Baruch B. Schwarz

Baruch B. Schwarz
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI · School of Education

About

181
Publications
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Introduction
Baruch Schwarz is a Full Professor at the School of Education, the Hebrew University. His expertise ranges from educational psychology to the development of mathematical/scientific reasoning. He is a specialist in the role of argumentation in learning and development. He has led several R&D European projects on the use of technologies to boost deliberative argumentation, productive discourse, collaborative learning, mathematical problem solving, and “Learning to Learn” skills. He is also involved in research on the moderation of collaborative learning. He is active in the study of ultra-orthodox learning in Yeshivas. He leads the Special Interest Group on Dialogue, Reasoning and Argumentation (SIG 26) at the European Association of Research in Learning and Instruction.
Additional affiliations
September 1992 - present
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (181)
Chapter
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Understanding how students construct abstract mathematical Knowledge is a central concern of research in mathematics education. Abstraction in Context (AiC) is a theoretical framework for studying students' processes of constructing abstract mathematical knowledge as it occurs in a context that includes specific mathematical, curricular and social...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has shown various benefits of combining the argumentative and the dialogic in cognitive development. However, it has also shown that attempts to implement dialogic argumentation in school fail to leave a sustainable impact. One reason for this situation is related to the lack of explicit knowledge about how to design and organize dial...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an ongoing work of collecting small-group online discussions written in Hebrew. Discussants deal with contentious topics, while complying with educational ground rules. Our growing repository comprises 152 discussions containing over 3k turns. We propose an annotation procedure for turning such unstructured data into structured argument...
Conference Paper
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The analysis of educational dialogues has been traditionally undertaken according to pre-given coding schemes, which are often teacher-centered, and in which multiple time scales are not considered. In this paper, we consider the use of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) methodology. While ANT has already been used in education, its application for analyzi...
Article
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In activities based on Proof Without Words (PWW), we developed, students are given a PWW– a diagram that alludes to the proof of a mathematical theorem. The students work collaboratively to construct a proof alluded by the PWW, and then each student writes and submits a proof attempt. In a three-year design-based study, we investigate and develop P...
Article
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In the present case-study, we describe a novel type of adaptive instruction in mathematics – the orchestration of parallel groups through their participation to semiotic games. The framework of the case-study is a lesson in which Grade 9 students are arranged in small groups. The setting includes a digitally rich environment, in which technologies...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study seeks to capitalize on the pedagogical potential of visual proof documents called Proof Without Words (PWWs) to advance proof learning in secondary mathematics. The data is drawn from design-based research (DBR), in which a PWW document was iteratively redesigned to lead students to generate more detailed and rigorous proof attempts. The...
Article
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We present a critical perspective on the current state of research on educational dialogues, within and without Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning environments, in order to propose research perspectives in the intersection of these two domains. Our main proposal is that in order to integrate different types of human or machine analyzed data...
Article
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This study set out to enhance our understanding of emotions and their regulation in educational dialogues. One hundred and ten undergraduate students participated in small-group computer-mediated contentious discussions and reported on emotional experiences during discussions in a reflection task. Sixteen discussions were analyzed using the Scheme...
Preprint
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This paper highlights the pedagogical importance of gaps in mathematical proofs to foster students’ learning of proofs. We use the notion of ‘gap-filling’ (Perry & Sternberg, 1986) from literary theory to analyze a task based on a Proof Without Words, which epitomizes the notion of gaps. We demonstrate how students fill in gaps in this activity and...
Article
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This paper highlights the pedagogical importance of gaps in mathematical proofs to foster students’ learning of proofs. We use the notion of ‘gap-filling’ (Perry & Sternberg, 1986) from literary theory to analyze a task based on a Proof Without Words, which epitomizes the notion of gaps. We demonstrate how students fill in gaps in this activity and...
Chapter
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In this chapter we propose a methodological approach: we intend to explore the relations between children’s representations of moral issues as elaborated in dialogue (dialogue on ethics, DoE) and the ethical dimension of the children’s moral conduct towards each other (ethics of dialogue, EoD), where we expect to find interesting relations to explo...
Chapter
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In this chapter we present the process of designing and developing a novel online platform for supporting cultural literacy learning, involving the elaboration and understanding of European values in collaborative dialogue between students, with teacher-led reflection on wordless texts. Wordless texts are books or videos that comprise sequences of...
Article
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Dashboards have been hypothesized to facilitate adaptive guidance in classrooms. Thus far, however, empirical studies in this domain are badly missing. We present a dashboard, which enables teachers to observe concurrent groups as they engage in mathematical tasks using Dynamic Geometry tools and to guide groups when their intervention is needed. W...
