Barbara M. Byrne

Barbara M. Byrne
University of Ottawa · School of Psychology

PhD

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127
Publications
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Introduction
structural equation modeling; factor analysis; construct validity; psychometrics
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Full-text available
Background: The impracticality of using the confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) approach in testing measurement invariance across many groups is now well known. A concertedeffort to addressing these encumbrances over the last decade has resulted in a new generation of alternative methodological procedures that allow for approximate, rather than exa...
Article
Face and loss of face (LOF) are important social and clinical constructs in many cultures. The present study evaluated the psychometric properties of the LOF Scale in 4 samples of European Americans and Asian Americans with a total of 2,057 participants. We found LOF Scale scores to have high internal reliability across all samples. Confirmatory fa...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, over the past 2 decades, there has been a growing interest in cross-national comparisons. This activity, in turn, has precipitated an escalating number of assessment scales being translated into other languages for use in countries and cultures that differ from those of the original scales (typically developed and normed in the United...
Article
Full-text available
There are several measures of cognition and creative styles, however few of them are valid and short enough to be administered in different settings. Therefore, this study had two purposes: to reanalyze and obtain validity evidence of the Scale of Thinking and Creative Scale (STCS), developed by Wechsler, measuring five styles, based on a progressi...
Chapter
One common weakness in multigroup comparison research is the pervading assumption that both the assessment scale and the construct(s) it is designed to measure are operating equivalently across the groups of interest. Although such equivalence is vitally important with respect to all multigroup comparisons, it is particularly so with respect to cro...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific inquiry that focuses on multi-group comparisons across national borders can be fraught with problems. Of critical import is empirical evidence that the assessment scale is operating equivalently across groups with respect to perceived item content and dimensionality of the underlying construct. When comparisons are conducted across cultu...
Article
Full-text available
The overarching intent of this manuscript is to heighten awareness to the concept of commitment escalation as it bears on a failing family business. Specifically, drawing on the concept of emotional ownership, together with self-justification arguments, we a) identify factors considered to be most forceful in contributing to the presence of commitm...
Article
Full-text available
Multicultural data, by their very nature, are hierarchically structured with individuals nested within cultures. In cross-cultural research there is a common tendency for researchers to draw inferences at the country level albeit based on individual-level data. Such action mistakenly assumes that both the measuring instrument and its underlying con...
Chapter
The growth of structural equation modeling (SEM) over the past 35 years or so is nothing short of phenomenal! Within the framework of psychological research, at least, it has evolved from being a mere whisper in the early 70’s, a curiosity in the late 70’s, a practice of questionable repute in the 80’s, a “hot” statistical procedure in the 90’s, th...
Book
As with Barbara Byrne’s previous best-selling books on structural equation modeling (SEM) tailored to application within specific SEM programs (LISREL, EQS, AMOS), this newest volume provides a practical guide to the basic concepts and application of SEM using the Mplus program (Muthén & Muthén, 2007-2010). All model applications are based on actua...
Chapter
Focusing on the key psychometric topics of test construction, validity/reliability, standardization, and bias typically addressed in courses on Testing and Assessment, this chapter suggests ways by which these important concepts can be extended to international contexts. Primary concerns addressed within this international framework include: (a) ad...
Article
Full-text available
A critical assumption in cross-cultural comparative research is that the instrument measures the same construct(s) in exactly the same way across all groups (i.e., the instrument is measurement and structurally equivalent). Structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures are commonly used in testing these assumptions of multigroup equivalence. Howeve...
Chapter
In broad terms, factor analysis focuses on the link between a set of intercorrelated variables and their representation by a smaller set of conceptually meaningful megavariables, termed factors. Within this all-encompassing umbrella description, factor analysis is more precisely characterized in terms of its function. If used to determine the exten...
Chapter
Structured within a pedagogical framework, this chapter focuses on two structural equation modeling (SEM) approaches to the analysis of a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) model. More specifically, I demonstrate application of the confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) and correlated uniquenesses (CU) models in testing for evidence of convergent validity,...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological research that involves cross-cultural comparisons has increased considerably during the last decade and is expected to escalate further. Given its growing popularity within mainstream psychology, cross-cultural research no longer can be considered the sole domain of experts trained in this specialization. Concomitant with this expansi...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents an overview and application of the steps taken in testing for the equivalence of a measuring instrument across one or more groups. Following a basic description of, and rationale underlying these steps, the process is illustrated with data comprising response scores to four nonacademic subscales (Physical SC [Ability], Physica...
