elements (window frames and doors) have been characterised firstly by means of colour mea-surements on site, with a porta...
Article
Full-text available
The application of biocides is a traditional method of controlling biodecay of outdoor cultural heritage. Chlorophyll degradation to phaeopigments is used to test the biocidal efficacy of the antimicrobial agents. In the present study, the usefulness of color measurements in estimating chlorophyll degradation was investigated. An aeroterrestrial st...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, the suitability of colour monitoring during composting is reported. Two composting experiments were conducted with winery wastes for five months in the laboratory. In the first experiment the composting of spent grape marc was studied, whereas in the second a mixture of hydrolyzed grape marc (residue of the treatment for biotechnologi...
Article
In this work it is presented a study about the ability of multispectral techniques for evaluating in situ, nonde-structively, the progress of laser removal of crusts and paints in granitic rocks. For this purpose, granites with different characteristics were cleaned by the third harmonic of a Nd:YVO4 laser, and a multispectral camera was used to mo...
Article
In spite of color being one of the physicochemical parameters most commonly used to characterize ornamental stone, there is yet no standardized protocol for measuring this parameter. Such a protocol is of particular importance for characterizing the color of heterogeneous surfaces, as in the case of granite. The aim of the present study was to dete...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have provided evidence that color measurements enable on site quantification of superficial biofilms, thereby avoiding the need for sampling. In the present study, the efficiency of color measurements to evaluate to what extent pigment production is affected by environmental parameters such as light intensity, combined nitrogen and...
Article
Although the color of cyanobacteria is a very informative characteristic, no standardized protocol has, so far, been established for defining the color in an objective way, and, therefore, direct comparison of experimental results obtained by different research groups is not possible. In the present study, we used colorimetric measurements and conv...
Article
One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales). Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the sal...
Article
One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales). Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the sal...
Article
Full-text available
A combination of physical, chemical, spectroscopic and biochemical parameters, along with different plant assays, was used to assess the maturity and stability of nine finished composts obtained from several raw materials (biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste, green waste, sewage sludge, manure, and grape marc), and by different procedur...