Bardh Hoxha

Bardh Hoxha
Southern Illinois University Carbondale | SIU · Department of Computer Science

PhD

About

36
Publications
2,027
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451
Citations

Publications

Publications (36)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Smart homes contain diverse sensors and actuators controlled by IoT apps that provide custom automation. Prior works showed that an adversary could exploit physical interaction vulnerabilities among apps and put the users and environment at risk, e.g., to break into a house, an adversary turns on the heater to trigger an app that opens windows when...
Chapter
Safety is a critical concern for the next generation of autonomy that is likely to rely heavily on deep neural networks for perception and control. This paper proposes a method to repair unsafe ReLU DNNs in safety-critical systems using reachability analysis. Our repair method uses reachability analysis to calculate the unsafe reachable domain of a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Automated vehicles (AV) heavily depend on robust perception systems. Current methods for evaluating vision systems focus mainly on frame-by-frame performance. Such evaluation methods appear to be inadequate in assessing the performance of a perception subsystem when used within an AV. In this paper, we present a logic -- referred to as Spatio-Tempo...
Preprint
In this paper, we study Stochastic Control Barrier Functions (SCBFs) to enable the design of probabilistic safe real-time controllers in presence of uncertainties and based on noisy measurements. Our goal is to design controllers that bound the probability of a system failure in finite-time to a given desired value. To that end, we first estimate t...
Chapter
Perception algorithms in autonomous vehicles are vital for the vehicle to understand the semantics of its surroundings, including detection and tracking of objects in the environment. The outputs of these algorithms are in turn used for decision-making in safety-critical scenarios like collision avoidance, and automated emergency braking. Thus, it...
Preprint
Perception algorithms in autonomous vehicles are vital for the vehicle to understand the semantics of its surroundings, including detection and tracking of objects in the environment. The outputs of these algorithms are in turn used for decision-making in safety-critical scenarios like collision avoidance, and automated emergency braking. Thus, it...
Preprint
Full-text available
Safety is a critical concern for the next generation of autonomy that is likely to rely heavily on deep neural networks for perception and control. Formally verifying the safety and robustness of well-trained DNNs and learning-enabled systems under attacks, model uncertainties, and sensing errors is essential for safe autonomy. This research propos...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deep convolutional neural networks have been widely employed as an effective technique to handle complex and practical problems. However, one of the fundamental problems is the lack of formal methods to analyze their behavior. To address this challenge, we propose an approach to compute the exact reachable sets of a network given an input domain, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sampling-based methods such as Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been widely used for generating motion paths for autonomous mobile systems. In this work, we extend time-based RRTs with Control Barrier Functions (CBFs) to generate, safe motion plans in dynamic environments with many pedestrians. Our framework is based upon a human motion p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) applications drive the behavior of IoT deployments according to installed sensors and actuators. It has recently been shown that IoT deployments are vulnerable to physical interactions, caused by design flaws or malicious intent, that can have severe physical consequences. Yet, extant approaches to securing IoT do not trans...
Article
In this paper, we design real-time controllers that react to uncertainties with stochastic characteristics and bound the probability of a failure in finite-time to a given desired value. Stochastic control barrier functions are used to derive sufficient conditions on the control input that bound the probability that the states of the system enter a...
Chapter
This paper presents the Temporal Logic Toolkit (TLTk), a modular falsification tool for signal temporal logic specifications developed in Python and C. At the core of the tool, an algorithm for robustness computation is utilized that supports multi-threaded CPU/GPU computation. The tool enables memory-efficient, parallel, robustness computation of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The safety of Automated Vehicles (AV) as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) depends on the safety of their consisting modules (software and hardware) and their rigorous integration. Deep Learning is one of the dominant techniques used for perception, prediction and decision making in AVs. The accuracy of predictions and decision-making is highly dependan...
Chapter
Logical specifications have enabled formal methods by carefully describing what is correct, desired or expected of a given system. They have been widely used in runtime monitoring and applied to domains ranging from medical devices to information security. In this tutorial, we will present the theory and application of robustness of logical specifi...
Article
Full-text available
One of the advantages of adopting a model-based development process is that it enables testing and verification at early stages of development. However, it is often desirable to not only verify/falsify certain formal system specifications, but also to automatically explore the properties that the system satisfies. In this work, we present a framewo...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present extensions to Unmanned Systems Autonomy Services (UxAS) to handle mission specifications that require a synchronization of task execution. UxAS uses Process Algebra (PA) as a formal language to specify mission requirements for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations. However, the current implementation of PA in UxAS utili...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a dynamic programming algorithm for the monitoring of a fragment of Timed Propositional Temporal Logic (TPTL) specifications. This fragment of TPTL, which is more expressive than Metric Temporal Logic, is characterized by independent time variables which enable the elicitation of complex real-time requirements. For this fragment, we prov...
Article
Full-text available
A framework for the elicitation and debugging of formal specifications for Cyber-Physical Systems is presented. The elicitation of specifications is handled through a graphical interface. Two debugging algorithms are presented. The first checks for erroneous or incomplete temporal logic specifications without considering the system. The second can...
Article
Full-text available
One of the advantages of adopting the Model Based Development (MBD) process is that it enables testing and verification at early stages of development. However, it is often desirable to not only verify/falsify certain formal system specifications, but also to automatically explore the properties that the system satisfies. In this work, we present a...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main barriers preventing widespread use of formal methods is the elicitation of formal specifications. Formal specifications facilitate the testing and verification process for safety critical robotic systems. However, handling the intricacies of formal languages is difficult and requires a high level of expertise in formal logics that m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we provide a Dynamic Programming algorithm for on-line monitoring of the state robustness of Metric Temporal Logic specifications with past time operators. We compute the robustness of MTL with unbounded past and bounded future temporal operators MTL over sampled traces of Cyber-Physical Systems. We implemented our tool in Matlab as...
Article
Full-text available
In Model-Based Design of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), it is often desirable to develop several models of varying fidelity. Models of different fidelity levels can enable mathematical analysis of the model, control synthesis, faster simulation etc. Furthermore, when (automatically or manually) transitioning from a model to its implementation on an...
Conference Paper
In Model Based Development (MBD) of embedded systems, it is often desirable to not only verify/falsify certain formal system specifications, but also to automatically explore the properties that the system satisfies. Namely, given a parametric specification, we would like to automatically infer the ranges of parameters for which the property holds/...

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