Article
Full-text available
The present study offers a systematic analysis of talk practices of ultraorthodox Jews learning Talmudic texts in Yeshivas – traditional Houses of Study, in a dyadic setting called Chavruta. We investigate about the nature of these talk practices and about the kind of rationality which deploys in Chavruta learning. Analyses of the Talmudic text alre...
Article
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Although the yeshiva is the housekeeper of the Jewish tradition of learning, it has undergone dramatic changes along history. We describe these changes in historical, sociogenetic, and microgenetic analyses, and particularly focus on the chavruta—dyadic learning around Talmudic texts during successive meetings, and the chabure—a gathering of chavru...
Article
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Conditions under which group-work leas the learning have been studied in collaborative settings. Little is known, however, about whether and how the interplay between collaboration and cooperation impinges on group learning. In this paper, we study this interplay in the context of mathematical problem-solving. We focus on how training students to l...
Chapter
Learning in groups allows students to develop academic and social competencies. However, students need guidance for an effective collaboration. In this chapter, we present SAGLET, a technological tool designed to support teachers’ real-time orchestration of the work of groups of learners while they are solving mathematical problems simultaneously....
Article
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Aim/Purpose: This study aims to uncover how Social Network Sites (SNSs) active users who are eager to be knowledgeable about a specific domain develop a professional identity, what practices they use, and how do SNSs afford professional identity development. Background: Some researchers have shown that SNSs play a central role in personal developme...
Chapter
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In the wake of research on socio-cognitive conflict, a new direction of research emerged, termed “collaborative argumentation-based learning” (“CABLE”) (e.g. Andriessen, Baker & Suthers, 2003; Muller Mirza & Perret-Clermont, 2009; Andriessen & Baker, 2014; Schwarz & Baker, 2017). CABLE is based on three main tenets. Firstly, it is necessary to unde...
Article
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High-quality talk about issues that raise high-intensity emotions in the public sphere is timely needed. Still, researchers committed to the fostering of high-quality types of school talk generally disregard the role of emotions. We show that this disregard is not accidental and that it conveys a customary reluctance in schools to consider the hand...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Proofs Without Words (PWWs) are mathematical texts in which diagrams or graphs allude to the proving of a certain mathematical proposition or theorem (Nelsen, 1993). The diagram might contain mathematical symbols, characters or even calculations, but no words are attached. Hanna and Sidoli (2007) questioned the rigor and validity of PWWs but praise...
Article
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The present study offers a systematic analysis of the evolution of talk practices of ultraorthodox Jews learning in dyads called Chavruta. We investigate whether and how these practices contribute to the maintenance of traditional legal discourses and or move in a transformative direction. We answer this question by observing two learners in a Chav...
Article
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Integrating collaborative settings in mathematics classrooms is challenging. The main challenge concerns adaptive guidance—guidance that takes into account the needs of learners. This adaptive guidance depends on the teacher’s understanding of the progression of group work. Understanding this progression when the teacher organizes several groups in...
Chapter
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Classical argumentation theories focus on structures and validity, minimising constructive meaning-making. By contrast, the negotiation of meaning and conceptual transformations in interaction are what matter most in a theory of Argumentation for Learning. We call this theoretical and methodological framework "argumentexturing" ("argumentissage", "...
Article
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Online Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are immensely popular, especially among adolescents. Activity on these sites leaves digital footprints, which may be used to study online behavioral correlates of adolescent psychological distress and to, ultimately, improve detection and intervention efforts. In the present work, we explore the digital footpri...
Article
This paper is about orchestrating the emergence of conceptual learning in acollabor ative set ting. We elaborate on the i dea of critical moments in group learni ng,events which may lead to a particu lar development at the epistemic level regarding theshared object. We conjecture that teachers’ identification of critical m oments ma y helpthem guid...
Article
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This paper is about orchestrating the emergence of conceptual learning in a collaborative setting. We elaborate on the idea of critical moments in group learning, events which may lead to a particular development at the epistemic level regarding the shared object. We conjecture that teachers’ identification of critical moments may help them guide s...
Article
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Collaborative work in small groups is often a suitable context for yielding substantial individual learning outcomes. Indeed, small-group collaboration has recently become an educational goal rather than a means. Yet, this goal is difficult to attain, and students must be taught how to learn together. In this paper, we focus on how to prepare teach...
Chapter
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In his chapter we address the issue of assessment of the humanistic conversation. For this, we start by outlining our account of the notion of humanistic conversation and its importance to contemporary education. We point out similarities and differences between its various forms and other kinds of talk. We argue that although the reference to educ...