Article
Latent growth curve (LGC) modeling within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) is now highly regarded as one of the most powerful and informative approaches to the analysis of longitudinal data (see, e.g., Curran & Hussong, 2003). Whereas LGC modeling enables researchers to test for differences in developmental trajectories across ti...
Chapter
The intent of this article is to present an introductory overview of the basic concepts and testing procedures associated with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Working from a hypothesized four-factor structure of a nonacademic self-concept (SC), as measured by 32 items from the Self Description Questionnaire, readers are introduced to both a gra...
Article
We present data from the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 197728. Radloff , L. S. 1977. The CES–D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1: 385–401. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references) for 2 samples of Hong Kong community ad...
Article
Working within the framework of a confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) model, this study adds another dimension to construct validation of both the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 19963. Beck , A. , Steer , R. and Brown , G. 1996. Beck Depression Inventory manual, , 2nd ed., San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Associatio...
Article
Full-text available
The overarching intent of this article is to exemplify strategies associated with tests for measurement invariance that are uncommonly applied and reported in the extant literature. Designed within a pedagogical framework, the primary purposes are 3-fold and illustrate (a) tests for measurement invariance based on the analysis of means and covarian...
Article
The overarching purpose of this article is to present a nonmathematical introduction to the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) within the framework of structural equation modeling as it applies to psychological assessment instruments. In the interest of clarity and ease of understanding, I model exploratory factor analysis (EFA) stru...
Article
Full-text available
Gender differences and similarities in the relations of key constructs in Eccles and colleagues (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000) model of achievement were examined as predictors of math grades and enrollment intentions for Grade 9 boys (n = 263) and girls (n = 277). A number of gender similarities were found, particularly in the prediction of math grades....
Article
Full-text available
The primary purpose of this study was to test for the validity of a Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (C-BDI-II) for use with Hong Kong community (i.e., nonclinical) adolescents. Based on a randomized triadic split of the data (N = 1460), we conducted exploratory factor analysis on Group 1 (n = 486) and confirmatory factor analysi...
Article
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the steps involved in testing for multigroup invariance using Amos Graphics. Based on analysis of covariance (ANCOV) structures, 2 applications are demonstrated, each of which represents a different set of circumstances. Application 1 focuses on the equivalence of a measuring instrument and tests for its...
Article
Full-text available
The purposes of this article are threefold: (a) to outline the basic concepts associated with latent growth curve (LGC) modeling; (b) to demonstrate the modeling and testing of LGC models based on three relatively simple, albeit increasingly complex, examples; and (c) to illustrate the modeling mechanism used in testing for the tenability of key st...
Article
Cross‐cultural theory proposes that an essential distinction between cultures lies in the extent to which individual members see themselves as either independent agents preferentially valuing agency and efficacy, or as embedded within a social context preferentially valuing interpersonal relationships. A nonreferred sample of 605 boys and 503 girls...
Article
The purposes of this study were twofold: (a) based on the analysis of covariance structures, to test for the equivalence of a well-known measuring instrument across two culturally diverse groups and (b) provided with findings of nonequivalent items, to identify possible determinants of their noninvariance; post hoc investigations included tests for...
Article
Although the study of self-concept has been a topic of great interest and much study in the social sciences for many decades, it is really only in the past 30 years that any fruitful expansion in knowledge of both its theoretical structure and its related measurement has been forthcoming. From three perspectives--past, present, and future--the auth...
Article
Although the study of self-concept has been a topic of great interest and much study in the social sciences for many decades, it is really only in the past 30 years that any fruitful expansion in knowledge of both its theoretical structure and its related measurement has been forthcoming. From three perspectives-past, present, and future-the author...
