Bart Cammaerts

Bart Cammaerts
The London School of Economics and Political Science | LSE · Department of Media and Communications

PhD in Social Sciences

About

143
Publications
35,347
Reads
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2,965
Citations
Citations since 2016
35 Research Items
1960 Citations
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Introduction
Bart Cammaerts is Professor of Politics and Communication in the Department of Media and Communications at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). His research focuses on the relationship between media, communication and resistance with particular emphasis on media strategies of activists, media representations of protest, alternative media and counter-cultures, media histories, political theory and broader issues relating to power, participation and public-ness. He publishes widely and his most recent books include: The Circulation of Anti-Austerity Protest (Palgrave MacMillan, 2018), Youth Participation in Democratic Life: Stories of Hope and Disillusion (co-authored with Michael Bruter, Shakuntala Banaji, Sarah Harrison and Nick Anstead, Palgrave MacMillan, 2015).
Additional affiliations
September 2003 - September 2016
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Position
  • Managing Director
March 2003 - present
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Position
  • Associate Professor and Director of the PhD program
March 1997 - April 2002
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Position
  • Researcher
Education
May 1997 - May 2002
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Field of study
  • Media and Communication
October 1994 - July 1996
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Field of study
  • Political Science

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
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In this article, the so-called ‘anti-woke’ culture war is deconstructed through the notions of metapolitics in fascist discourses – linked to the Gramscian ‘hegemonisation’ and ‘the war of position’ – as well as the Schmittian friend/enemy distinction coupled with theories of deviance and moral panics. The appropriation of the neo-fascist culture w...
Article
Our hypermediated societies affect the very nature of what a social movement is. This article identifies five core nodal points of what constitutes a social movement: Program claims, Identity construction, Connections, Actions, and Resolve (PICAR). Primarily using France’s yellow vest movement case, I assess the impact of social media on these noda...
Article
In this article, I set out to deconstruct the main nodal points of the neo-fascist discourse, using a multi-cultural political discourse analysis of Trump and Modi. Subsequently, mechanisms of the normalisation of the neo- fascist discourse will be discussed. I will argue that mediation plays a pivotal role in this process, which implicates both tr...
Article
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This article considers challenges to policy and regulation presented by the dominant digital platforms. A radical democratic framing of the deliberative process is developed to acknowledge the full complexity of power relations that are in play in policy and regulatory debates and this view is contrasted with a liberal democratic perspective. We sh...
Book
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This entry addresses the emergence as well as the demise of WikiLeaks as an innovative platform for whistleblowers to leak documents and evidence of wrongdoing. The entry starts by defining the practice of whistleblowing and addressing the digital affordances which led to the emergence and initial success of WikiLeaks. It also deals with the proble...
Book
In this chapter, the focus is on the various ways in which activists across time and space have appropriated traditional media – print cultures, audio, and broadcasting – as well as telecommunication and the internet to develop resistance practices. I present a historical dimension and discuss the various ways in which counter-cultures and activist...
Book
In this book a set of theoretical and methodological resources are presented to study the way in which protest, resistance and social movement discourses circulate through society and looks at the role of media and of communication in this process. Empirically, the focus of this book is on the UK’s anti-austerity movement. ‘The Circuit of Protest’,...
Article
In this article, I address the way in which extreme right populist actors in Belgium and the Netherlands have managed to mainstream their divisive and racist discourse. Processes of othering, the identification of a set of ideological enemies, fear mongering and a type of populism that articulates “the people” in a very exclusionary manner characte...
Chapter
In this chapter, the self-mediation moment of the Circuit of Protest is assessed. The self-mediation moment addresses a set of mediation practices of activists. This emphasis on media and communication practices shifts the focus away from the textual and the symbolic towards the material aspects of a mediated struggle, and implicates a mediation re...