Article
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The field of CSCL is at a critical moment in its development. Internally we face issues of fragmentation and questions about what progress is being made. Externally the rise of social media and a variety of research communities that study the interactions within it raise questions about our unique identity and larger impact on the world. To illumin...
Chapter
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Group awareness refers to being informed about group members or a group. It is an important prerequisite for successful collaboration and can be supported by group awareness tools that collect, transform, and present behavioral, social, and cognitive information. Such tools not only provide learners with information on their learning partners but a...
Article
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We offer a new approach to emergent knowledge in processes of conceptual change in dyadic interaction by drawing on Pickering’s (The Mangle of Practice, The University of Chicago Press, London, 1995) Mangle of Practice theory, which theorizes the emergence of new scientific knowledge as occurring due to material resistance and human accommodations...
Book
Full-text available
The social networks – and social media in general – have revolutionized the digital sphere by enabling interactive, egalitarian, and sometimes intimate communication that challenges social structures, cultural boundaries, and institutional hierarchies. Findings from all over the world indicate that most of the users who have adopted these channels...
Article
Full-text available
This theoretical paper is about the role of emotions in historical reasoning in the context of classroom discussions. Peer deliberations around texts have become important practices in history education according to progressive pedagogies. However, in the context of issues involving emotions, such approaches may result in an obstacle for historical...
Book
Full-text available
The social networks – and social media in general – have revolutionized the digital sphere by enabling interactive, egalitarian, and sometimes intimate communication that challenges social structures, cultural boundaries, and institutional hierarchies. Findings from all over the world indicate that most of the users who have adopted these channels...
Chapter
Full-text available
Small-group settings have been the object of intense research on their potential to boost cognitive development. Indeed, the quality of small-group discussions has led to impressive learning outcomes ranging from the promotion of critical thinking, to the promotion of social skills. Guidance is necessary, though. Research has shown that scaffolding...
Conference Paper
Learning in groups allows students to develop academic and social competencies but requires the presence of a human teacher that is actively guiding the group. In this paper we combine data-mining and visualization tools to support teachers’ understanding of learners’ activities in an inquiry based learning environment. We use supervised learning t...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the manifestation of teenage depression on Social Network Sites (SNS) in general, and in adolescents’ Facebook status updates in particular. Objective: In this study, we compare the traditional 'offline' clinical picture of depression with its online manifestations and explore unique features of online depression that are less...
Book
Full-text available
New pedagogical visions and technological developments have brought argumentation to the fore of educational practice. Whereas students previously learned to argue, they now also argue to learn: collaborative argumentation-based learning has become a popular and valuable pedagogical technique across a variety of tasks and disciplines. Researchers h...
Article
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The compatibility of dialogic and dialectic approaches in education has recently been the object of fierce discussions among representatives of socio-cultural theory of human development. We show that this debate echoes a past controversy among postmodernists on the possibility of educational dialogue. We operationalized the cohabitation between th...
Article
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Abstract We report on a study on the ways leading teachers in secondary schools use ‎social networks while interacting with their students. We undertook in-depth ‎interviews with five leading teachers, and analyzed logs of interactions in ‎order to identify teaching practices combining social networks. One teacher ‎considerably strengthened her tra...
Article
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The aim of this study is to increase our understanding of the development of spatial practices in virtual learning environments. The spatial change and development in 38 small group e-discussions taken from a data set of a yearlong eighth grade humanities course are described and analyzed. We show that the focus on spatial changes in CSCL environme...
Poster
Full-text available
n this research, we describe the first steps of a research design program aimed at helping teachers to orchestrate small group collaborative learning. Our research goal was to identify critical moments that might foster the learning processes of geometrical concepts. We hypothesized that identifying these critical moments would be a crucial step fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims at understanding the role of synchronous collaborative computer supported environments in objectifying the hierarchical classification of quadrilaterals. The study reports on two Grade 9 students working with the VMT environment. The study is guided by the theory of knowledge objectification and the data was analyzed using the semio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims at examining how a meticulous design of a series of consecutive learning tasks in which a synchronous collaborative DGE tool is at disposal, may lead Grade 9 students to productive peer argumentation. By productivity, we mean here both a shift from reasoning based on visualization to reasoning moved by logical necessity and proving,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Pioneering research indicates the importance of non-verbal channels in mathematical reasoning and mathematical argumentation. In this chapter, we go deeper in this direction to identify the role of gestures and other material actions may serve as argumentative moves on their own, not only as accompanying verbal utterances. We will present examples...
Article
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There is increasing consensus among psycho-educational scholars about argumentation as a means to improve student knowledge and understanding of subject matter. In this paper, we argue that, notwithstanding a strong theoretical rationale, causal evidence is not abundant, definitions of the objects of study (argumentation, learning) are often not we...
