Barbara Jean Rolls

Barbara Jean Rolls
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Nutritional Sciences

PhD

About

401
Publications
72,679
Reads
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32,555
Citations
Citations since 2017
57 Research Items
8033 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,2001,400
Introduction
We study satiety and dietary therapies for weight management in both adults and children
Additional affiliations
July 1992 - present
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Professor and Helen A. Guthrie Chair in Nutritional Sciences
July 1984 - June 1992
Johns Hopkins University
Position
  • Professor of Psychiatry
July 1984 - June 1992
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Position
  • Professor of Psychiatry

Publications

Publications (401)
Article
Individuals eat more when served more food, but little is known about how this portion size effect is moderated by meal-related characteristics, particularly the inclusion of water served as a beverage. Patterns of eating and drinking as well as consumption of water could affect satiation by modifying exposure to the sensory qualities of food. In a...
Article
Serving larger portions leads to increased food intake, but behavioral factors that influence the magnitude of this portion size effect have not been well characterized. We investigated whether measures of eating microstructure such as eating rate and bite size moderated the portion size effect. We also explored how sensory-specific satiety (SSS; t...
Article
Background When children choose amounts of food to eat, it is unclear what influences the portions they select and whether their selections are related to amounts they consume. Objectives Using a computer survey, we investigated the effect of food liking on portion selection in middle childhood and examined how children's selections related to mea...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing childhood obesity rates in both the United States and worldwide demonstrate a need for better prevention and intervention strategies. However, little is understood about what factors influence children's ability to sense and respond to hunger and fullness cues, a critical component of self-regulation of energy intake and maintenance of a...
Article
Although several studies have investigated the influence of nutrition labelling on food intake, the effect of labels indicating a food's satiating power on food intake and sensory-specific satiation (SSS) is poorly understood. We investigated whether providing information about the satiating power of a meal affects intake and SSS. Participants (19...
Article
Food variety, complexity, and portion size each influence food choice and consumption, but their relative importance is poorly understood. In an online discrete choice-experiment, we investigated the relative importance of variety, complexity, and portion size in consumer preferences by systematically varying ice cream offerings. Complexity was def...
Article
Consumers vary in the explanations they give for meal termination. The Reasons Individuals Stop Eating Questionnaire (RISE-Q) was developed to measure these satiation processes. Individual differences in satiation may be associated with a general capacity to recognise and respond to contextual and interoceptive cues. The aims of the present study w...
Article
Background Although dietary guidelines recommend that vegetables and fruits make up half the diet, it is unclear whether serving vegetables and fruits in larger portions will have sustained effects on children's intake over multiple days. Objective This study tested the effects on children's intake of 2 strategies for increasing the proportion of...
Article
Objectives Food liking influences food choice and the most-liked foods are often energy dense. Previous studies found that both food liking and energy density predicted the size of portions selected by adults. To extend these findings, we investigated the independent and combined effects of food liking and energy density on portion selection in chi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Although current guidelines recommend that vegetables and fruits make up half the diet, it is not known whether serving a greater proportion of vegetables and fruits will have sustained effects on children's consumption over multiple days. This study tested the effects on children's intake of two strategies for increasing the proportion...
Article
Objectives The relationship between parentally reported satiety responsiveness (i.e., trait) and laboratory-assessed satiety responsiveness (i.e., state) in children is not known, making it difficult to interpret and generalize lab-based findings. In addition, while many studies have shown weight-related differences in children's eating behaviors,...
Article
Objectives Individuals eat more when served larger portions, and this may be influenced by eating-related microstructural behaviors. In a controlled study, we explored whether microstructural components of eating such as eating rate, bite size, bite count, and meal duration influenced the portion size effect. Methods In a randomized crossover desi...
Article
Satiation has been described as a process that leads to the termination of eating and controls meal size. However, studies have shown that the termination of eating can be influenced by multiple behavioral and biological processes over the course of a meal as well as those related to the context in which the meal is consumed. To expand understandin...
Article
This study investigated the independent and combined effects on preschool children’s vegetable intake of serving a larger portion of vegetables and enhancing their flavor. In a crossover design, lunch was served in childcare centers once a week for four weeks to 67 children aged 3-5 y (26 boys, 41 girls). The meal consisted of two familiar vegetabl...
Article
A variety of factors can influence satiation, and individual differences in reasons for meal termination may help to explain variability in food intake and susceptibility to overconsumption. We developed and validated a questionnaire to characterize the Reasons Individuals Stop Eating (RISE-Q). The initial RISE-Q was created by reviewing the publis...
Chapter
Determinants of food choice are broad and include policies, prices, settings and context, as well as interpersonal factors, such as family, cultural, and peer effects. This review focuses more narrowly on food choices at the individual level by providing an overview of various methods and tools that have been used to understand psychological, cogni...
Article
Interventions designed to improve children's self-regulation of energy intake have yielded mixed results. We tested the efficacy of a technology-enhanced intervention designed to teach children to eat in response to internal hunger and fullness cues. Thirty-two children (mean age 4.9 ± 0.8 y) completed this within-subjects, pre-post design study th...
Article
Full-text available
Food images are routinely used to investigate the cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms of eating behaviors, but there is a lack of standardized image sets for use in children, which limits cross-study comparisons. To address this gap, we developed a set of age-appropriate images that included 30 high-energy-dense (ED) foods (>2.00 kcal/g), 30 l...
