Barbara Krahé

Barbara Krahé
Universität Potsdam · Department of Psychology

About

220
Publications
60,305
Reads
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5,951
Citations
Citations since 2016
83 Research Items
3597 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
Barbara Krahé is Professor of Psychology at the Department of Psychology, University of Potsdam, Germany.
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (220)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Handling sexual interactions in a competent manner is a key skill for young adults, which is linked to positive aspects of sexual and general well-being. Several research conceptualizations of sexual competence have been proposed in the literature, but little is known about how young adults define sexual competence and what consequence...
Article
Full-text available
The current study evaluated an intervention program, designed by the authors and based on the theory of sexual scripts and social learning theory, to reduce empirically established risk and vulnerability factors of sexual aggression. A sample of 1,181 university students in Germany (762 female) were randomly assigned to an intervention and a no-int...
Article
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This pre-registered study examined the prevalence and correlates of sexual aggression in a sample of 530 Iranians (322 women, 208 men) with a behaviorally specific questionnaire distinguishing between different coercive strategies, victim-perpetrator relationships, and sexual acts. Significantly more women (63.0%) than men (51.0%) experienced at le...
Article
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From the beginning of systematic research on sexual victimization, it has been recognized that a substantial proportion of women report nonconsensual sexual experiences meeting the defining criteria of rape in response to behaviorally specific items, but do not acknowledge their experience as rape in response to broad questions about whether they h...
Article
Detrimental effects of adverse family conditions for children's wellbeing are well-documented, but little is known about the impact of specific risk factors, or about potential protective factors that buffer the effects of family risk factors on negative development. We investigated the impact of five important family risk factors (e.g., parental c...
Article
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Background: Some (minority) groups (MGs) are more vulnerable to sexual violence (SV) exposure than others. Othering-based stress (OBS) may mediate the relationship between minority identification and SV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of SV in different MGs to explore the relationship between minority identification and SV, to investigat...
Preprint
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Background: Previous studies report vast mental health problems in sexual minorities. Representative national proportion estimates on self-identifying LGB+ persons are missing in Belgium. Lacking data collection regarding sexual orientation in either census or governmental survey data limits our understanding of the true population sizes of differe...
Article
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Exposure to pornographic material has been linked to sexual aggression perpetration and victimization in a large body of research. Based on social learning theory and 3A theory of script learning, this study contributes to this research by testing the hypothesis that the more realistic pornography is perceived to be by young adults, the more likely...
Article
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Sexual scripts serve as cognitive representations of typical elements of sexual interactions that guide sexual behavior. To the extent that cognitive scripts for consensual sex comprise elements associated with a risk of experiencing nonconsensual sex, they may be indirectly linked to sexual victimization via risky sexual behavior. A longitudinal s...
Article
Objective: We present a review of peer-reviewed English-language studies conducted outside the United States and Canada on the prevalence of sexual assault victimization in adolescence and adulthood published since 2010. Method: A systematic literature search yielded 32 articles reporting on 45 studies from 29 countries. Studies that only provid...
Article
Measures designed to collect prevalence reports of sexual victimization need to be robust against variations of question context to yield valid findings. Previous research has examined variations in the order in which questions about unwanted sexual acts and questions about coercive tactics are presented. The current study examined potential effect...
Article
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This study examined the prevalence of sexual aggression perpetration and victimization in a sample of 1,172 students (755 female, 417 male) from four universities in Germany. All participants were asked about both victimization by, and perpetration of, sexual aggression since the age of 14 years, using the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale...
Preprint
Background: Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) have been identified as vulnerable for sexual violence (SV) victimization. Since many European countries, including Belgium, have been confronted with high migratory pressure, it is important to develop prevention strategies and care paths for MARs affected by SV. Know...
Article
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The current study examined the links between viewing female and male sexualized Instagram images (SII) and body image concerns within the three-step process of self-objectification among adolescents aged 13–18 years from Germany ( N = 300, 61% female). Participants completed measures of SII use, thin- and muscular-ideal internalization, valuing app...
Article
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A growing body of research has demonstrated negative effects of sexualization in the media on adolescents’ body image, but longitudinal studies and research including interactive and social media are scarce. The current study explored the longitudinal associations of adolescents’ use of sexualized video games (SVG) and sexualized Instagram images (...
Article
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Recent high-profile incidents involving the deadly application of force in the United States sparked worldwide protests and renewed scrutiny of police practices as well as relations between police officers and minoritized communities. In this report, we consider the inappropriate use of force by police from the perspective of behavioral and social...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Corona-Pandemie trifft Jugendliche und junge Erwachsene hart. Zentrale Entwicklungsziele wie Autonomie, Mobilität und soziale Kontakte können nur sehr eingeschränkt befriedigt werden, gleichzeitig führt die entwicklungstypische Suche nach Anregung und Risiko sowie das Gefühl eigener Unverwundbarkeit zu einer Unterschätzung der B...
