Barry Setlow

Barry Setlow
University of Florida | UF · Department of Psychiatry

PhD

About

161
Publications
17,921
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,957
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2010 - present
University of Florida
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2010 - present
McKnight Brain Institute
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2004 - July 2010
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
September 1994 - August 1998
University of California, Irvine
Field of study
  • Neurobiology & Behavior
September 1990 - May 1994
Yale University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (161)
Article
The prescription opioid oxycodone is widely used for the treatment of pain in humans. Oxycodone misuse is more common among people with an anxiety disorder than those without one. Therefore, oxycodone might be misused for its anxiolytic properties. We investigated if oxycodone affects anxiety-like behavior in adult male and female rats. The rats we...
Article
Objective: While polysubstance use is highly prevalent among people who use drugs, the field lacks a reliable assessment that can detect detailed temporal patterns of polysubstance use. This study assessed the test-retest reliability of the newly developed Polysubstance Use-Temporal Patterns Section (PSU-TPS). Methods: Participants who used coca...
Article
Objective/background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a complex condition associated with circadian rhythm that disrupts sleep and can cause multisystemic consequences. This study assesses pharmacotherapy treatment initiation, estimates annual treatment prevalence, and assesses treatment patterns for early-onset idiopathic RLS. Methods We used the...
Article
Individuals who use cocaine exhibit maladaptive decision-making, overweighting rewards, and underweighting potential risks. We previously showed that chronic cocaine self-administration in young adult male rats causes long-lasting increases in risk taking. The present study expanded upon these findings to determine whether effects of cocaine on ris...
Article
The ability to decide adaptively between immediate vs. delayed gratification (intertemporal choice) is critical for well-being and is associated with a range of factors that influence quality of life. In contrast to young adults, many older adults show enhanced preference for delayed gratification; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this age...
Preprint
The prescription opioid oxycodone is widely used for the treatment of pain in humans. Oxycodone misuse is more common among people with an anxiety disorder than those without one. Therefore, oxycodone might be misused for its anxiolytic properties. We investigated if oxycodone affects anxiety-like behavior in adult male and female rats. The rats we...
Preprint
Objective: While polysubstance use is highly prevalent among people who use drugs, the field lacks a reliable assessment that can detect detailed patterns of polysubstance use. This study assessed the test-retest reliability of the newly developed Polysubstance Use–SAM (PSU-SAM).Methods: Participants who used cocaine plus either alcohol, marijuana...
Article
Cognitive flexibility is a prefrontal cortex-dependent neurocognitive process that enables behavioral adaptation in response to changes in environmental contingencies. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) enhances several forms of learning and neuroplasticity, but its effects on cognitive flexibility have not been evaluated. In the current stud...
Article
The cover image is based on the Research Article Neuron‐specific cilia loss differentially alters locomotor responses to amphetamine in mice by Carlos Ramos et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24755.
Article
Introduction Obesity and binge eating disorder are associated with high levels of impulsivity, but the causal role of eating and palatable food in these associations is unclear. Studies in rodents show that a high-fat diet can increase one aspect of impulsivity (impulsive action); it is less clear, however, whether a dissociable aspect of impulsivi...
Article
Objectives Cocaine use is on the rise and it is comorbid with marijuana use. We examined the association between lifetime cocaine + marijuana polysubstance use (CM PSU) versus cocaine only and lifetime cocaine use disorder (CocUD) and examined the potential mediation by cocaine use patterns. Methods A total of 2,968 lifetime cocaine users were ide...
Article
Background Cannabis (marijuana) is the most widely used illicit drug in the USA, and consumption among adolescents is rising. Some animal studies show that adolescent exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol or synthetic cannabinoid receptor 1 agonists causes alterations in affect and cognition that can persist into adulthood. It is less clear, how...
Article
The neural mechanisms that underlie responses to drugs of abuse are complex, and impacted by a number of neuromodulatory peptides. Within the past 10 years it has been discovered that several of the receptors for neuromodulators are enriched in the primary cilia of neurons. Primary cilia are microtubule‐based organelles that project from the surfac...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments in choosing optimally between immediate and delayed rewards are associated with numerous psychiatric disorders. Such 'intertemporal' choice is influenced by genetic and experiential factors; however, the contributions of biological sex are understudied and data to date are largely inconclusive. Rats were used to determine how sex and go...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments in choosing optimally between immediate and delayed rewards are associated with numerous psychiatric disorders. Such ‘intertemporal’ choice is influenced by genetic and experiential factors; however, the contributions of biological sex are understudied and data to date are largely inconclusive. Rats were used to determine how sex and go...
