Bart L Haagmans

Bart L Haagmans
Erasmus MC | Erasmus MC · Viroscience department

PhD
Virologist

About

475
Publications
205,333
Reads
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40,087
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Bart is principal investigator with focus on SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease COVID-19 and the current emerging pandemic.
Additional affiliations
May 2021 - present
Pandemic and Disaster Preparedness Research Centre, Rotterdam/Delft, the Netherlands.
Position
  • Member
May 2016 - June 2022
Royal Netherlands Society for Microbiology (NL-KNVM)
Position
  • Board
January 2015 - present
International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV
Position
  • independent expert member
Education
September 1988 - September 1994
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Virology
August 1981 - August 1988
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Medical biology

Publications

Publications (475)
Article
Full-text available
Most human coronaviruses cause mild upper respiratory tract disease but may be associated with more severe pulmonary disease in immunocompromised individuals. However, SARS coronavirus caused severe lower respiratory disease with nearly 10% mortality and evidence of systemic spread. Recently, another coronavirus (human coronavirus-Erasmus Medical C...
Article
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Background The ongoing outbreak of the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) poses a challenge for public health laboratories as virus isolates are unavailable while there is growing evidence that the outbreak is more widespread than initially thought, and international spread through travellers does already occur.AimWe aimed to develop an...
Article
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The present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the third documented spillover of an animal coronavirus to humans in only two decades that has resulted in a major epidemic. The Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is respon...
Article
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The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an influenza-like disease that is primarily thought to infect the lungs with transmission via the respiratory route. However, clinical evidence suggests that the intestine may present another viral target organ. Indeed, the SARS-CoV...
Article
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The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a devastating pandemic. Although most people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop a mild to moderate disease with virus replication restricted mainly to the upper airways, some progress to having a life-threatening pneumonia. In this Review, we explore recent clini...
Article
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Vaccine development is essential for pandemic preparedness. We previously conducted a Phase 1 clinical trial of the vector vaccine candidate MVA-MERS-S against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), expressing its full spike glycoprotein (MERS-CoV-S), as a homologous two-dose regimen (Days 0 and 28). Here, we evaluate the safe...
Article
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The Omicron BA.1 (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant is characterized by a high number of mutations in the viral genome, associated with immune-escape and increased viral spread. It remains unclear whether milder COVID-19 disease progression observed after infection with Omicron BA.1 in humans is due to reduced pathogenicity of the virus or due to pre-e...
Article
Full-text available
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In follow up to a phase 1 trial, we perform a longitudinal analysis of immune responses following immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine MVA-MERS-S encoding the MERS-CoV-spike protein. Three homologous immuni...
Article
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Background: Human seasonal coronaviruses usually cause mild upper-respiratory tract infection, but severe complications can occur in specific populations. Research into seasonal coronaviruses is limited and robust experimental models are largely lacking. This study aims to establish human airway organoids (hAOs)-based systems for seasonal coronavi...
Article
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Ongoing outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue posing a global health threat. Vaccination of livestock reservoir species is a recommended strategy to prevent spread of MERS-CoV among animals and potential spillover to humans. Using a direct-contact llama challenge model that mimics naturally occurring viral tr...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants may impact vaccine efficacy significantly. The Omicron variant termed BA.2, which differs substantially from BA.1 based on genetic sequence, is currently replacing BA.1 in several countries, but its antigenic characteristics have not yet been assessed. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quan...
Article
Full-text available
Since its discovery in 2019, multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified. This study investigates virus spread and associated pathology in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of Syrian golden hamsters at 4 days post intranasal SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection, in comparison to infection with...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, continues to spread globally, with waves resulting from new variants that evade immunity generated by vaccines and previous strains and escape available monoclonal antibody therapy. Fusion-inhibitory peptides may provide an intervention strategy that is not similarly affected by this viral evolution.
Article
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Global sequencing and surveillance capacity for SARS-CoV-2 must be strengthened and combined with multidisciplinary studies of infectivity, virulence and immune escape, in order to track the unpredictable evolution of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of Omicron, which displays striking immune escape potential through mutations at key antigenic sites on the spike protein. Many of these mutations localize to the spike protein ACE2 receptor-binding domain, annulling the neutralizing activity of therapeutic antibodies that were effec...
Article
Full-text available
We asked scientists around the globe for their views on the basic research methods, tools and resources needed to fight future emerging pathogenic threats.
Preprint
Full-text available