Article
Current interest in the assessment of measurement equivalence emphasizes 2 major methods of analysis. The authors offer a comparison of a linear method (confirmatory factor analysis) and a nonlinear method (differential item and test functioning using item response theory) with an emphasis on their methodological similarities and differences. The 2...
Article
Using a confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) model as a paradigmatic basis for all comparisons, this article reviews and contrasts important features related to 3 of the most widely-used structural equation modeling (SEM) computer programs: AMOS 4.0 (Arbuckle, 1999), EQS 6 (Bentler, 2000), and LISREL 8 (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1996b). Comparisons focus on...
Book
Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these...
Article
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate, paradigmatically, the extent to which item score data can vary across cultures despite measurements from an instrument for which the factorial structure is equivalently specified in each group. Based on item scores from the Beck Depression Inventory, the authors first tested for the group invariance of...
Article
Byrne (1984) established guidelines for evaluating the causal ordering of academic self-concept and achievement, applying these in her pioneering 1986 study. With the hindsight of 15 years' experience, we now recognize issues in her original study that precluded any completely satisfactory conclusions. In this reanalysis of Byrne (1986), we offer c...
Article
Byrne (1984) established guidelines for evaluating the causal ordering of academic self-concept and achievement, applying these in her pioneering 1986 study. With the hindsight of 15 years' experience, we now recognize issues in her original study that precluded any completely satisfactory conclusions. In this reanalysis of Byrne (1986), we offer c...
Chapter
Despite much empirical research linking the construct of teacher burnout to other variables for various professional groups, findings have not been summarized into one conceptual framework that can be replicated and tested statistically. This chapter addresses these construct validity issues by modeling the nomological network of teacher burnout...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to test for the validity of a higher order factorial structure of a Bulgarian version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for non clinical adolescents. In a cross validation of three independent samples (n1 = 227; n2 = 172; n3 = 292), and based on the analysis of covariance structures within the framework of...
Article
This study is an attempt to determine if it is possible to establish causal direction between academic self-concept and academic achievement, focusing on whether academic self-concept and the subject-matter self-concepts of English and mathematics serve to generate academic, English, and mathematics achievements, respectively. This study of causal...
Article
The purposes of the study were twofold: (a) to test for evidence of construct validity related to social and academic (general, English, mathematics) competencies, as measured by self, teachers, parents, and peers, for children in Grades 3 (n = 175), 7 (n = 193), and 11 (n = 159), and (b) to examine the extent to which ratings by significant others...
Article
Based on a community sample of 691 Bulgarian high school adolescents (male N = 293; females N = 398), the purposes of the study were two-fold: (a) to test for the factorial validity of a translated version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) separately for males and females; and (b) to test for the invariance of its factorial structure across ge...
Article
Focusing on the academic component of the Shavelson Model, the purposes of the study were fourfold: (a) to test for the multidimensionality of academic self-concept (SC); (b) to test that academic SC is hierarchically structured; (c) to test that predictive influence flows upward from actual behavior (e.g., academic performance) at the base of the...
Article
Highlights salient weaknesses in the current training of graduate students in psychology. In particular, training in the areas of statistics, measurement, and research methods tends to be rooted in past traditions, rather than exemplifying current advancements in the area of quantitative methods. Ways by which these limitations may be addressed thr...
Article
Building upon earlier confirmatory factor analytic research that validated a 2nd-order 4-factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory for Canadian and Swedish nonclinical adolescents, the purposes of the present study were twofold: (a) to test the factorial structure of the Swedish version of the instrument separately for males (n = 559) and f...
Article
Full-text available
This study is the first to empirically validate the social self-concept component of the R. J. Shavelson, J. J. Hubner, and G. C. Stanton (1976) model. The primary purpose was to test for each of 3 age groups--preadolescents (Grade 3), early adolescents (Grade 7), and late adolescents (Grade 11)-3 hypotheses bearing on the structure of social self-...
Chapter
[summarize] important construct validity research bearing on the structure and measurement of academic self-concept, and on the relation between academic self-concept and academic achievement (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This book provides a review of self-concept measures that can be used with individuals across the life span, from preschool through late adulthood. These measures were selected . . . according to the prevalence of their use in research and practice, their psychometric soundness, the strength of their theoretical base, and their demonstrable utility...
