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Beatrice Motella

Beatrice Motella
LINKS Foundation

PhD

About

56
Publications
6,935
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647
Citations

Publications

Publications (56)
Article
The Public Observation (PO) test phase of the Galileo Open Service Navigation Message Authentication (OSNMA) signal is officially opened since November $15^{\text {th}}~2021$ , by the European Union Agency for the Space Programme (EUSPA). During this phase, any interested users is allowed to access the Signal in Space (SIS) for testing purposes, wh...
Article
Full-text available
The authentication of the navigation signals can be considered as the contribution of the system to the robustness against spoofing attacks and it is becoming an important requirement for a growing number of user communities. GPS and Galileo systems are proposing evolutions of their civil signals to embed features of authentication. For Galileo, th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper deals with the concept of GNSS meta-signal processing, defined as the coherent process of two GNSS signals, broadcast on different carriers, and treated as a single wideband signal. The purpose of the paper is twofold: to analyse the effects on non-idealities on the meta-signal components and to investigate alternative schemes for the ac...
Article
Full-text available
Many GNSS applications have been experiencing some constantly growing needs in terms of security and reliability. To address some of them, both GPS and Galileo are proposing evolutions of their legacy civil signals, embedding features of authentication. This paper focuses on the Galileo Open Signal Navigation Message Authentication (OSNMA) and desc...
Article
Many infrastructures that shape our lifestyle depend on the GPS. Even though not used for positioning, these infrastructures need GPS to derive a precise time synchronization necessary for their operations. Examples are power distribution grids, gateways for financial transactions, and telecommunication networks. However, GPS receivers, and more in...
Article
A key aspect to be considered in the design of new generations of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals and receivers is a proper partition between system and receiver contribution to the robustness against spoofing attacks. This article maps the current threats and vulnerabilities of GNSS receivers and presents a survey of recent defen...
Article
Full-text available
The hazardous effects of spoofing attacks on the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver are well known. Technologies and algorithms to increase the awareness of GNSS receivers against such attacks become more important and necessary. We present the validation of two statistical spoofing detection methods, namely the Chi-square goodness...
Conference Paper
Due to the low level of the received power and to the known signal structure, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) civil signals might be vulnerable to different sources of interference. Among them, the spoofing attacks are considered ones of the most deceptive, since their scope is controlling the output of the victim receiver. This paper pr...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays more and more applications rely on the information provided by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), but the vulnerability of GNSS signals to interference, jamming and spoofing is a growing concern. Among all the possible sources of intentional interference, spoofing is extremely deceptive and sinister. In fact, the victim receiver...
Article
The low level of received signals power makes Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers vulnerable to many classes of disturbing signals. Among them, narrow band interference (NBI) might cause serious receiver performance degradation. Cancellation of NBI can be implemented by using notch filters (NF), which are controlled by two paramete...
Article
This paper presents the theoretical development and analysis of a novel DLL discriminator robust to multipath errors, called the Combination of Squared Correlators (CSC). The CSC discriminator features a simple implementation based on four (complex) static correlators per channel, without falling into the wide family of patented architectures.In th...
Chapter
Reliable positioning and navigation is becoming imperative in more and more applications for public services, consumer products, and safety-critical purposes. Research for finding pervasive and robust positioning methodologies is critical for a growing amount of societal areas while making sure that navigation is trustworthy and the risks and threa...
Conference Paper
The hazardous effect of a spoofing attack to a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver is well known. This is particularly dangerous for safety critical applications, such as in the aeronautical and maritime fields, with a potential cascade of detrimental effects on the on-board equipment. This paper presents the validation of two statis...
Article
The number of applications based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology is constantly increasing; consequently, the requirements related to signal quality are becoming more and more important. This paper exploits results of the decision theory, aiming at investigating the performance of the goodness of fit test when applied to inte...
Conference Paper
The disruptive effect of the interference in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers is well known. Jammers and spoofing attacks, in addition to time-varying environment effects, such as fading and multipath, can induce distortions on the correlation function resulting in a degraded positioning accuracy. Furthermore, improved performanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The extremely low power of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals makes them vulnerable to disturbances and interference from external sources. These induce distortions on the correlation function that reflect upon a degraded pseudoranges measurement and poor positioning accuracy. On the other hand, the wide spread use of GNSS receivers...
Conference Paper
Interference is an actual problem for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. Despite a wide amount of research works available in literature, the growing risk represented by portable jamming devices indicates that interfering signals are still a concern for GNSS-based services. The design of simple detection methods, possibly applicab...
Conference Paper
The disruptive effects of multipath around the receiver antenna are well known and proved by a very wide GNSS literature. In addition, multipath robustness is one of the first signal characteristics taken into account in the process of signals definition. The rejection of the multipath effects becomes an even more sensitive issue in Safety-of-Life...
Article