The Omicron BA.1 (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant is characterized by a high number of mutations in the viral genome, associated with immune-escape and increased viral spread. It remains unclear whether milder COVID-19 disease progression observed after infection with Omicron BA.1 in humans is due to reduced pathogenicity of the virus or due to pre-e...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 attaches to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to gain entry into cells after which the spike protein is cleaved by the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) to facilitate viral-host membrane fusion. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression profiles have been analyzed at the genomic, transcriptomic, and single-cell RNAseq levels. However, tra...
Article
Full-text available
The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced following infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) with...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants may impact vaccine efficacy significantly. The Omicron variant termed BA.2, which differs genetically substantially from BA.1, is currently replacing BA.1 in several countries, but its antigenic characteristics have not yet been assessed. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visua...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of Omicron, which displays striking immune escape potential. Many of its mutations localize to the spike protein ACE2 receptor-binding domain, annulling the neutralizing activity of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Here we describe a receptor-blocking human monoclonal antibody...
Article
Full-text available
HPIV-3 is an important cause of pediatric disease and significantly impacts the elderly. Increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients suffer from HPIV-3 infections, often related to problems with viral clearance.
Article
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The severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) is spreading rapidly, even in vaccinated individuals, raising concerns about immune escape. Here, we studied neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses targeting SARS-CoV-2 D614G (wildtype, WT), and the B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To study the effect of interferon-α2 auto-antibodies (IFN-α2 Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α2 Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. Methods Sera from healthy controls, cases of COVID-19, and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-α2 Abs by ELISA and a p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since its discovery in 2019, multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been identi ed worldwide. The present study investigates virus spread and associated pathology in the upper and lower respiratory tracts in the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus aur...
Preprint
Full-text available
In late 2021, the highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged, raising concerns about its potential extensive immune evasion, increased transmissibility and pathogenicity. Here, we used organoids of the human airways and alveoli to investigate Omicron′s fitness and replicative potential in comparison with earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants. We repor...
Article
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the cause of a severe respiratory disease with a high case fatality rate in humans. Since its emergence in mid-2012, 2578 laboratory-confirmed cases in 27 countries have been reported by the World Health Organization, leading to 888 known deaths due to the disease and related complications....
Preprint
Full-text available
The severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) is spreading rapidly, even in vaccinated individuals, raising concerns about immune escape. Here, we studied neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 D614G (wildtype, WT), and the B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.1.529 (...
Article
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p>In order to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, transmission and reservoir development in swine, we combined results of an experimental and two observational studies. First, intranasal and intratracheal challenge of eight pigs did not result in infection, based on clinical signs and PCR on swab and lung tissue samples. Two serum samples retu...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid, sensitive and specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 is critical in responding to the current COVID-19 outbreak. In this proof-of-concept study, we explored the potential of targeted mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in both research samples and clinical specimens. First, we assessed the limit of...
Article
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The Zoonoses Anticipation and Preparedness Initiative (ZAPI) was set up to prepare for future outbreaks and to develop and implement new technologies to accelerate development and manufacturing of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. To be able to achieve surge capacity, an easy deployment and production at multiple sites is needed. This requires a...
Preprint
Mucins play an essential role in protecting the respiratory tract against microbial infections. The heavily O-glycosylated gel-forming mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B eliminate pathogens by mucociliary clearance while transmembrane mucins MUC1, MUC4, and MUC16 restrict microbial invasion at the apical surface of the epithelium. In this study, we determined...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid identification of host genes essential for virus replication may expedite the generation of therapeutic interventions. Genetic screens are often performed in transformed cell lines that poorly represent viral target cells in vivo, leading to discoveries that may not be translated to the clinic. Intestinal organoids are increasingly used to mo...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Little is known about the interplay between pre-existing immunity towards endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the development of a SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response. We investigated the kinetics, breadth, magnitude and level of cross-reac...
Article
Full-text available
The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the first to apply whole-genome sequencing near to real time, with over 2 million severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) whole-genome sequences generated and shared through the GISAID platform. This genomic resource informed public health decision-making throughout th...
Article