Article
Full-text available
Impairments in choosing optimally between immediate and delayed rewards are associated with numerous psychiatric disorders. Such ‘intertemporal’ choice is influenced by genetic and experiential factors; however, the contributions of biological sex are understudied and data to date are largely inconclusive. Rats were used to determine how sex and go...
Article
Psychiatric diseases characterized by dysregulated risky decision making are differentially represented in males and females. The factors that govern such sex differences, however, remain poorly understood. Using a task in which rats make discrete trial choices between a small, "safe" food reward and a large food reward accompanied by varying proba...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To explore the patterns, sequence, quantity, frequency and duration of poly substance use among adults for back translation of information to rodent models. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: From May –December 2019, we conducted 13 focus group discussions with adults 19 to 63 years of age who reported concurrent use of cocaine with alcoho...
Preprint
Full-text available
The neural mechanisms that underlie responses to drugs of abuse are complex, and impacted by a number of neuromodulatory peptides. Within the past ten years it has been discovered that several of the receptors for neuromodulators are enriched in the primary cilia of neurons. Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from the surfa...
Article
Substance use is strongly associated with gambling, but the nature of this association can be difficult to determine. Rodents offer the opportunity to test causal models of these relationships through isolation of individual variables of interest. This review describes recent research in rodents showing: a) predisposing factors for both gambling-li...
Article
Introduction: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the US, and cannabis use among young adults continues to rise. Previous studies have shown that chronic administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis, induces dependence in animal models. Because smoking is the most frequent route of T...
Article
Substance use is strongly associated with impaired decision making, with cocaine use particularly linked to elevated risky and impulsive choice. It is not clear, however, whether such maladaptive decision making is a consequence of cocaine use or instead precedes and predisposes individuals to cocaine use. The current study was designed to specific...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Cannabis use is common among adolescents and some research suggests that adolescent cannabis use increases the risk for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairments in adulthood. In human studies, however, confounds may affect the association between cannabis use and the development of brain disorders. Objectives These experiments inve...
Article
What we already know about this topic: Exposure to environmental stressors and endocrine disruptors can induce multigenerational effects resulting in neurobehavioral and other abnormalities in the offspringEarly-life anesthesia exposure in rodents alters neurocognitive function in their offspring, but whether exposure of adult animals affects offs...
Chapter
Full-text available
Excessive preference for risky over safe options is a hallmark of several psychiatric disorders. Here we describe a behavioral task that models such risky decision making in rats. In this task, rats are given choices between small, safe rewards and large rewards accompanied by risk of footshock punishment. The risk of punishment changes within a te...
Article
In order to optimize outcomes in the face of uncertainty, one must recall past experiences and extrapolate to the future by assigning values to different choice outcomes. This behavior requires an interplay between memory and reward valuation, necessitating communication across many brain regions. At the anatomical nexus of this interplay is the pe...
Article
Full-text available
Across species, aging is associated with an increased ability to choose delayed over immediate gratification. These experiments used young and aged rats to test the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in intertemporal decision making. An optogenetic approach was used to inactivate the BLA in young and aged rats at discrete time points during cho...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aging is associated with an increased ability to delay gratification. Moreover, even when matched for performance, young and aged subjects recruit distinct brain circuitry to complete complex cognitive tasks. Experiments herein used an optogenetic approach to test whether altered recruitment of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region implica...
Article
Numerous preclinical studies show that acute cannabinoid administration impairs cognitive performance. Almost all of this research has employed cannabinoid injections, however, whereas smoking is the preferred route of cannabis administration in humans. The goal of these experiments was to systematically determine how acute exposure to cannabis smo...
Article
The ability to decide advantageously among options that vary in both their risks and rewards is critical for survival and well-being. Previous work shows that some forms of risky decision-making are robustly modulated by monoamine signaling, but it is less clear how monoamine signaling modulates decision-making under risk of explicit punishment. Th...