Article
Objectives To meet dietary guidelines, effective strategies are needed to encourage children to eat a greater proportion of their diet from vegetables. We tested whether serving a larger portion, enhancing the taste with small amounts of butter and salt, or combining these strategies would increase vegetable intake at a meal for preschool children....
Article
Recent research suggests that ultraprocessed foods, particularly as defined by the NOVA system, facilitate overconsumption and may contribute to the development of obesity. Questions remain as to what properties of ultraprocessed foods are driving excess intake. Ultraprocessed foods tend to be high in energy density and low in volume, easy to eat r...
Article
Full-text available
Because no validated tool exists to assess nutrition knowledge regarding weight management we developed and tested the Weight Management Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (WMNKQ). The questionnaire assesses nutrition knowledge in these categories: energy density of food, portion size/serving size, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages, how food var...
Article
Individuals managing their weight are often faced with problem foods that are difficult to resist eating. In the context of a weight-loss intervention, we characterized the most commonly reported problem foods and the behavioral strategies used to manage them, and examined which strategies were related to weight loss. Women with overweight and obes...
Article
Environmental cues, such as the colour of food and dishware, have been shown to influence food and drink consumption in adult populations. This proof of concept study investigated whether plate colour could be utilised as a strategy to reduce intake of high energy density (HED) snacks and increase intake of low energy density (LED) snacks in pre-sc...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Adolescents and young adults select larger portions of energy-dense food than recommended. The majority of young people have a social media profile, and peer influence on social media may moderate the size of portions selected. Methods: Two pilot interventions examined whether exposure to images of peers' portions of high-energy-dense...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Objective: To test whether adding herbs and spices to school lunch vegetables increases selection and intake compared to lightly salted control versions among rural adolescents. Design: This study compared intake of vegetables with herbs and spices to lightly salted control (phase I) and tested whether 5 repeated exposures would increase...
Preprint
Background: Although short-term studies have found that serving larger portions of food increases intake in preschool children, it is unknown whether this portion size effect persists over a longer period or whether energy intake is moderated through self-regulation. Objectives: We tested whether the portion size effect is sustained in preschool...
Article
Background and objective: To investigate preschool children's ability to self-regulate their energy intake, we assessed their response to increases or decreases in dietary energy density (ED) over 5 consecutive days, a period likely long enough for compensatory behavior. Methods: Using a crossover design, over 3 periods we served the same 5 dail...
Article
Aim: The robust effect of portion size on intake has led to growing interest in why individuals consume more food when served larger portions. A number of explanations have been proposed, and this review aims to provide insight into potential underlying factors by summarizing recent studies testing moderators of the portion size effect. Summary o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract Objective: Adolescents and young adults select larger portions of energy-dense food than recommended. The majority of young people have a social media profile, and peer influence on social media may moderate the size of portions selected. Methods: Two pilot-interventions examined whether exposure to images of peers’ portions of high-energ...
Article
Full-text available
Large portions of energy dense foods promote overconsumption but offering small portions might lead to compensatory intake of other foods. Offering a variety of vegetables could help promote vegetable intake and offset the effect of reducing the portion size (PS) of a high energy dense (HED) food. Therefore, we tested the effect on intake of reduci...
Article
Full-text available
Large portions of high energy dense (HED) snacks are offered to children from a young age and are pervasive in our food environment. This study aimed to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of two strategies of snack portion control: reduction and replacement. Forty-six mother-child dyads aged 22–56 months (36.6 ± 9.5 m,...
Article
Full-text available
Public-private partnerships are an effective way to address the global double burden of malnutrition. While public-private partnerships operate in multiple forms, their leadership usually falls to governments, public health agencies, or nongovernmental organizations, with the private sector taking a subordinate role. The rapid ascent of social medi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The Diet Satisfaction Questionnaire was developed to fill the need for a validated measure to evaluate satisfaction with weight‐management diets. This paper further develops the questionnaire, examining the factor structure of the original questionnaire, cross‐validating a revised version in a second sample, and relating diet satisfaction...
Article
Full-text available
Background Portion size influences intake (i.e. the portion size effect [PSE]), yet determinants of susceptibility to the PSE are unclear. Objective We tested whether children who reported an episode of loss of control (LOC) eating over the last 3 months would be more susceptible to the PSE and would show differential brain responses to food cues...
Article
Serving larger portions leads to increased food and energy intake, but little is known about strategies to moderate this response. This study tested how the effect of portion size on meal intake was influenced by providing the option to take away uneaten food in a "doggy bag" (to-go container). Women were randomly assigned to one of two subject gro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: High gestational weight gain is a major public health concern as it independently predicts adverse maternal and infant outcomes. Past interventions have had only limited success in effectively managing pregnancy weight gain, especially among women with overweight and obesity. Well-designed interventions are needed that take an individu...
Article
In a 1987 paper, addressing questions about factors that influence the initiation, maintenance, and termination of food intake, we wrote, "development of systematic procedures to measure eating behaviour is essential if descriptive and inferential statistics are to be applied to answering such questions, giving them power and replicability" (Hether...
Article
Serving larger portions leads to increased intake, but little is known about how the cost of a meal affects this response. Therefore, we tested whether the amount of money paid for a meal influenced the portion size effect at a lunch served in a controlled restaurant-style setting. In a crossover design, 79 adults (55 women; 24 men) came to the lab...