Article
Full-text available
This theoretical paper is about the role of emotions in historical reasoning in the context of classroom discussions. Peer deliberations around texts have become important practices in history education according to progressive pedagogies. However, in the context of issues involving emotions, such approaches may result in an obstacle for historical...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to war is associated with psychological disturbances, but ongoing communication between adolescents and teachers may contribute to adolescents' resilience. This study examined the extent and nature of teacher-student communication on Social Network Sites (SNS) during the 2014 Israel-Gaza war. Israeli adolescents (N = 208, 13-18 yrs) comple...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we identify Learning to Learn Together (L2L2) as a new and important educational goal. Our view of L2L2 is a substantial extension of Learning to Learn (L2L): L2L2 consists of learning to collaborate to successfully face L2L challenges. It is inseparable from L2L, as it emerges when individuals face problems that are too difficult fo...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate teachers’ practices in a whole-class context when they scaffold students’ learning in situations where students use technologies that facilitate group learning to solve mathematical problems in small groups. We describe teachers’ practices in order to evaluate their contribution to Whole-Class Scaffolding in the context of a course t...
Article
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Before being a way to obtain information, to seek help or to challenge a viewpoint, questioning could be perceived as a philosophical virtue, as an epistemological standpoint and a way of life through which the obvious becomes weird, and the order of things themselves becomes an object for inquiry. This disposition has been one of the characteristi...
Article
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The role of outcome feedback in collaborative learning settings has received little empirical attention. We examined whether outcome feedback improves learning gains in singleton and dyadic learning conditions, while specifying different dyadic pairing options. In a randomized experiment, 496 ninth-graders solved challenging tasks that required ful...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This symposium addresses how argumentation can be leveraged for learning in social media like Facebook (FB) exemplifying social learning. It catalyzes an international discussion forum (Germany, Israel, United States) that seeks to understand argumentative processes beyond isolated technology-based learning environments, what influences them, if an...
Article
Full-text available
Only a few studies have dealt with the challenge of bridging the linguistic gap between the dialogic realm and the talk of disengaged students. Bridging this gap is particularly relevant to the CSCL community since one of its utmost aims is to promote the dialogic. This study aims to articulate how to harness the CSCL design and affordances to enha...
Article
In CSCL environments, space itself - and not only utterances - are objectified. New questions emerge from the relation between objectified space and student activity: How do students react to the spatial resource opened at their disposal? What are their spatial modes of acting within it? What bearing does the spatial organization have on talk? This...
Article
Several computerized representation tools have been developed to enhance collective argumentation in schools. The authors describe Digalo1, a graphical synchronous e-discussion tool (Schwarz & Glassner, 2007). They focus on how Digalo was used in a program (the Kishurim program) dedicated to foster dialogic and dialectic thinking among students in...
Chapter
Full-text available
Yeshivas are the institutions of traditional learning in Jewish education. One of the most common practices in Yeshivas is the Chavruta learning - the dyadic learning of Talmudic texts by students with equal status. Talmudic texts are sources that contain highly critical written discussions among Sages (in which agreements are often not reached) an...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent can instructional design be based on principles for instilling a culture of problem solving and conceptual learning? This is the main focus of the study described in this paper, in which third grade students participated in a one-year course designed to foster problem solving and mathematical reasoning. The design relied on five prin...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent can instructional design be based on principles for instilling a culture of problem solving and conceptual learning? This is the main focus of the study described in this paper, in which third grade students participated in a oneyear course designed to foster problem solving and mathematical reasoning. The design relied on five princ...
Conference Paper
The present study focuses on one activity of a whole course, especially designed for third-grade gifted and talented students. The course was designed to foster students' mathematical creativity and reasoning in a problem-solving context. It included 28 meetings over the course of one academic year and interwove problem solving in dyads or small gr...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the CSCL tools have been studied in short term interactions. Argunaut encapsulates many layers of ideas about dialogue and bears potential for dialogic education. In this paper, the intermittent use of Argunaut over a yearlong philosophy course is described. We focus on the trajectories of participation of two students. Two discursive pheno...
Article
Full-text available
Collaboration in complex learning scenarios does not succeed automatically without structuring the learning process. The Metafora project (http://www.metfora-project.org) is designing a pedagogy and a platform of web-based software to support learning to learn together (L2L2) in the context of math and science. The platform serves both as a toolbox...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown the importance of careful teacher support during collaborative group work to promote productive discourse between students (Webb, 2009). However, this research has traditionally focused on face-to-face communication. The role of online teacher guidance of small-group computer-mediated discussions has received little attention, es...