Barouch Giechaskiel

Barouch Giechaskiel
European Commission | ec · Joint Research Centre (JRC)

PhD

About

166
Publications
136,133
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4,124
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (166)
Article
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Increases in strength and muscle mass can be achieved with weight training and adequate recovery (including nutrition and sleep). The time course of recovery and adaptation (super-compensation) for different number of sets has not been adequately investigated in the literature. A 40-year-old well-trained male exercised the chest with (a) 3 sets of...
Article
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Article History Weight (resistance) training can increase strength and muscle mass. A personalized training protocol (i.e., with optimum frequency and number of sets) was followed for 4 months by a 40-year old male with 20 years of weight training experience. The body was split in three parts and was trained every 5-6 days. The strength increase wa...
Article
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The Creatine Kinase (CK) is a blood marker commonly used to assess exercise induced muscle damage. However, little attention has been given for its use as an index of recovery and adaptation after weight training sessions. In this review, studies that measured the CK after single bouts of typical gym and fitness studios exercises were summarized, w...
Article
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Background: Creatine kinase (CK) is a blood marker used to assess muscle damage and overtraining. A simple model was developed to assess the effectiveness of various weight training programs. The model assumes that every weight training session has an additive effect on CK levels. Materials and Methods: A subject trained the chest, and then measure...
Article
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A weight (resistance) training program includes training variables, such as exercises, sets, repetitions and training frequency. A training plan describes how the variables should be modified over time. In order to be effective, both training programs and plans should be based on some basic principles, applicable to all trainees. Based on the liter...
Article
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A heavy-duty engine is type-approved in engine dynamometers, while its in-service conformity is controlled on the road. In the first case, laboratory particle number systems (LABS) sample from a full dilution tunnel or a proportional partial flow dilution system (PFDS). In the second case the portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS) measure d...
Article
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Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are promoted as an alternative to conventional vehicles to meet European decarbonisation and air quality targets. However, several studies have shown that gasoline PHEVs present similar criteria and particulate emissions as their conventional gasoline counterparts. In the present work, we investigate the env...
Article
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Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are a promising technology for reducing the tailpipe emissions of CO2 as well as air pollutants, especially in urban environments. However, several studies raise questions over their after-treatment exhaust efficiency when their internal combustion engine (ICE) ignites. The rationale is the high ICE load dur...
Article
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Particulate mass concentration is a crucial parameter for characterising air quality. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is the primary technology used to limit vehicle particle emissions, but it needs periodic cleaning, a process called regeneration. This study aims to assess the impact of active DPF regeneration on the performance and emissions...
Article
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Periodic technical inspection (PTI) of vehicles guarantees safety and environmental compliance during their lifetime. Particulate matter emissions of diesel vehicles are controlled with opacity measurements. After the introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), particulate matter emissions have drastically decreased and the sensitivity of th...
Article
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Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are included in the group of promoted transport fuel alternatives in Europe. Most studies on emissions factors are based on old technology CNG and LPG fueled vehicles. Furthermore, there are not many data at low ambient temperatures, on-road driving, or unregulated pollutants, such as a...
Article
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Lubricant oil affects the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of passenger cars. Oil reduces the friction in combustion engines, yet simultaneously some lubricating oil is exhausted from the engine. The fugitive lubricant oil results in < 30 nm solid particle number (SPN) emissions in the exhaust gas. The characteristics and formation path of th...
Article
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Many countries worldwide have introduced a limit for solid particles larger than 23 nm for the type approval of vehicles before their circulation in the market. However, for some vehicles, in particular for port fuel injection engines (gasoline and gas engines) a high fraction of particles resides below 23 nm. For this reason, a methodology for cou...
Article
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Road transport contributes significantly to air pollution in cities. Regulations across the globe continuously reduce the limits that vehicles need to respect during their lifetimes. Furthermore, more pollutants are being subject to control with new regulations and, most important, testing tends to be done under real-world conditions on the road. I...
Article
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Illegal manipulation (i.e., tampering) of vehicles is a severe problem because vehicle emissions increase orders of magnitude and significantly impact the environment and human health. This study measured the emissions before and after representative approaches of tampering of two Euro 6 Diesel light-duty passenger cars, two Euro VI Diesel heavy-du...
Technical Report
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This report presents the results for the work conducted by the JRC as European Commission contribution to the first year of market surveillance and regarding emissions from motor vehicles. The report, primarily targeted towards the bodies acting in the EU market surveillance, presents the emissions test results and the compliance findings, which ca...
Article
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Road transport is a relevant source of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to meet the European decarbonisation targets, the share of electrified vehicles, including battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), is rapidly growing, becoming the second most popular powertrain in the European market. PHEVs are of interest sin...
Article
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The emissions of vehicles are measured in laboratories with roller-type chassis dynamometers, which simulate road driving resistances. Hub-coupled dynamometers, which are not included in the regulations for emission measurements, are commonly used for research and development purposes, for example, to assess powertrain capabilities, simulate on-roa...