Chapter
In this chapter, the moment of production in the Circuit of Protest is addressed in more detail. It is in this moment that the movement discourses are shaped, and frames are articulated with a view to building collective identities and mobilizing for action, and where the actions themselves constitute a way to further reinforce and perform the move...
Chapter
In this concluding chapter, I address the mediation opportunity structure, which is characterized by the dynamic interplay between the agentic opportunities and the structural constraints aiming to thwart these opportunities. This represents the dialectic relationship between agency and structure, between generative and restrictive power, and betwe...
Chapter
This chapter presents the book’s conceptual framework. The aim is to theorize the way in which meaning and protest circulate through society. I propose the notion of a Circuit of Protest, inspired by the cultural studies model of a Circuit of Culture in order to make sense of the variety of ways in which media and communication facilitate or mediat...
Chapter
This chapter addresses the reception moment of the Circuit of Protest, and thus implicates the audiences of both movements’ self-mediation practices, and mainstream media representations of movements. The audiences social movements aim to reach are heterogeneous. They consist of state actors, which are able to implement legal change, as well as non...
Chapter
In this chapter, the moment of representation in the Circuit of Protest is addressed in more detail. Representation, unlike self-mediation, is practised by political actors outside of the movement. While undoubtedly the self-mediation practices of activists and movements play an important role, and arguably have become easier and more widespread th...
Article
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This research critically assesses the press coverage of Jeremy Corbyn during his leadership bid and subsequent first months as the leader of the UK’s Labour party. A content analysis (n=815) found that the British press offered a distorted and overly antagonistic view of the long-serving MP. Corbyn is often denied a voice and news organisations ten...
Chapter
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This entry discusses the various roles of media and communication in terms of empowerment and social change. It does so by focusing on a temporal and historical dimension that relates to innovations in terms of media and communication technologies going from the print press over radio broadcasting and the Internet. Besides this, it also identifies...
Technical Report
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Foreword: As media and communication scholars we have been troubled by the problematic way in which the British media has systematically attacked Jeremy Corbyn ever since he came to national prominence in the summer of 2015. At the same time, we also acknowledge that the media needs to fulfill an important watchdog role in a democracy. Indeed, we e...
Article
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It is timely to start a journal that focuses on alternative and community media as distinct phenomena to research and theorise. Over the last two decades, the study of alternative – that is, non-mainstream – media and bottom-up, community, participatory or movement media has increased steadily and matured into a strong, highly relevant and very imp...
Chapter
In this chapter we address some of the overall research questions of the book by examining significant barriers to young people’s participation, and pointing towards solutions that would recapture young citizen’s engagement with and participation in their political systems. In the policy and research literatures, the incidence of youth inclusion an...
Chapter
In this chapter the role of media in terms of facilitating and potentially enabling the participation of young people in democratic life will be addressed in more detail. As is well recognised in democratic theory, media and information provision and literacy is an important prerequisite for participation in democratic life. On the one hand, the di...
Chapter
This chapter goes to the heart of our research question about the extent to which youth participation in democratic life may be described as being ‘in crisis’. We begin this chapter by building on our insights from earlier chapters and on data from wider research in this area. Participation by young people in democratic life on a local, national, r...
Chapter
Voting has historically been the gold standard form of political participation in liberal democracies, and the main point of reference of those who have tried to assess whether democratic participation of given groups has been healthy or in crisis. In this book, we are explicitly considering the various modes of political participation in its broad...
Chapter
As outlined in chapter 1, in this book we aim to address what is commonly called the crisis of democracy. We do this through an in-depth analysis of the nature and the quality of youth participation. We will focus on the ways in which young people are being represented, how (European) institutions are attempting to involve young people in their pol...
Chapter
This book emerges out of an extensive research project that was undertaken for the European Commission’s Education, Audio-Visual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) between 2012 and 2013 during which we conducted a multi-method comparative analysis of the normative definitions and orientations towards contexts, practices and experiences of democra...
