Barry Kitchen

Barry Kitchen
La Trobe University · School of Life Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy Ph D

About

56
Publications
3,636
Reads
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2,259
Citations
Citations since 2016
13 Research Items
477 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080

Publications

Publications (56)
Article
Full-text available
Farmed shrimp feeds are under continuous development to maximise shrimp growth, health, and feed efficiency. There is evidence in aquaculture species that botanical ingredients may be capable of improvements in each of these traits. However, the full potential of these ingredients remains largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of dietary ad...
Article
Full-text available
As inflammatory lifestyle factors become more prevalent and as the population ages, the management of inflammation will become increasingly relevant. Plant polyphenols are powerful antioxidants that are known to have beneficial effects in a number of diseases with an inflammatory or oxidative component, such as malignancy, cardiovascular disease an...
Article
Full-text available
The current in vitro study aimed to investigate the effects of a processed sugarcane extract on the viability of avian Eimeria sporozoites. Treatments were applied to hatched sporozoites: 1) without additives (no-treatment control); 2) with ethanol; 3) with salinomycin; 4) with Polygain™. All treatments were incubated in RPMI media containing live...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Energy-dense diets have been implicated as a driving force in the global obesity crisis. Sucrose derived from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is a carbohydrate source at the centre of this discussion. However, sugar cane is a complex plant containing a wide variety of phytochemicals that may have anti-obesity properties. The objectiv...
Article
Full-text available
Plant polyphenols have an array of health benefits primarily thought to be related to their high content of anti-oxidants. These are commonly undervalued and knowledge of their biological properties have grown exponentially in the last decade. Polyphenol-rich sugarcane extract (PRSE), a natural extract from sugar cane, is marketed as high in anti-o...
Article
Full-text available
Glycaemic index (GI) testing provides a useful point of comparison between carbohydrate sources. For this comparison to be meaningful, the methods used to determine GI values need to be rigorous and consistent between testing events. This requirement has led to increasing standardization of the GI methodology, with an international standard develop...
Article
Full-text available
Plants that are primarily used as a food source commonly have undervalued biological properties beyond the basic supply of nutrients. One important example of this are the antimicrobial properties of plants. Inclusion of natural and food grade antimicrobial ingredients in recipes to prevent food spoilage and disease transmission, or in cosmetic pro...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stress, such as UV radiation, generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in skin cells, leading to histochemical changes including skin disorders and aging, hyper pigmentation, and increased formation of wrinkles. Besides the defensive system in skin composed of vitamins and intrinsic antioxidant...
Article
Evidence suggests that enhanced oxidative stress and mild, chronic inflammation is associated with the onset and progression of some neurological disorders. Hypothesis A polyphenol rich sugarcane extract may be active in protecting against this inflammation and neurological degeneration. Study design A series of cell culture strains and in vitro...
Article
The antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses ethanol extract (ME) and its fraction (ME-RBF) was evaluated using ABTS, ORAC 6.0 and CAA assays and ME-RBF demonstrated 26-fold, 12-fold and 2-fold higher values, respectively than ME. Likewise, total polyphenol and flavonoid concentration in ME-RBF are more than 10-fold higher than ME, that suggested...
Article
Objectives: Dysfunctional metabolism of carbohydrates is a fundamental component of many dietary-related disorders. It has been hypothesized that plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants may have the ability to stabilize carbohydrate regulation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a polyphenol-rich sugarcane extract on c...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided a method for altering the distribution of body mass by altering the distribution of body mass by decreasing overall percentage fat and/or increasing the proportion of lean mass to fat mass comprising administering to a subject one or more compounds having the ability to alter body mass composition and/or ACE inhibiting activity or...
Article
The effects of heat-induced interactions between milk fat globule membrane components and skim milk proteins in whole milk on the structure of the membrane were examined by isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation and by using Triton X-100 as a membrane probe. Skim milk components were incorporated into all the lipoprotein fractions separa...
Article
Heating raw milk at 80 °C for 2·5–20 min was found to result in compositional changes in the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). The yield of protein material increased with the duration of heating, owing to incorporation of skim milk proteins, predominantly β-lactoglobulin, into the membrane. Lipid components of the MFGM were also affected, with los...
Article
Two forms of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase were purified from bovine mammary gland by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose and preparative isoelectric focusing. The two forms, designated A and B on the basis of their binding to DEAE-cellulose at pH 7, were glycoproteins with diff...
Article
A simple bromothymol blue indicator test was evaluated for farm diagnosis of mastitis. The test required highly absorbent blotting paper impregnated with four spots of bromothymol blue. Indicator color scores (1 to 4) for quarter foremilks increased with somatic cell count and pH, although variability within each color score was large. Sensitivity...
Article
The caseinolytic activities at pH 6.8 of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear leucocyte homogenates (equivalent to a level of 10(6) cells/ml milk) were less than the levels of natural milk proteinase activity found in milk from healthy cows. Bulk milks contained approximately 4 times more milk proteinase activity than the composite milks from in...
Chapter
Bovine milk contains a large number of enzymes (about 60 have been identified) which originate from the mammary gland tissue cells, blood plasma and blood leucocytes. Although they represent a minor fraction of the total milk protein, they have received in-depth scientific investigation over the past 50 years. Several major reviews1–6 have been pub...
Article
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase ( NAGase ) levels and somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined monthly for 6 months in the bulk milk of 181 suppliers (1063 samples). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74; P less than 0.001) was found between supplier's bulk herd milk geometric mean NAGase activity and SCC. Monthly trends which grouped supplie...
Article