Article
Full-text available
Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Over time, the PSE may facilitate overeating and ultimately positive energy balance. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the PSE and what migh...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed b...
Article
Large portions promote intake of energy dense foods (i.e., the portion size effect--PSE), but the neurobiological drivers of this effect are not known. We tested the association between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) brain response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) and children's intake at test-meals of high- a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Vegetable consumption in youth is below recommendations and strategies to increase intake at school are needed. We investigated barriers to vegetable intake at a rural public high school and evaluated whether new vegetable recipes using herbs and spices would increase liking and preference for vegetables served to adolescents at this schoo...
Article
Following a 1-year randomized controlled trial that tested how weight loss was influenced by different targeted strategies for managing food portions, we evaluated whether the effect of portion size on intake in a controlled setting was attenuated in trained participants compared to untrained controls. Subjects were 3 groups of women: 39 participan...
Article
Several dietary patterns, both macronutrient and food based, can lead to weight loss. A key strategy for weight management that can be applied across dietary patterns is to reduce energy density. Clinical trials show that reducing energy density is effective for weight loss and weight loss maintenance. A variety of practical strategies and tools ca...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Identifying early predictors of weight loss is key for developing personalized treatment. However, few individual factors have been identified that predict weight loss during intervention, other than early weight loss itself. Methods Women with overweight or obesity (n = 186, mean ± SD age 50.0 ± 10.6 years, body mass index 34.0 ± 4.2 kg...
Article
Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that the energy density (kcal/g) of food provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients...
Article
Objective: During a one-year weight loss trial, we compared the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), a valid 51-item measure of restraint, disinhibition, and hunger subscales, with the newer 16-item Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ) measuring routine and compensatory restraint and external and emotional eating. Methods: Both questi...
Article
Background/objectives: Controlling food portion sizes can help reduce energy intake, but the effect of different portion-control methods on weight management is not known. In a one-year randomized trial, we tested whether the efficacy of a behavioral weight-loss program was improved by incorporating either of two portion-control strategies instead...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Large portions of food promote intake, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unclear. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified the brain-reward and decision-making systems that are involved in the response to the energy density (ED) (kilocalories per gram) of foods, but few studies have examined the brain response to the f...
Article
Objective: Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationshi...
Article
Objective: Large portions of energy-dense foods drive energy intake but the brain mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. Our main objective was to investigate brain function in response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) in children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods & design: Bl...
Article
Increasing the energy density (ED) and portion size of foods promotes additional energy intake, but the effect of similar changes in milk is unknown. Using a crossover design, we tested the effect of varying the ED and portion size of milk served with lunch on preschool children's intake. Lunch was served in childcare classrooms on 4 days to 125 ch...
Article
Portion size affects intake, but when all foods are served in large portions, it is unclear whether every food will be consumed in greater amounts. We varied the portion size (PS) of all foods at a meal to investigate the influence of food energy density (ED) on the PS effect as well as that of palatability and subject characteristics. In a crossov...
Article
In an environment with large portion sizes, allowing consumers more control over their portion selection could moderate the effects on energy intake. We tested whether having subjects choose a portion from several options influenced the amount selected or consumed when all portion sizes were systematically increased. In a crossover design, 24 women...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was condu...
Article
The National Institutes of Health, led by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, organized a working group of experts to discuss the problem of weight regain after weight loss. A number of experts in integrative physiology and behavioral psychology were convened with the goal of merging their perspectives regarding the barriers to scientifi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Children in the United States consume inadequate amounts of vegetables, and there are few effective strategies to increase vegetable consumption among preschoolers. We tested a home-based intervention based on behavioral economics, targeted at parent feeding practices, to determine impact on children’s dietary quality. Methods: Low-ve...
Article
Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design,...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of p...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths". Here we present nine myths and ten presumptions surrounding the effects of ra...
Article
Full-text available
Given the current prevalence of obesity, it is important to identify dietary factors that may aid in disease prevention. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between consumption of an energy-dense diet and established markers factors for chronic disease, including body weight and measures of body fatness. Data from a n...
Article
Objective Foods that enhance satiety can reduce overconsumption, but the availability of large portions of energy-dense foods may counter their benefits. We tested the influence on meal energy intake of varying the energy density and portion size of food consumed after a preload shown to promote satiety. Design and Methods In a crossover design, 4...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We tested the effect of using behavioral economic strategies to increase children's vegetable intake in the home. These strategies included pairing cartoons with vegetables to increase appeal and presenting vegetables as the optimal default. Children (n=24; 3-5 years-old) in both control and treatment groups received weekly supplies of plain packag...