Chapter
Since the onset of the 2008 financial crisis, and the subsequent problems with the Eurozone, the EU has been undergoing a crisis of legitimacy. While the roots of this crisis are economic, the history and form of the single currency project means that the consequences are profoundly political. As Marsh (2013: 15) has argued, ‘the Euro house was ass...
Chapter
We have written this book against a backdrop of great upheaval in Europe, the same backdrop against which the research was conducted. More than half a decade of austerity measures in many countries has seen the rise and fall of entire parties, of coalition governments, of the far right, of populist nationalism and new political movements based on a...
Book
This book analyses and assesses the contexts, nature and the diversity of young people's participation in European democratic life. The authors provide an interdisciplinary conceptual framework addressing participation, power, democracy, efficacy and media. Using dynamic, original data collected in surveys, focus groups, interviews and a field expe...
Article
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This article aims to understand the dialectic between the visible and the invisible in relation to the post-hegemonic nature of neoliberalism and the role of mediation in that process. The neoliberal ideological project is geared towards making itself invisible, positioning itself as quintessentially anti-ideological and natural rather than ideolog...
Chapter
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Despite the many critiques (Cammaerts, 2008), it also has to be acknowledged that, in line with some of the more optimistic accounts, social media and so-called Web 2.0 applications have played both an instrumental and a constitutive role for activists worldwide in their efforts to disseminate social movement discourses, to mobilize for direct acti...
Article
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In this article, the movement frames of European Pirate Parties are analysed through a thematic analysis of texts relating to the Pirate Parties and transcripts of semi-structured interviews with representatives of Pirate Parties across three European countries—Germany, the United Kingdom and Belgium. At the level of the diagnostic and prognostic f...
Article
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While in the case of the Arab Spring the focus of research and debate was very much on the role of social media in enabling political change both during the uprisings and in their immediate aftermath, the impact of traditional national mass media and journalism on framing this political change has been less addressed. In this article, we investigat...
Book
This entry provides an overview of the ways in which social media and digital networks are contextualized and examined in relation to social movements and activism. A number of communicative practices that activists deploy are identified and the ways in which information and communication technology (ICT)-mediated practices are embedded in roles an...
Article
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In this article, we argue that the June 2013 protests in Brazil, which some dubbed the V-for-Vinegar protests, is a highly productive case to explore the complex and highly dynamic relationship between media, communication and protest today. While mainstream media representations of protest remain important, the concept of mediation crosses the bou...
Article
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RESUMO Neste artigo argumentamos que os protestos de junho de 2013 no Brasil, que alguns apelidaram de "V-de-Vinagre", constituem um caso extremamente produtivo para explorar as atuais relações complexas e altamente dinâmicas entre mídia, comunicação e protesto. Embora a representação dos fatos feita pela grande imprensa continue sendo importante,...
Article
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A common interpretation of the low levels of electoral turnout among young voters is that they are apathetic and part of a generation that does not care about political issues-indeed, a selfish and materialistic generation. In this article, the authors question this common perception and test this claim against an important alternative: that the li...
Article
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Injunctions for young people to participate in democratic life become more emphatic as voting rates in Western democracies decline and a growing disenchantment with traditional political life becomes apparent. In this context, city spaces and private property have been central to representations of the public sphere in which young people enact thei...
Article
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In this article the gap between research and theory on social movements and media and communication Studies is bridged. A conceptual framework is presented that relates both to social movement theory by referring to the political opportunity structure approach and logics of contentious action as well as to media and communication studies through th...
Article
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In this article, the intricate relationship between the logic of damage as an act of political communication and its mediation is addressed. The mediation of protest by mainstream media is often deemed to be one-sided, biased in favor of the establishment and predominantly antiprotest, focusing on the spectacular crowding out real debate on the iss...
Article
In this article, WikiLeaks is embedded within broader debates relevant to both social movement and mediation theory. First, the nature of the ties between a variety of relevant actors are assessed. Second, the networked opportunities and constraints at a discursive and material level of analysis are highlighted and finally the resistance strategies...
