Bastian Jaeger

Bastian Jaeger
Tilburg University | UVT · Department of Social Psychology

PhD

About

63
Publications
39,000
Reads
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820
Citations
Citations since 2017
62 Research Items
819 Citations
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Additional affiliations
May 2022 - November 2022
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
October 2019 - May 2021
Tilburg University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
October 2015 - September 2019
Tilburg University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
Which facial characteristics do people rely on when forming personality impressions? Previous research has uncovered an array of facial features that influence people’s impressions. Even though some (classes of) features, such as resemblances to emotional expressions or facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), play a central role in theories of social...
Article
Full-text available
Trait impressions from faces influence many consequential decisions even in situations in which decisions should not be based on a person's appearance. Here, we test (a) whether people rely on trait impressions when making legal sentencing decisions and (b) whether two types of interventions-educating decision-makers and changing the accessibility...
Article
Full-text available
People usually engage in (or at least profess to engage in) altruistic acts to benefit others. Yet, they routinely fail to maximize how much good is achieved with their donated money and time. An accumulating body of research has uncovered various psychological factors that can explain why people’s altruism tends to be ineffective. These prior stud...
Article
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Psychological Science Accelerator coordinated three large-scale psychological studies to examine the effects of loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, and autonomy framing manipulations on behavioral intentions and affective measures. The data collected (April to October 2020) included specific measures...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examined how beliefs about farm animal sentience and their suffering vary across culture and demographic characteristics. A total of N = 5027) questionnaires were administered in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and the USA. Brazilians showed higher and Chinese lower levels of perceived animal sentience. In Russia and India, the perc...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores how researchers' analytical choices affect the reliability of scientific findings. Most discussions of reliability problems in science focus on systematic biases. We broaden the lens to emphasize the idiosyncrasy of conscious and unconscious decisions that researchers make during data analysis. We coordinated 161 researchers in...
Preprint
Full-text available
How well can social scientists predict societal change, and what processes underlie their predictions? To answer these questions, we ran two forecasting tournaments testing accuracy of predictions of societal change in domains commonly studied in the social sciences: ideological preferences, political polarization, life satisfaction, sentiment on s...
Preprint
A popular area of social psychology is researching the initial perceptions of new people. ‘First impressions’ studies are popular because the initial judgments of others can be consequential and have important everyday consequences (such as job interviews, first dates, justice outcomes). In the context of broader concerns about the credibility of p...
Preprint
Meat-rich diets have a negative impact on animal welfare, consumer health, and the environment. In recent years, research has begun to explore which approaches are most effective at reducing consumption. A question that has been the subject of extensive debate is whether appeals are more effective when they ask people to reduce vs. eliminate meat f...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic (and its aftermath) highlights a critical need to communicate health information effectively to the global public. Given that subtle differences in information framing can have meaningful effects on behavior, behavioral science research highlights a pressing question: Is it more effective to frame COVID-19 health messages in t...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
This initiative examined systematically the extent to which a large set of archival research findings generalizes across contexts. We repeated the key analyses for 29 original strategic management effects in the same context (direct reproduction) as well as in 52 novel time periods and geographies; 45% of the reproductions returned results matching...
Article
Full-text available
The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N = 10, 535 participants from 24 countries...
Article
Full-text available
The emotion disgust motivates the avoidance of pathogens and contaminants. Individuals differ in their tendency to experience disgust and this is referred to as pathogen disgust sensitivity. Yet, it remains unclear which differences in psychological processes are captured by pathogen disgust sensitivity. We tested two hypotheses about how the infor...
Article
Full-text available
The study of moral judgements often centres on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (that is, emphasizing rules, individual rights and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (that is, following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychol...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Communicating in ways that motivate engagement in social distancing remains a critical global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tested motivational qualities of messages about social distancing (those that promoted choice and agency vs. those that were forceful and shaming) in 25,718 people in 89 countries...
Article
Full-text available
Faces play a central role in person perception. People spontaneously judge others' personality based on their facial appearance and these impressions guide many consequential decisions. When do people rely on facial appearance? In five studies (N = 1936, four preregistered), we test whether reliance on facial appearance depends on the goal of impre...
Article
Full-text available
Although cooperation can lead to mutually beneficial outcomes, cooperative actions only pay off for the individual if others can be trusted to cooperate as well. Identifying trustworthy interaction partners is therefore a central challenge in human social life. How do people navigate this challenge? Prior work suggests that people rely on facial ap...
Article
Full-text available
The success of acts of deceit and exploitation depends on how trusting and naïve (i.e., gullible) targets are. In three preregistered studies, using both theory-driven and data-driven approaches, we examined how people form impressions of gullibility based on targets' facial appearance. We find significant consensus in gullibility impressions, sugg...
Article
Full-text available
Trustworthiness perceptions are based on facial features that are seen as trustworthy by most people (e.g., resemblance to a smile) and features that are only seen as trustworthy by a specific perceiver (e.g., resemblance to a loved one). In other words, trustworthiness perceptions reflect consensual and idiosyncratic judgment components. Yet, when...