Article
The ability to choose among options that differ in their rewards and costs (value-based decision making) has long been a topic of interest for neuroscientists, psychologists, and economists alike. This is likely because this is a cognitive process in which all animals (including humans) engage on a daily basis, be it routine (which road to take to...
Article
Full-text available
Excessive risk-taking is common in multiple psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders. The risky decision-making task (RDT) models addiction-relevant risk-taking in rats by measuring preference for a small food reward vs. a large food reward associated with systematically increasing risk of shock. Here, we examined the relationship...
Article
Background: Polysubstance use (PSU) is prevalent among individuals with substance use disorders, but the vast majority of preclinical substance use research has focused on individual substances in isolation. Cocaine has been prevalent in the repertoire of persons who use more than one illicit substance. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis comb...
Article
Early life stressors, including general anesthesia, can have adverse effects on adult neural and behavioral outcomes, such as disruptions in inhibitory signaling, stress responsivity and increased risk of psychiatric disorders. Here we used a rat model to determine the effects of combined exposure to etomidate (ET) neonatal anesthesia and maternal...
Article
Full-text available
Brain imaging studies indicate that chronic cocaine users display altered functional connectivity between prefrontal cortical, thalamic, striatal, and limbic regions; however, the use of cross-sectional designs in these studies precludes measuring baseline brain activity prior to cocaine use. Animal studies can circumvent this limitation by compari...
Article
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in several forms of cost-benefit decision making. Its contributions to decision making under risk of explicit punishment, however, are not well understood. A rat model was used to investigate the role of the medial PFC (mPFC) and its monoaminergic innervation in a Risky Decision-making Task (RDT),...
Article
A highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, and rimonabant in rat plasma was developed. Analytes and the internal standard were extracted from plasma using a combination of protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromato...
Article
A substantial literature details the relationship between age-related changes to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and deterioration of mnemonic functions that depend on the hippocampus. The relationship between adrenocortical status and other forms of memory that depend on the prefrontal cortex is less well understood in the context of advan...
Article
Full-text available
Glutamate signaling is essential for the persistent neural activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) that enables working memory. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a diverse class of proteins that modulate excitatory neurotransmission via both presynaptic regulation of extracellular glutamate levels and postsynaptic modulation of ion channels...
Article
Among cathinone drugs known as bath salts, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) exerts its potent actions via the dopamine (DA) system, and at intoxicating doses may produce adverse behavioral effects. Previous work by our group suggests that prolonged alterations in correlated neural activity between cortical and striatal areas could underlie, at lea...
Chapter
Intertemporal decision-making refers to choices among options that vary in both magnitude and delay to arrival (e.g., choices between a small, immediate reward vs a large, delayed reward). An individual’s preference for immediate over delayed rewards depends in part on the degree to which delays reduce (discount) the rewards’ subjective value, and...
Poster
Full-text available
Intertemporal choice involves decisions among options that differ in both reward magnitude and delay to reward delivery. Such decisions require integration of existing reward representations (based on prior experience) with valuation of the organism’s current wants and needs (incentive motivation). Prior studies in both humans and rodents show that...
Article
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context o...
Article
Full-text available
Decision making is a multifaceted process, consisting of several distinct phases that likely require different cognitive operations. Previous work showed that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate for decision making involving risk of punishment; however, it is unclear how the BLA is recruited at different stages of the decision pr...
Article
Despite the fact that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function declines with age, aged individuals generally show an enhanced ability to delay gratification, as evident by less discounting of delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. The present study was designed to evaluate relationships between 2 aspects of PFC-dependent cognition (working memory a...
Preprint
Decision making is a multifaceted process, consisting of several distinct phases that likely require different cognitive operations. Previous work showed that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate for decision making involving risk of punishment; however, it is unclear how the BLA is recruited at different stages of the decision pr...
Article
The ability to weigh the costs and benefits of various options to make an adaptive decision is critical to an organism's survival and wellbeing. Many psychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive decision making, indicating a need for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this process and the ways in which it is altered under pa...
Article
Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one’s environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancin...
Article
Chronic administration of cocaine can cause pronounced and enduring cognitive alterations such as increases in impulsive choice. Chronic cocaine can also result in enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to reward-related cues. It is possible that this enhanced DA release in the NAc is a mechanism by which cocaine...