Article
Two experiments examined the impact of voice pitch on gender stereotyping. Participants listened to a text read by a female (Study 1; N = 171) or male (Study 2, N = 151) speaker, whose voice pitch was manipulated to be high or low. They rated the speaker on positive and negative facets of masculinity and femininity, competence, and likability. They...
Article
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Female role models in video games are rare, and if they are present, they are often heavily sexualized. Objectification theory suggests that exposure to sexualized media characters increases self-objectification and decreases body satisfaction in female users. This study investigated the effect of playing a video game with a sexualized versus a non...
Article
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When playing violent video games, aggressive actions are performed against the background of an originally neutral environment, and associations are formed between cues related to violence and contextual features. This experiment examined the hypothesis that neutral contextual features of a virtual environment become associated with aggressive mean...
Article
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(1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health problem, with negative socio-economic, physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection, and refugees (MARs) are vulnerable to SV. Since many European countries are seeing high migratory pressure, the development of prevent...
Article
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Sexual aggression is one of the most humiliating forms of gender-based violence and may profoundly affect victims’ physical, mental, and sexual health. This research analyzed the role of previous experiences of sexual coercion by an intimate partner on women’s behavioral, cognitive, and emotional responses to a video clip showing a sexual assault i...
Article
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Peer groups are critical socialization agents for the development of social behavior in adolescence, but studies examining peer-group effects on individuals’ prosocial behavior are scarce. Using a two-wave, multilevel data set (N = 16,893, 8481 male; 8412 female; mean age at Time 1: 14.0 years) from 1308 classes in 252 secondary schools in Germany,...
Article
The Barlett Gentile cyberbullying model (BGCM) posits that correlated anonymity perceptions and the belief in the irrelevance of muscularity for online bullying (BIMOB) predict positive cyberbullying attitudes to predict subsequent cyberbullying perpetration. Much research has shown the BGCM to be the only published theory that differentiates tradi...
Article
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As research on sexual aggression has been growing, methodological issues in assessing prevalence rates have received increased attention. Building on work by Abbey and colleagues about effects of question format, participants in this study (1,253; 621 female; 632 male) were randomly assigned to one of two versions of the Sexual Aggression and Victi...
Article
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Sexual aggression is a problem among college students worldwide, and a growing body of research has identified variables associated with an increased risk of victimization and perpetration. Among these, sexuality-related cognitions, such as sexual scripts, sexual self-esteem, perceived realism of pornography, and acceptance of sexual coercion, play...
Article
In this article, I examine the development of aggressive behavior from middle childhood to adolescence as a result of the interaction between the person and the environment and discuss implications for intervention measures. Three main questions are addressed and illustrated by examples from recent research: What are intrapersonal risk factors for...
Article
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Women’s average voice pitch has decreased in recent years, reducing the gap between men on this vocal dimension. The present study examined whether a woman speaking at a lower pitch would be perceived as less feminine and more masculine than a woman speaking at a higher pitch. Participants (n = 100, 67 female) listened to an audiotape of a woman in...
Chapter
Crime is omnipresent in our society. Every day we are confronted with fictional portrayals of crime and reports of real instances of crime, especially the violent type, in the media. However, crime is also being increasingly perceived as a significant problem in politics. This public debate, which is influenced by current moods and superficial obse...
Article
This two-wave longitudinal study identified configurations of social rejection, affiliation with aggressive peers, and academic failure and examined their predictivity for reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 1,479 children and adolescents aged between 9 and 19 years. Latent profile analysis yielded three configurations of risk factors,...
Article
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To address the shortage of cross-cultural research on vulnerability factors of sexual victimization, this two-wave longitudinal study examined predictors of sexual victimization among female and male college students in Chile (N = 1098) and Turkey (N = 885). These two countries were selected based on theoretical considerations regarding religiosity...
Article
Intimate partner violence is a serious threat to women's physical, mental, and sexual health in all parts of the world, with about 30% of women aged 15 years and over likely to experience IPV in their lifetime. The main forms of IPV are physical and sexual assault by an intimate partner. Prevalence rates vary widely between countries and there is s...
Article
Exposure to peer aggression is a major risk factor for the development of aggressive behavior in childhood and adolescence. Furthermore, peer aggression has the propensity to spread and affect individuals who were not exposed to the original source of aggression. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that peer aggression is in many regards simila...
Article
Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is a multimodal intervention for chronically aggressive youth. The program has been frequently administered in a variety of samples in the original form or in modified versions. This review examines evaluations of the efficacy of ART on aggressive behavior and secondary outcomes in children and youth, including...
Article
Although there is ample evidence linking insecure attachment styles and intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about the psychological processes underlying this association, especially from the victim's perspective. The present study examined how attachment styles relate to the experience of sexual and psychological abuse, directly or ind...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health problem, with negative socio-economic, physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection, and refugees (MARs) are vulnerable to SV. Since many European countries are seeing high migratory pressure, the development of prevent...