Preprint
Full-text available
People usually engage in (or at least profess to engage in) altruistic acts to benefit others. Yet, they routinely fail to maximize how much good is achieved with their donated money and time. An accumulating body of research has uncovered various psychological factors that can explain why people’s altruism tends to be ineffective. These prior stud...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deceiving others is generally viewed as immoral. However, most people lie on a daily basis. This paper examines the psychological consequences for the liars themselves, as they are participating in what is generally perceived as immoral behavior. More specifically, this paper focuses on the effects of self-centered and other-oriented lying on the l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Trustworthiness perceptions are based on facial features that are seen as trustworthy by most people (e.g., resemblance to a smile) and features that are only seen as trustworthy by a specific perceiver (e.g., resemblance to a loved one). In other words, trustworthiness perceptions reflect consensual and idiosyncratic judgment components. Yet, when...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Preprint
Full-text available
People’s treatment of others—humans, animals, or other targets—often depends on whether they think the entity is worthy of moral consideration. Recent work has begun to examine which factors determine whether an entity is included in people’s moral circle. Here, we rely on multilevel modeling to map the variance components of the moral circle. We e...
Preprint
Full-text available
The paper reports findings from a crowdsourced replication. Eighty-four replicator teams attempted to verify results reported in an original study by running the same models with the same data. The replication involved an experimental condition. A “transparent” group received the original study and code, and an “opaque” group received the same unde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although many facial features elicit similar personality impressions across different perceivers, there are also substantial individual differences. Brown and Sacco conducted several studies to explore which perceiver characteristics explain these differences. Applying the idea of motivational tradeoffs, they showed that extraverted-looking targets...
Preprint
Full-text available
Humans differ in their tendency to experience disgust and avoid contact with potential sources of pathogens. Pathogen disgust sensitivity has been used to explain a wide range of social phenomena, such as prejudice, conformity, and trust. Yet, its exact role in the motivational system that regulates avoidance of pathogens, the so-called behavioral...
Preprint
Full-text available
Findings from 162 researchers in 73 teams testing the same hypothesis with the same data reveal a universe of unique analytical possibilities leading to a broad range of results and conclusions. Surprisingly, the outcome variance mostly cannot be explained by variations in researchers’ modeling decisions or prior beliefs. Each of the 1,261 test mod...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence–dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Faces play a central role in person perception. People spontaneously judge others’ personality based on their facial appearance and these impressions guide many consequential decisions. Under what conditions do people rely on facial appearance? Here, we test whether reliance on facial appearance depends on the goal of impression formation (i.e., on...
Article
Full-text available
Research into COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes are critical, but claims must be carefully evaluated to inform policy decisions. In a recent series of articles, Manning and Fink [1-3] use national-level data to describe associations between case-fatality ratios and male and female finger ratios (2D:4D), a suggested measure of prenatal androgen e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although cooperation can lead to mutually beneficial outcomes, cooperating only pays off for the individual if others can be trusted to cooperate as well. How do people detect trustworthy interaction partners? While people readily rely on the facial appearance of strangers to judge their trustworthiness, the question of whether these judgments are...
Article
Full-text available
People rely on the facial appearance of political candidates when voting. Here, we examine whether the perceived competence, trustworthiness, and attractiveness of male Italian mayoral candidates (n = 150) predict their electoral success. Building on situational leadership theory, we also examine whether associations between apparent traits and ele...
Preprint
Full-text available
Which facial characteristics do people rely on when forming personality impressions from faces? Previous research has uncovered an array of facial features that influence people’s impressions. Even though some (classes of) features, such as facial width-to-height ratio or resemblances to emotional expressions, play a central role in theories of soc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Manning and Fink (2020) report that country level mean 2D:4D is associated with COVID-19 case fatality ratio and percentage of male deaths. We discuss here a range of methodological and statistical issues with Manning and Fink's work that offer a different interpretation of their claims.
Preprint
Full-text available
Online peer-to-peer platforms aim to reduce anonymity and increase trust by displaying personal information about sellers. However, consumers may also rely on the names and profile photos of sellers to avoid sellers from certain social groups. Here we analyze more than 100,000 Airbnb rentals to test whether consumers discriminate against hosts from...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many situations, ranging from cooperative exchange to fraud, people are faced with the challenge to judge how trusting or naïve (i.e., gullible) others are. In three studies, using both theory-driven and data-driven methods, we examine how people form gullibility judgments based on a person’s facial appearance. People have a shared representatio...
Thesis
Full-text available
This dissertation examines how first impressions influence decision-making, why people persistently rely on first impressions, and how the influence of first impressions can be reduced.
Article
Full-text available
To what extent are research results influenced by subjective decisions that scientists make as they design studies? Fifteen research teams independently designed studies to answer five original research questions related to moral judgments, negotiations, and implicit cognition. Participants from two separate large samples (total N > 15,000) were th...