Article
Significance statement: Working memory, the ability to hold information "in mind", requires persistent activity of pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortex mediated by NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation. NMDAR loss in prefrontal cortex may account for working memory impairments in aging and psychiatric disease. Our studies demonstrate that NMDARs cont...
Poster
Full-text available
Behavioral flexibility, or the ability to adjust response strategies when faced with changes in the environment, is critical for normal adaptive behavior. Behavioral flexibility is mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and is compromised in schizophrenia and other clinical conditions characterized by cortical hyperexcitability. This aspect of PFC...
Poster
Full-text available
Working memory refers to the short-term maintenance of information and this process is thought to require the persistent activity of excitatory pyramidal neurons within the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are localized to pre- (Group II and III) and post- (Group 1) synaptic sites in the PFC, where they modulate sy...
Article
Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 22 September 2016. doi:10.1038/npp.2016.212.
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: The ability to adjust response strategies when faced with changes in the environment is critical for normal adaptive behavior. Such behavioral flexibility is compromised by experimental disruption of cortical GABAergic signaling, as well as in conditions such as schizophrenia and normal aging that are characterized by cortical hyperexci...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomot...
Data
Anandamide and behavior in the large open field. Asterisks (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) indicate significant different from the vehicle (dose 0) group. N = 10 per group. (DOC)
Data
Effect of cannabis smoke on body weight gain. Effect of 8 weeks (A) or 2 weeks (B) of cannabis smoke exposure on body weight gain. B: Asterisks (**p<0.01) indicate a lower body weight gain in the cannabis group than in the air-control group. N = 10 per group (A), N = 20 per group (B). Data expressed as means ± SEM. (TIF)
Data
Cannabis smoke induces brief increase in locomotor activity in the small open field. The rats were tested in the small open field immediately after cannabis smoke exposure and the distance traveled was assessed. Asterisk (* p<0.05) indicates a significant difference from the air group. N = 10 per group. Abbreviation: Air, air-control group. Data ex...
Data
Cannabis smoke and behavior in the small open field. Asterisk (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) indicate decreased horizontal or vertical beam breaks compared to the air-control group. N = 10 per group. (DOC)
Data
Effect of rimonabant on the behavior of cannabis smoke exposed rats in the small open field. Baseline is 4 h after smoke exposure and before the systemic administration of rimonabant or vehicle. The rats were tested for an additional 45-min after the administration of rimonabant or vehicle. (DOC)
Data
Cannabis smoke and behavior in the large open field. Rats were tested in the large open field 48 h after cannabis smoke exposure (Test 1) and the following day immediately after smoke exposure (Test 2). Plus signs (+p<0.05, ++p<0.01) indicate significant different from the same experimental group during test 1. Asterisks (*p<0.05, **p<0.01) indicat...
Data
Anandamide and behavior in the small open field. Asterisks (*p<0.05) indicate significant different from the vehicle (dose 0) group. N = 10 per group. (DOC)
Data
Effect of cannabis smoke exposure on anandamide-induced behavioral changes in the small open field. Asterisk (*p<0.05) indicate significant different from the air-vehicle group. N = 10 per group. (DOC)
Data
locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field before smoke exposure. The rats were tested in the small open field five days before the onset of the smoke exposure sessions and horizontal (A) and vertical beam breaks (B) were assessed. There were no differences in horizontal and vertical beam breaks between the two groups before cannabis sm...
Data
Effect of cannabis smoke on body weight gain. Asterisk (**p<0.01) indicate higher body weight than before onset of exposure sessions. Plus sign (+p<0.05) indicate lower body weight compared air-control rats at the end of the exposure period. Experiment 1, N = 10 / group; Experiment 3, N = 20 / group. Data are expressed as means ± SEM. (DOC)
Data
Cannabis smoke and behavior in the elevated plus maze. Rats were tested in the elevated plus maze 48 h after cannabis smoke exposure (Test 1) and the following day immediately after smoke exposure (Test 2). Plus signs (+p<0.05, ++p<0.01) indicate significant different from the same experimental group during test 1. Asterisks (*p<0.05) indicate sign...
Data
Effect of rimonabant on anandamide-induced behavioral changes in the small open field. Asterisks (**p<0.01) indicate significant different from the vehicle-vehicle group. N = 10–16 per group. (DOC)