Article
The intent of the present study was to test for the validity and equivalency of a second-order factorial structure of the Beck Depression Inventory for and across three independent samples (n1 = 661; n2 = 239; n3 = 196) of nonclinical Swedish adolescents. The model under study derived from a cross-validated study of Canadian high school adolescents...
Chapter
demonstrate a few of the dual approaches to the analysis of covariance structures as they relate to the same model and based on the same data / using both the EQS . . . and LISREL [computer] programs, I illustrate how to (a) test for the validity of a 2nd-order factor analytic model separately for each of 2 groups; (b) given findings of inadequate...
Article
Working from a common data base and hypothesized model, this article demonstrates and compares the EQS and LISREL strategies in the analysis of a second‐order factor model. Program similarities and differences are noted with respect to (a) preliminary analyses of the data, (b) treatment of data that are not multivariately normal, (c) assessment of...
Article
The study investigated the impact of organizational (role ambiguity, role conflict, work overload, classroom climate, decision making, superior support,’ peer support) and personality (self-esteem, external locus of control) factors on three facets of burnout—Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and reduced Personal Accomplishment within one co...
Article
The intent of this article is twofold: (a) to report substantive findings from a cross-validated study that tested for the factorial validity and invariance of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) across gender for elementary (males n = 742; females n = 801) and secondary (males n = 659; females n = 721) teachers, and (b) for purposes of helping rea...
Article
The purposes of the study were threefold: (a) to testforthefactorial validity of the French version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-FR) separatelyfornonclinical adolescent francophone males (n = 551) andfemales (n = 601), (b) to cross-validatefindings across a second independent sample for each gender, and (c) to test for equivalent factorial...
Article
The aims of the present study were threefold: (1) to test for the equivalency of an hierarchical 3-factor structure across English and French versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for nonclinical adolescents; (2) given evidence of poor model fit, to validate the factorial structure of the French version across three independent samples (n...
Conference Paper
This study represents the first to empirically validate the structure of social self-concept (SC) as proposed by the Shavelson model. For each of three age groups--preadolescents (252 3rd graders), early adolescents (290 7th graders), and late adolescents (335 11th graders)--analyses of covariance structures were used to test: (1) that social SC is...
Article
Determined a factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) that could be generalized to the nonclinical adolescent population. Based on 3 independent samples of 647 high school students (aged 12–18 yrs), confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to test and cross-validate the factor structure of the BDI. Also tested was the v...
Article
Proposed a test for the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) separately for elementary ( N = 1,159), intermediate ( N = 388), and secondary ( N = 1,384) teachers. If the model fit was inadequate, the study planned to propose and test an alternative factorial structure; to cross-validate this structure across an independent samp...
Article
The purposes of the present investigation are to demonstrate extensions of the confirmatory factor analysis approach (CFA) to multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data and to evaluate self-other agreement on multiple dimensions of self-concept. Two studies evaluated the ability of significant others to infer multiple dimensions of self-concept of universi...
Article
Extending the earlier work of Byrne and Baron (in press), the factorial invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was tested across nonclinical adolescent males (n = 351) and females (n = 334) using confirmatory factor-analytic procedures. Despite the differential loading pattern of Item 20 for females, a three-factor structure that compris...
Article
Two studies evaluated the ability of significant others to accurately infer multiple dimensions of self-concept of university students in Australia (n = 151) and Canada (n = 941) and the construct validity of response to the Self Description Questionnaire III (SDQIII). Four factor analyses-self-and other-responses by Australians and Canadians - all...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which findings derived from four approaches to MTMM analyses were consistent in providing evidence of construct validity related to the measurement of four dimensions of perceived competence (social, academic, English, mathematics) across four maximally dissimilar rating methods (self, teache...
Article
Full-text available
Reanalyzed data from a study by B. M. Byrne (1989; see also PA, Vol 77:16093) to demonstrate that the general model typically used in the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach to the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) model may lead to inappropriate interpretations even when it converges to a proper solution. The reanalysis suggests that there is...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether gender differences in the expression of depressive symptoms could be identified on the basis of responses to the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Participants were 207 French-Canadian high school students (83 males, 124 females) from a large...