Glucose levels in 188 quarter for milks from different cows were determined by an enzymic procedure. Mean glucose content was 0.22 mM (standard error +/- 0.009) and results ranged from 0.02-0.57 mM. Abnormal quarters had lower glucose levels (P less than 0.01) than normal quarters but variability within each classification was large. Glucose conten...
Article
The material surrounding the fat globules in commercial pasteurized homogenized milk was isolated by centrifugation of the freeze – thaw extract of the fat globules through a 52·5% (w/v) sucrose solution in simulated milk ultrafiltrate. The purified membrane material contained higher neutral lipid levels than fresh raw milk fat globule membrane (MF...
Article
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) material was isolated from commercial pasteurized milks and pasteurized creams using a procedure specifically adapted for these products (McPherson et al. 1984a). Pasteurized cream membranes contained higher lipid levels while pasteurized milk membrane material had lower lipid contents than fresh raw MFGM. Electroph...
Article
N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) levels and somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined monthly for 6 months in the bulk milk of 181 suppliers (1063 samples). A highly significant correlation (r = 0·74; P < 0·001) was found between supplier's bulk herd milk geometric mean NAGase activity and SCC. Monthly trends which grouped suppliers into vario...
Article
Bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) material was isolated from cream by a new technique which did not involve removal of caseins and whey proteins before destabilization of the fat globules. These components were removed by centrifugation of the membrane material extract through a concentrated sucrose solution (52·5% (w/v) sucrose in 10 mM-Tris...
Article
Changes in the level of the tissue damage marker enzyme, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in quarter fore milks were found to be related to the presence and types of pathogenic bacteria present and to somatic cell counts (SCC). Minor pathogens (coagulase-negative staphylococci, Corynebacterium bovis) elicited a mild SCC increase (from a mean o...
Article
An extract of Kluyveromyces lactis 416 and a β-galactosidase preparation (Maxilact 40000) contaminated with proteinase, showed similar pH profiles of caseinolytic activity. Similar modes of casein hydrolysis (κ-, > αs-, ≥ β-) were observed at pH 5·0 (the pH of Cheddar cheese), without detection of bitterness. The contaminated Maxilact preparation c...
Article
Full-text available
A large-scale survey of milks from healthy and mastitic bovine quarters was undertaken to establish the influence of mastitic infection on milk lipase activity and free fatty acid (FFA) level. Mastitic milks tended to have higher FFA levels, but lower lipoprotein lipase activities compared with milk from healthy quarters. These effects became signi...
Article
Quarter fore-milk samples, blood serum, and mammary gland tissue extracts were tested for N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidae, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate--oxaloacetate transmaninase, arylesterase, bovine serum albumin, sodium, conductivity, and somatic cell count. Bovine serum albumin, arylesterase, and sodium were high in blood serum while the first...
Article
A new spectrofluorimetric assay procedure for bovine milk N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is described for use as a routine screening test for the detection of abnormal udder secretions. This procedure uses 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide as substrate. On the basis of the greater sample throughput, increased product sens...
Article
Bovine milk-fat globule membrane (MFGM) has been fractionated in to 3 membrane components by isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The 3 components, designated as heavy, medium and light material, were characterized by particular polypeptide, lipid, carbohydrate and enzyme compositions. The heavy material (density > 1·145 g/ml) was red...
Article
Assay procedures were developed for a number of enzymes in milk which apparently originate from leucocytes. The enzymes studied were acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase, arylsulphatase, alpha-mannosidase, and catalase. Quarter-milk samples were analysed for enzyme activity and results compared with the electronic c...
Article
Full-text available
The inhibition of lactose synthetase A protein by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate at pH7.5 and 25 degrees C, which involves the reaction of one molecule of inhibitor with each molecule of enzyme, was decreased in rate by UDP-galactose, especially in the presence of Mn(2+). Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the reaction between 0.1mm-p-hydroxymercuribe...
Article
Membrane material was isolated from skim milk and cream using the same samples of whole milk and similar purification techniques. The membranes from these two sources were characterised and compared by lipid, carbohydrate, enzymatic and electrophoretic analyses. The skim milk membranes contained higher levels of cholesterol, phospholipid and carboh...
Article
The lactose synthetase activity of A protein from human milk was much decreased but not abolished by reaction with thiol-group reagents. Protection experiments indicated that a free thiol group on the enzyme is situated near the UDP-galactose binding site and inactivation of the enzyme with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate was probably due to prevention of...
Article
From the effects of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucose on the elution of the A protein of human lactose synthetase from a column of Sepharose-alpha-lactalbumin, values of 200m(-1) and 0.57m(-1) are deduced for the association constants describing the interaction between the enzyme and the respective monosaccharides.
Article
A purified arylesterase preparation from bovine plasma was characterized to the extent that it has a partial specific volume of 0.91ml/g and an apparent z-average molecular weight of 440000. The relatively large magnitude of the former reflects the presence of phospholipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and beta-carotene, the last-named being respons...
Article
We have studied the effects on the function and conformation of bovine α-lactalbumin after reaction with the protein-dissociating reagent maleic anhydride.The 13 amino groups of α-lactalbumin were accessible to the reagent and when all of these were maleylated a highly acidic and more expanded protein resulted. Despite these differences in physical...
Article
The type and distribution of esterases in milk has been investigated using selective inhibitors during normal assay procedures and during histochemical staining of polyacrylamide gels. Enzyme solutions were obtained from skim-milk by acid and alkali precipitation, followed by ammonium sulphate fractionation, ultra-filtration and Sephadex G-100 chro...
Article
The distribution and activity of alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1), acid phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.2), catalase (E.C. 1.11.1.6), xanthine oxidase (E.C. 1.2.3.2), aldolase (E.C. 4.1.2.7 and 4.1.2.13), ribonuclease (E.C. 2.7.7.16) and carbonic anhydrase (E.C. 4.2.1.1) were studied in the major components of bovine milk. Fractionation was accomplished...

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