This study presents a novel solution of DLL discrimination function for multiband global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, designed to cope with a multipath-prone environment in safety-of-life (SoL) applications. The solution is based on a combination of squared correlators (CSC) outputs, following an approach similar to that driving t...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most promising features of the modernized global navigation satellite systems signals is the presence of pilot channels that, being data-transition free, allow for increasing the coherent integration time of the receivers. Generally speaking, the increased integration time allows to better average the thermal noise component, thus improv...
Article
The definition of new families of curves named interference error envelope (IEE) and interference running average (IRA) is presented. Such tools are able to assess the impact of RF interference on different GNSS receivers, taking into account the features of the in-band interference source. In fact the actual impact on the final performance is stri...
Conference Paper
Due to the large amount of different new applications based on GNSS systems, the issue of interference monitoring is becoming an increasing concern in the satellite navigation community. Threats for GNSS can be classified as unintentional interference, jamming and spoofing. Among them, spoofing is more deceitful because the target receiver might no...
Conference Paper
Services based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are currently in use in many critical networked infrastructures and crucial applications. Within the described scenario, the importance for the GNSS community of investigating the effects of spoofing attacks, together with anti-spoofing techniques, appears essential. This paper describes...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the main features of NFUELS (FUll Educational Library of Signals for Navigation), a signal simulator designed to offer young researchers and students a complete, flexible and intuitive software tool able to offline reproduce and analyze GNSS signals as they appear at the Analog to Digital Converter output of a navigation receive...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an assessment study of the impact of the spreading code properties in the reception of Galileo E1 Open Service (OS) and GPS L1C Multiplexed Binary Offset Carrier (MBOC) signals. The distortion of the discrimination function due to codes cross-correlations properties is analyzed, considering the features of the modulation schemes...
Article
Full-text available
Navigation/positioning platforms integrated with wireless communication systems are being used in a rapidly growing number of new applications. The mutual benefits they can obtain from each other are intrinsically related to the interoperability level and to a properly designed coexistence. In this paper a new family of curves, called Interference...
Article
Full-text available
In Global Navigation satellite System (GNSS) applications the signals at the user receiver antenna exhibit a very low power level (around -160 dBW), and can be impaired by interference sources. In the case the receiver operation is compromised by the presence of an interferer, an important issue is the identification of the undesired source. To ach...
Conference Paper
A constantly increasing number of new applications are based on wireless communication system integrated with navigation/positioning platforms. The mutual benefits they can obtain from each others are intrinsically related to the interoperability level and to a properly designed coexistence. In this paper a new family of curves, called Interference...
Conference Paper
The growth of new location-based applications, the improvements in receiver technologies, as well as the availability of new Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals, increase the expectations for positioning and timing performance. Recent applications foresee the use of commercial Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in challenging e...
Conference Paper
The significant growth of the number of applications based on position information and navigation technology is one of the reasons that pushed the investigation of methods for evaluating the signal robustness and reliability. Among the several aspects to be investigated when comparing different signals performance, the robustness to multipart effec...
Article
In the global positioning system (GPS), code division multiple access (CDMA) signals are used. Because of the known spectral characteristics of the CDMA signal, continuous wave (CW) interference has a predictable effect on the different pseudo random noise (PRN) spreading codes (unique to each satellite) depending on the Doppler frequency of the si...
Conference Paper
The function of the front-end of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver can be roughly described as the provision of received signal samples at intermediate frequency (IF) to the base band section. Due to the low power of the received signal, several phenomena might threat the correct operation of the front-end, and consequently degra...
Article
Full-text available
In the global positioning system (GPS), code division multiple access (CDMA) signals are used. Because of the known spectral characteristics of the CDMA signal, continuous wave (CW) interference has a predictable effect on the different pseudo random noise (PRN) spreading codes (unique to each satellite) depending on the Doppler frequency of the si...
Article
The mitigation of radio frequency interference (RFI) has a fundamental role in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) applications, especially when a high level of availability is required. Several electromagnetic sources, in fact, might degrade the performance of the global positioning system (GPS) and Galileo receivers, and their effects can b...
Article
Nowadays, also thanks to the modernization of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the number of applications based on the user position is increasing very quickly. Since for many of those applications the accuracy level is one of the core requirements, the monitoring of the interference produced by other telecommunication systems has a...
Article
Full-text available
Radio frequency interference affects the integrity, continuity and availability of the GPS system. These are the highly important parameters for critical applications like aviation. Interference also has an adverse impact on accuracy. Continuously operating reference stations (CORS) networks are employed to improve the accuracy of GPS position meas...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Trusted vessel information from trusted on-board instrumentation. Improving GNSS receiver's robustness against spoofing and jamming attacks. Enhancing Ship Reporting Systems' security exploring TV White Spaces. Two working prototypes have been realized and demonstrated.