Article
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Featured Application: The particle number emissions of two Diesel vehicles, weighted with one Diesel particulate filter (DPF) active regeneration, were around 2 × 10^11 #/km for solid particles but 20-300 × 10^11 #/km for volatile particles. Abstract: The solid particle number emissions of Diesel vehicles are very low due to the particulate filters...
Article
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The Horizon 2020 prizes aimed at the development of retrofit and engines that would reduce pollution. The Retrofit prize had a winner, while the Engine prize not. In this paper we present the innovations that were tested at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, and not awarded. One was a “condensation” aftertreatment device, t...
Article
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The European Union (EU) has introduced since the early 1990s a series of progressively more stringent emission regulations to control air pollution from the transport sector, commonly known as Euro standards. Following this path, more recently, with the European Green Deal, the European Commission has indicated the intention to review the current a...
Article
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Road transport significantly contributes to air pollution in cities. Emission regulations have led to significantly reduced emissions in modern vehicles. Particle emissions are controlled by a particulate matter (PM) mass and a solid particle number (SPN) limit. There are concerns that the SPN limit does not effectively control all relevant particu...
Article
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The emission limit of non-volatile particles (i.e., particles that do not evaporate at 350 °C) with size >23 nm, in combination with the real driving emissions (RDE) regulation in 2017, resulted in the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) in all light-duty vehicles with gasoline direct injection engines in Europe. Even though there a...
Conference Paper
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T he subject of exhaust particulate emissions from road vehicles continues to gain attention and further, more stringent legislative demands are expected in this area. While the European Union has been at the forefront in recent decades, other jurisdictions are making progress towards more comprehensive control and limitation of exhaust particulate...
Article
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Following the increase in stringency of the European regulation limits for laboratory and real world automotive emissions, one of the main transport related aspects to improve the air quality is the mass scale in-use vehicle testing. Solid particle number (SPN) emissions have been drastically reduced with the use of diesel and gasoline particulate...
Article
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Vehicle emissions are a significant source of air pollution in cities. Particulate matter (PM) is a pollutant with adverse health effects. Regulations worldwide determine the PM exhaust emissions of vehicles by gravimetric quantification of the mass deposited on a filter over a test cycle. The introduction of particulate filters as vehicle exhaust...
Article
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The Euro 4 regulation, applicable since 2016 for L-category vehicles (i.e., two and three-wheelers, and mini cars) reduced the emission limits, but also introduced a new cycle, the WMTC (World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle). The emission studies of Euro 4 motorcycles are limited, and most importantly there are no published studies comparing the...
Article
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The EU aims to substantially reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in the following decades and achieve climate neutrality by 2050. Better CO2 estimates, particularly in urban conditions, are necessary for assessing the effectiveness of various regional policy strategies. In this study, we measured the CO2 emissions of a Euro 6d-temp gasoline direct...
Article
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Vehicle exhaust solid particle number emissions >23 nm (SPN23) and >10 nm (SPN10) were studied for 56 market light-duty vehicles with over 1000 laboratory tests. The studied vehicle-types were gasoline port-fueled injection (PFI), gasoline direct injection (GDI), GDI with gasoline particulate filter (GPF-GDI), and diesel equipped with particulate f...
Article
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Pollution from vehicles is a serious concern for the environment and human health. Vehicle emission regulations worldwide have limits for pollutants such as hydrocarbons, CO, and NOx. The measurements are typically conducted at engine dynamometers (heavy-duty engines) sampling from the tailpipe or at chassis dynamometers (light-duty vehicles) sampl...
Article
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Gaseous emissions of modern Euro 6d vehicles, when tested within real driving emissions (RDE) boundaries, are, in most cases, at low levels. There are concerns, though, about their emission performance when tested at or above the boundaries of ambient and driving conditions requirements of RDE regulations. In this study, a Euro 6d-Temp gasoline dir...
Article
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In the last years, the in-use emissions of vehicles are measured on the road with portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). PEMS cannot measure as accurately as the laboratory grade equipment, and studies on their measurement uncertainty have continued since their appearance in the market. In this study we compared PEMS to laboratory grade equ...
Article
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Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are included in the group of promoted transport fuel alternatives for traditional fossil fuels in Europe. Both CNG and LPG fueled vehicles are believed to have low particle number and mass emissions. Here, we studied the solid particle number (SPN) emissions >4 nm, >10 nm and >23 nm of...
Article
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The Euro 5 limits for L-category vehicles are applicable since 2020 and for this reason there is lack of studies examining the emissions of this category. In this study we tested a 1000 cm3 Euro 5 motorcycle over the World Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC). The gaseous pollutants were approximately half of their respective limits. The cold st...