Article
Over the past year, international and national media have been full of stories about protest movements and tumultuous social upheaval from Tunisia to California. But scholars have not yet fully addressed the connection between these movements and the media and communication channels through which their messages spread. Correcting that imbalance, Me...
Article
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If you type in the word ‘revolution’ in the Google search engine the top result that comes up is a chain of bars called Revolution. Other results on the first page of the search engine include a commercial radio station, clothing, a skate park and a software company. A Wikipedia page and the website of the Revolutionary Socialist Youth are the only...
Article
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On 9 December 2011 a new Belgian government was sworn in after a record-breaking 541 days of negotiations between all democratic political forces with the aim to alter the constitution and provide more autonomy to the different regions that make up Belgium. In this article, the frequent use of political metaphors by North-Belgian politicians and jo...
Article
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This article aims to bridge a gap between social movement studies and media and communication studies. A conceptual framework is presented that integrates the political opportunity structure approach and the logics of contentious action with the concept of mediation. The author argues that mediation opportunity structure is a fruitful concept to en...
Article
Bart Cammaerts, verbonden aan het departement media en communicatie van de London School of Economics and Political Science, verklaart hoe beeldspraak het wij-versus-zijdenken aanwakkert. Het gebruik van politieke metaforen door de Vlaamse politieke elite is geen onschuldig zaakje, schrijft hij.
Chapter
The Handbook of Global Media and Communication Policy offers insights into the boundaries of this field of study, assesses why it is important, who is affected, and with what political, economic, social and cultural consequences. Contributors draw on theory and empirical research to offer multiple perspectives on the local, national, regional and g...
Article
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In this commentary the increasing discrepancy between the emerging participatory networked culture and the hegemonic copyright and intellectual property regime is contextualised and subsequently problematised. While this is a feature and growing conflict for every form of authored work – news, films, books, academic work, photography, the focus her...
Article
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Some argue that neoliberalism can be seen as having negated its negation, namely socialism and communism, and become unquestionable and common sense. However, many practices from below resist, reject or at least disrupt the stringent property rights regime and the primacy of the market, two core elements of neoliberal ideology. Some of these practi...
Article
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Youth unemployment has skyrocketed and government schemes to get young people into work are literally not paying off. Bart Cammaerts argues that forcing young people to work for free unveils a cynical contradiction in the government’s appeal to young people to invest in their futures.
Article
Ons land zit al sinds 2007 gevangen in een politieke stilstand. Wat sindsdien in het politieke discours in Vlaanderen opvalt, is het veelvuldige gebruik van metaforen om de ‘Vlaamse’ boodschap kracht bij te zetten. In dit artikel zal het gebruik van metaforen door Vlaamse politici en opiniemakers worden geanalyseerd door het zichtbaar maken van het...
Article
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This week’s budget saw the introduction of massive cuts to public sector spending, benefit reductions, lowering of corporation taxes and a rise in VAT. Five LSE experts discuss its key implications.
Article
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In the competition between cities for visibility and new facilities, the ‘age of austerity’ brings new pressures to involve private capital in sponsoring new interventions and activities, especially those that promote strong urban leaders. Yet Bart Cammaerts sees dangers in the incremental erosion of the public sphere via corporate badging of publi...
Article
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What caused the banking crisis and financial system collapse in 2008-9 can easily slip off the media’s news list. It’s too complex an issue to sustain continuous media attention. But Bart Cammaerts hopes that the personalization of the issues in a lengthy new trial about a French banking disaster will help keep us focused on what went wrong.
Article
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In this article the legacy of struggle by community radio in the West is analysed from a comparative perspective. More specifically, the focus of this article is on Western media policies towards community radio. It is argued that while many community radio discourses, theories and policies are oriented towards developing countries and emerging dem...