Article
Full-text available
Examining disparities in social outcomes as a function of gender, age, or race has a long tradition in psychology and other social sciences. With an increasing availability of large naturalistic data sets, researchers are afforded the opportunity to study the effects of demographic characteristics with real-world data and high statistical power. Ho...
Preprint
Full-text available
Trait impressions from faces influence many consequential decisions even in situations in which they have poor diagnostic value and in which decisions should not be based on a person’s appearance. Here, we test (a) whether people rely on facial appearance when making legal sentencing decisions and (b) whether two types of interventions—educating de...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last ten years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgments of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Preprint
Full-text available
The question of whether personality can be inferred from faces is contentiously debated. We propose that, irrespective of the actual accuracy of trait inferences from faces, lay beliefs about the manifestation of personality traits in facial features (i.e., physiognomic beliefs) have important consequences for social cognition and behavior. In five...
Article
Full-text available
Impressions of trustworthiness based on facial cues influence many consequential decisions, in spite of their (generally) poor accuracy. Here, we test whether reliance on facial cues can be better explained by (a) the belief that facial cues are more valid than other cues or by (b) the quick and primary processing of faces, which makes relying on f...
Article
Full-text available
The factors influencing human female facial attractiveness—symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism—have been extensively studied. However, recent studies, using improved methodologies, have called into question their evolutionary utility and links with life history. The current studies use a range of approaches to quantify how important these...
Preprint
Full-text available
People rely on the facial appearances of political candidates when voting. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding which perceived traits (e.g., competence, trustworthiness, or attractiveness) are associated with electoral success. In line with situational leadership theories, we test the hypothesis that trait preferences for politicians v...
Preprint
Full-text available
The theoretical factors influencing human female facial attractiveness – symmetry, averageness,and sexual dimorphism – have been extensively studied. However, through improved methodologies, recent studies have called into question their links with life history and evolutionary utility. The current study uses a range of statistical and methodologic...
Preprint
Full-text available
In an era of mass migration, social scientists, populist parties and social movements raise concerns over the future of immigration-destination societies. What impacts does this have on policy and social solidarity? Comparative cross-national research, relying mostly on secondary data, has findings in different directions. There is a threat of sele...
Article
Full-text available
Online peer-to-peer markets, such as Airbnb, often include profile photos of sellers to reduce anonymity. Ert, Fleischer, and Magen (2016) found that more trustworthy-looking, but not more attractive-looking, Airbnb hosts from Stockholm charge higher prices for similar apartments. This suggests that people are willing to pay more for a night in an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Examining disparities in social outcomes as a function of gender, age, or race has a long tradition in psychology and related disciplines. With an increasing availability of large naturalistic data sets, researchers are afforded the opportunity to study the effects of demographic characteristics with real-world data and high statistical power. Howe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Impressions of trustworthiness based on facial cues influence many consequential decisions, in spite of their (generally) poor accuracy. Here, we test whether reliance on facial cues can be better explained by (a) the belief that facial cues are more valid than other cues or by (b) the quick and primary processing of faces, which makes relying on f...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about the veracity of psychological research have been growing. Many findings in psychological science are based on studies with insufficient statistical power and nonrepresentative samples, or may otherwise be limited to specific, ungeneralizable settings or populations. Crowdsourced research, a type of large-scale collaboration in which...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since its publication, the Radboud Faces Database (RaFD; Langner et al., 2010) has become one of the most widely used face databases. At the time of writing, it has been cited more than 900 times. The database includes validation data such as rated genuineness, clarity, and intensity of the displayed facial expression. Ratings of models’ attractive...
Preprint
Concerns have been growing about the veracity of psychological findings. Many findings in psychological science are based on studies with insufficient statistical power and non-representative samples, or may otherwise be limited to specific, ungeneralizable settings or populations. Large-scale collaboration, in which one or more research projects a...
Article
Full-text available
People make trait inferences based on facial appearance, and these inferences guide social approach and avoidance. Here, we investigate the effects of textural features on trait impressions from faces. In contrast to previous work, which exclusively manipulated skin smoothness, we manipulated smoothness and the presence of skin blemishes independen...
Chapter
Full-text available
Trust and trustworthiness are important pillars of interpersonal, societal, and economic functioning. We provide an overview of how trustworthiness develops across the lifespan. Previous studies point to an increase in trustworthiness during childhood; relatively stable levels throughout adolescence and adulthood; and some evidence suggests a furth...
Preprint
People make trait inferences based on facial appearance, and these inferences guide social approach and avoidance. Here, we investigate the effects of textural features on trait impressions from faces. In contrast to previous work, which exclusively manipulated skin smoothness, we manipulated smoothness and the presence of skin blemishes independen...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
In this project, I study how individuals and organizations can do more good and how doing good is perceived by others.
Project
This project examines decision-making in the sharing economy (e.g., Airbnb, Couchsurfing) focusing on (1) which pieces of information people rely on when making decisions, (2) the problem of discrimination, and (3) the role of trust.
Project
This project focuses on several aspects of meta-science and research methodology including (1) tests of the replicability of research findings and (2) collaborative research efforts, and (3) the introduction or validation of research methods.