Article
A study of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was conducted to: (1) test for the factorial validity of the French version of the BDI (BDI-FR) separately for 551 non-clinical Francophone adolescent males and 601 non-clinical Francophone adolescent females; (2) cross-validate findings across a second independent sample for each sex; and (3) test for...
Article
This study was conducted to identify the most salient organizational and personality factors contributing to burnout for elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers; and to determine the pattern of causal predominance linking these stressors to burnout for each teacher group. Participants in the study, full-time elementary (N=599), intermediat...
Article
The primary intent of the study was to investigate the impact of particular background variables on three dimensions of burnout (Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, Personal Accomplishment) for elementary (n = 98), intermediate (n = 163), secondary (n = 162), and university (n = 219) educators. Using setwise multiple regression procedures, the...
Article
Masculinity (M) and femininity (F) were related to multiple dimensions of self-concept in 2 large studies. Androgyny theory predicts that M and F contribute positively to self-concept, but the effect of F has been nil in research using global self measures. Here, consistent with the new differentiated additive model, the relative contribution of M...
Article
The purposes of this study were (1) to test for the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), for 543 teachers at the intermediate, secondary, and university levels, and (2) to test for the equivalence of factorial measurements and structure across groups. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hypothesized 3-factor structure yielded...
Conference Paper
The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was studied for 2,931 Canadian teachers (48.2% males and 51.8% females) as a single professional group and for subsamples of this group (1,159 elementary school teachers, 388 intermediate school teachers, and 1,384 secondary school teachers). Study participants were full-time teachers fr...
Article
This article reviews the diversity of methodological procedures that have been used in validating the structure of academic self-concept (ASC), and its measuring instruments. Substantive findings from construct validation research related to both modes of inquiry are summarized, and recommendations for future work in this area are proposed. ASC mea...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which construct validity related to four self-concept (SC) traits (general, academic, English, mathematics), as measured by three different measurement scales (Likert, semantic differential, Guttman), was equivalent across gender for adolescent boys (n = 412) and girls (n = 420). Data were anal...
Article
Several factors--general self-concept (SC), academic SC, or academic achievement (AA; academic grades)--may discriminate between low- and high-track students. Using linear discriminant function analysis, two independent samples of high school students (N=929; N=968) were tested on identical measures of these constructs. Although academic SC and AA...
Conference Paper
Based on three independent samples of high school adolescents in central Canada, aged 12 to 18 years, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to identify, test, and cross-validate first-order and second-order factorial structures underlying the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Specifically, the study focus...
Article
The purposes of this article are (a) to compare construct validity findings from Campbell-Fiske and LISREL confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of a multitrait-multimethod matrix for each of two groups, and then to test for construct validity equivalence across groups -- the methodological issue, and (b) to demonstrate how construct validity can diff...
Article
Explored the concordance between social competence ratings obtained using the Social Competence section of Achenbach and Edelbrock's (1983) Child Behavior Checklist and more traditional instruments. We assessed convergent validity by comparing parent ratings on the Activities and Social Scales (a) with self-ratings by children using the same items...
Article
Full-text available
Addresses issues related to partial measurement invariance using a tutorial approach based on the {lisrel} confirmatory factor analytic model. Specifically, we demonstrate procedures for (a) using "sensitivity analyses" to establish stable and substantively well-fitting baseline models, (b) determining partially invariant measurement parameters, an...
Article
Examined social and personal concomitants of exceptional academic capability in the context of various educational settings. Students in Grades 5, 8, and 10 participated in the study. At each grade level, there were students in classes for the gifted (self-contained gifted), gifted students in regular classes (integrated gifted), and classmates of...
Conference Paper
The factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was studied for 98 elementary school, 163 intermediate school, 162 secondary school, and 218 university teachers in Ottawa (Canada). The equivalence of factorial measurements and structure was tested across the groups. Exploratory factor analyses were used to examine the initial factor s...
Conference Paper
The construct validity of a multidimensional adolescent self-concept was estimated separately for males and females, and the results were compared across gender. The application of four multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approaches to estimating construct validity was demonstrated, and the scope and consistency of the findings derived from each were com...