Article
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Calibration of condensation particle counters (CPC) to measure non-volatile particle number (PN) from vehicle emissions is a significant source of uncertainty of the regulated particle number measurements. In this work, the calibration uncertainty of automotive and calibration laboratories was determined in a first-of-its-kind comparison. For this...
Article
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With the introduction of gasoline particulate filters (GPFs), the particle number (PN) emissions of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) vehicles are below the European regulatory limit of 6 × 1011 p/km under certification conditions. Nevertheless, concerns have been raised regarding emission levels at the boundaries of ambient and driving conditions of...
Article
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In China particulate matter (PM) is the leading environmental risk factor to morbidity and mortality, with transport being the main source of PM pollution in cities. China VI emission limit standards, which are one of the most stringent worldwide, have only recently been introduced and there is lack of studies assessing the PM emissions of new engi...
Article
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In the European Union’s emissions regulations, limits for solid particles >23 nm are applicable for the type-approval and in use compliance of vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) systems are used very often for both research and development of engines and vehicles, both in the laboratory and on the road. The technical specifications of the...
Article
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This report summarises the results of the 2019 pilot study on the market surveillance of light-duty motor vehicles tailpipe emissions. Environmental pollutant emissions performances and CO2 emissions of thirty-five light-duty vehicles are presented. A new methodology for Euro 6d-TEMP and Euro 6d vehicle compliance checks is presented, applied and d...
Article
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We present an exploratory study carried out with a new miniature portable emission measurement system (Mini-PEMS) specifically designed at the Technical University of Liberec (CZ) for applications on two-wheeler vehicles owing to its reduced size (45 cm×30×20 cm) and weight (≈ 15 kg). It measures the exhaust gas concentrations of hydrocarbons and c...
Article
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Air pollution remains a serious concern for European citizens. The relative contribution of mopeds and motorcycles to air pollution started to increase as the levels from other vehicles started to decrease. The information on emission levels of Euro 4 motorcycles is limited because they were only recently introduced into the market (2016). In this...
Article
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For the type approval of compression ignition (diesel) and gasoline direct injection vehicles, a particle number (PN) limit of 6 × 10 ^11 p/km is applicable. Diesel vehicles in circulation need to pass a periodical technical inspection (PTI) test, typically every two years, after the first four years of circulation. However, often the applicable sm...
Article
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Background Road transport is an important contributor to the European Union’s total greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims at summarizing methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) exhaust emissions from L-category, light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles in the European Union. The assessment is based on measurements carried out in the Vehicle Emissio...
Article
Human health and the environment are heavily impacted by air pollution. Air quality standards for Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) are commonly exceeded in Europe, particularly in urban areas with high density of traffic. Road transport contributed to 39% of NOx emissions, and 11% of PM emissions in the European Union (EU) in 2017...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Particle number (PN) emission limits were introduced in the European Union's regulations for light-duty and heavy duty vehicles in the years 2011-2014. Since then, PN measurements have become a common practice in the automotive sector. Many studies showed that the current methodology, which counts particles >23 nm, misses a large fraction of partic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A proposal for sub-23 nm Solid Particle Number (SPN) measurement method was developed by the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) group, based on the current SPN measurement method. In the proposal, a Particle Number Counter (PNC) having (65 ±15)% counting efficiency at 10 nm and >90% at 15 nm (PNC10) replaces the current regulation PNC efficiency...
Article
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Vehicle regulations include limits for non-volatile particle number emissions with sizes larger than 23 nm. The measurements are conducted with systems that remove the volatile particles by means of dilution and heating. Recently, the option of measuring from 10 nm was included in the Global Technical Regulation (GTR 15) as an additional option to...
Article
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Diesel-fueled vehicles have classically had high particulate and NO x emissions. The introduction of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction for NO x (SCR) systems have decreased the Particle Number (PN) and NO x emissions, respectively, to very low levels. However, there are concerns regarding the emissions released dur...
Article
Full-text available
The particle number (PN) emissions of vehicles equipped with particulate filters are low. However, there are technologies that can have high PN levels, especially below the currently lower regulated particle size of 23 nm. Sub-23-nm particles are also considered at least as dangerous as the larger ultrafine particles. For this reason, the European...
Article
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All modern diesel vehicles in Europe are equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and their particle number (PN) emissions at the tailpipe are close to ambient air levels. After the Dieselgate scandal for high NOx emissions of diesel vehicles on the road, the high PN emissions during regeneration events are on the focus. The PN emissions of...
Technical Report
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Previous research of a proper margin value for Nitrogen Oxides to account for the additional measurement uncertainty of Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) as compared to standard laboratory equipment in the context of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) Regulation identified zero drift as an important component of uncertainty. This report d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. We present an exploratory study carried out with a new miniature portable emission measurement system (Mini-PEMS) specifically designed at the Technical University of Liberec (CZ) for applications on 2-wheeler vehicles owing to its reduced size (45 x 30 x 20 cm) and weight (≈ 15 kg). It measures the exhaust gas concentrations of hydrocarb...