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The post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection was investigated in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). During the acute phase of infection, SARS-CoV-2 was shed via the nose and throat, and viral RNA was occasionally detected in feces. This phase coincided with a transient change in systemic immune activation. Even a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly effective at preventing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. As no vaccine is 100% effective, breakthrough infections are expected to occur. Methods We analyzed the virological characteristics of 161 vaccine breakthrough infections in a population of 24,706 vaccinated healthcare workers (HCWs), using...
Article
Full-text available
Assays to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies are important to monitor seroprevalence, to study asymptomatic infections and to reveal (intermediate) hosts. A recently developed assay, the surrogate virus-neutralization test (sVNT) is a quick and commercially available alternative to the “gold standard” virus neutralization assay usi...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as the infectious agent causing the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with dramatic consequences for global human health and economics. Previously, we reached clinical evaluation with our vector vaccine based on modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) against th...
Article
Full-text available
Optimal vaccines are needed for sustained suppression of SARS‐CoV‐2 and other novel coronaviruses. Here, we developed a recombinant type 5 adenovirus vector encoding the gene for the SARS‐CoV‐2 S1 subunit antigen (Ad5.SARS‐CoV‐2‐S1) for COVID‐19 immunization and evaluated its immunogenicity in mice. A single immunization with Ad5.SARS‐CoV‐2‐S1 via...
Article
Full-text available
On Feb 19, 2020, we, a group of physicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists, virologists, biologists, ecologists, and public health experts from around the world, joined together to express solidarity with our professional colleagues in China. Unsubstantiated allegations were being raised about the source of the COVID-19 outbreak and the integrity o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: To study the effect of Interferon-α auto-antibodies (IFN-α Abs) on clinical and virological outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients and the risk of IFN-α Abs transfer during convalescent plasma treatment. Methods: Sera from cases of COVID-19 and other respiratory illness were tested for IFN-αAbs by ELISA and bioassay. IFN-α Abslevels...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised the need to develop effective treatments to combat emerging viruses. Model systems that poorly represent a virus’ cellular environment, however, may impede research and waste resources. Collaborations between cell biologists and virologists have led to the rapid development of representative organoid model syste...
Cover Page
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Human Antibodies Protect Against Lower Respiratory Tract Disease in a Hamster Model. On the cover: The bronchiolar wall of a hamster at four days after SARS-CoV-2 inoculation. The immunohistochemical stain, visible as intense red-brown staining, shows SARS-CoV-2 antigen in the cytoplasm of multiple columnar epithelial cells...
Article
Full-text available
Effective clinical intervention strategies for COVID-19 are urgently needed. Although several clinical trials have evaluated the use of convalescent plasma containing virus-neutralizing antibodies, the levels of neutralizing antibodies are usually not assessed and the effectiveness has not been proven. We show that hamsters treated prophylactically...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China as a zoonotic virus in December 2019. The virus proved to be human-to-human transmissible and its global spread resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Vaccines were developed at an unprecedented speed and proved to be efficacious in preventing disease, but it remains to b...
Article
Full-text available
In a randomized clinical trial of 86 hospitalized COVID-19 patients comparing standard care to treatment with 300mL convalescent plasma containing high titers of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, no overall clinical benefit was observed. Using a comprehensive translational approach, we unravel the virological and immunological responses following...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutations in the spike (S) protein has raised concern about potential immune escape. Here, we studied humoral and cellular immune responses to wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern in a cohort of 121 BNT162b2 mRNA-vaccinated health care workers (HCW). Twenty-three HCW rec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rapid identification of host genes essential for virus replication may expedite the generation of therapeutic interventions. Genetic screens are often performed in transformed cell lines that poorly represent viral target cells in vivo, leading to discoveries that may not be translated to the clinic. Intestinal organoids (IOs) are increasingly used...
Article
Full-text available
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Two subgroups of HRSV (A and B) routinely cocirculate. Most research has been performed with HRSV-A strains because these are easier to culture than HRSV-B strains. In this study, we aimed to compare the replicative fitness and HRSV-induced innate cytokine re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Assays to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies are important to monitor seroprevalence, to study asymptomatic infections and to reveal (intermediate) hosts. A recently developed assay, the surrogate virus-neutralization test (sVNT) is a quick and commercially available alternative to the 'gold standard' virus neutralization assay usi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech was the first registered COVID-19 vaccine and has been shown to be up to 95% effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections. Little is known about the broad effects of the new class of mRNA vaccines, especially whether they have combined effects on innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we con...
Preprint
Full-text available
A new phase of the COVID-19 pandemic has started as several SARS-CoV-2 variants are rapidly emerging globally, raising concerns for increased transmissibility. As animal models and traditional in vitro systems may fail to model key aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle, representative in vitro systems to assess variants phenotypically are urg...