Article
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Progressive political movements and activists are not the only ones appropriating Web 2.0 as a way to construct independent public spaces and voice counterhegemonic discourses. By looking at the other extreme of (post-)fascist movements, it will be shown that the internet also gives rise to anti-public spaces, voicing hatred and essentialist discou...
Article
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As the legitimisation of international organisations, as well as other institutions, is being questioned more and more, these institutions are trying to find new ways by which to involve non-state stakeholders—citizens, civil society actors or organised citizens, and private actors—in their decision-making processes. This chapter analyses the rules...
Article
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This article examines the role of the internet in 2003 Iraq war from the perspective of the challenges it poses to the practices and formats of mainstream journalism and to the hegemonic articulations of war. Theoretically centralizing the concept of hegemony (as a network of interlocking but still distinct hegemonies), it positions blogs as altern...
Article
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This chapter analyses relationships between professionalism and amateurism, and between citizen journalists and activists within a civilsociety context, showing the interconnections between - and hybridity of - these discursive categories and the related mediated practices. It focuses on one specific case, related to the political, legal, military...
Book
This clear and concise text offers a one-stop guide through the complex political, social and economic debates that surround alternative media and provides a fresh and insightful look at the renewed importance of this form of communication. Combing diverse case studies from countries including the UK, North America and Brazil, the authors propose...
Article
The web log or blog is a recent and relatively popular phenomenon which is often deemed to have the potential to promote citizen participation in the media, and in particular in the production of (critical) media content by ‘netizens'. This paper considers whether this is in fact the case.
Conference Paper
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In this paper the often celebratory accounts of the civic, participatory and democratic potentials of the blogosphere are being critically assessed. While these potentials are not denied or minimised, it is argued that some trends and phenomena detrimental to these potentials need to be acknowledged as well. With regard to the latter, 5 distinct th...
Book
This book addresses one of the greatest challenges of post-modern democracy: how to bridge the perceived gap between citizens and democratic institutions. It examines internet-mediated multi-stakeholder processes of international and regional organisations - the European Union and United Nations - which aim to democratise decision-making processes...
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While the notion of cultural jamming has been around for several years little or no attention has gone to the appropriation of cultural jamming techniques by political actors in their political communication practices. These 'political' jams are not directed at the corporate world as such, like the cultural jam, but towards society at large or gove...
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Table of contents Introduction: Generating a unique learning experience. The Intellectual work of the 2006 European media and communication doctoral summer school in Tartu .................................................................... 9 Nico Carpentier PART ONE SECTION ONE: MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY Civic participation and practices: Beyond ‘del...
Article
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In the twentieth century, the media gave whistleblowers a voice, spearheaded the downfall of powerful politicians, and exposed widespread corporate corruption. How will the twenty-first-century media cope with its storied legacy as the watchdog of democratic society? Reclaiming the Media examines the sometimes tenuous, often fraught relationship be...
Article
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Chantal Mouffe's political philosophy has been influential in a variety of domains, including sociology, cultural studies, media studies, law, art, literary criticism, and journalism studies. By combining Gramsci's focus on hegemony with post-structuralist theory she has developed - in collaboration with Ernesto Laclau - a sophisticated perspective...
Article
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This article aims to critically assess claims that the Internet could facilitate the participation of civil society organisations in (European) policy-making processes. Participation is a much contested notion, strongly interlinked with power and the ability to change outcomes. While deliberation and consultation are put forward as ways to counter...
Article
The World Summit on the Information Society: exercises of e-governance between place spaces and flux spaces (By Claudia Padovani and Bart Cammaerts) - ABSTRACT: Governance is increasingly becoming a contested notion, whereby the different meanings of the concept make it intangible, elusive. Nevertheless this is a central topic to better understand...
Article
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Table of contents Introduction: Generating a unique learning experience. The Intellectual work of the 2006 European media and communication doctoral summer school in Tartu....................... 9 Nico Carpentier PART ONE SECTION ONE: MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY Civic participation and practices: Beyond ‘deliberative democracy’................................

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