Article
This two-wave longitudinal study examined risky sexual scripts and sexual behavior regarding consensual sexual interactions, sexual self-esteem, initiation assertiveness, and religiosity as predictors of sexual aggression perpetration in a cross-cultural comparison of college students in Chile and Turkey. As predicted, risky sexual scripts were lin...
Preprint
Full-text available
1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health issue with negative socio-economic and physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) are identified as a vulnerable group for SV. Since many European countries have been confronted with high migratory pr...
Article
Full-text available
The aggressive expression of driving anger is a risk factor for aggressive and dangerous driving behavior and is associated with a greater risk of accident involvement. The present study related positive and negative facets of a masculine and feminine self-concept to aggressive and adaptive forms of anger expression while driving. A sample of 417 d...
Article
Theory of mind (ToM) is one of the most important cognitive factors in social information-processing, and deficits in ToM have been linked to aggressive behavior in childhood. The present longitudinal study investigated reciprocal links between ToM and two forms of aggression –physical and relational – in middle childhood with three data waves over...
Article
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Previous research has indicated that executive function (EF) is negatively associated with aggressive behavior in childhood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that have examined the effect of deficits in EF on aggression over time and taken into account different forms and functions of aggression at the same time. Furthermore, only f...
Article
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This two-wave study investigated predictors of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in a convenience sample of 318 Polish university students (214 women), considering males and females from the perspective of both victims and perpetrators. At T1, we assessed participants’ risky sexual scripts (defined as cognitive representations of con...
Article
Frustration is a powerful instigator of anger-based aggression. We hypothesized that the impact of a frustration on anger and aggressive behavior is reduced in a state of feeling relaxed, which is considered incompatible with the experience of anger. Seventy-nine participants received frustrating feedback either when sitting upright or sitting in a...
Article
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Objective: The incompatible response hypothesis states that inducing incompatible emotional states mitigates the effect of situational risk factors on aggressive behavior. The current study extended this approach to situated aggression control to withdrawal-related negative emotions. We proposed that even a negative affective state can be incompati...
Article
This longitudinal study investigated patterns of developmental problems across depression, aggression, and academic achievement during adolescence, using two measurement points two years apart (N = 1665; age T1: M = 13.14; female = 49.6%). Latent Profile Analyses and Latent Transition Analyses yielded four main findings: A three-type solution provi...
Article
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Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 ye...
Article
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor’s invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depende...
Article
This article investigated how the development of deviant behavior in adolescence is influenced by the variability of deviant behavior in the peer group. Based on the social information-processing (SIP) model, we predicted that peer groups with a low variability of deviant behavior (providing normative information that is easy to process) should hav...
Article
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Although research on dating violence has increased in the last decades, little is known about the role of romantic attachment and conflict resolution in understanding victimization by an intimate partner among adolescents. This study examined the relationships between insecure attachment styles, destructive conflict resolution strategies, self-repo...
Article
Southeast Asia is one of the most dynamic regions in the world. It is experiencing rapid socioeconomic change that may influence the level of sexual aggression, but data on the scale of sexual aggression in the region remain sparse. The aim of the present article was to systematically review the findings of studies available in English on the preva...
Article
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Assessing anger regulation via self-reports is fraught with problems, especially among children. Behavioral observation provides an ecologically valid alternative for measuring anger regulation. The present study uses data from two waves of a longitudinal study to present a behavioral observation approach for measuring anger regulation in middle ch...
Article
Although sexual aggression is recognized as a serious problem worldwide, evidence on the prevalence and impact of sexual aggression is based predominantly on studies from Western countries with a Christian or non-religious majority. Little evidence is available from non-Western countries, especially from Muslim societies. The purpose of the present...
Article
Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent...
Article
This study examined the prospective links between maladaptive anger regulation and aggressive behavior in middle childhood over a 10-month period, analyzing the mediating influence of peer problems. Participants were 599 elementary-school children in Germany, aged 6–10 years at Time 1 (T1) and 7–11 years at Time 2 (T2). Anger regulation at T1 was a...
Article
Sexual aggression is a major public health issue worldwide, but most knowledge is derived from studies conducted in North America and Western Europe. Little research has been conducted on the prevalence of sexual aggression in developing countries, including Chile. This article presents the first systematic review of the evidence on the prevalence...
Article
Violence against women causes suffering and misery to victims and their families and places a heavy burden on societies worldwide. It mostly happens within intimate relationships or between people known to each other. Violence against women is a social construction based on a societal consensus about the roles and rights of men and women. Two preva...
Article
This two-wave longitudinal study identified configurations of social rejection, affiliation with aggressive peers, and academic failure and examined their predictivity for reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 1,479 children and adolescents aged between 9 and 19 years. Latent profile analysis yielded three configurations of risk factors,...
Article
Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an addit...
Article
The current study examined the moderating effect of classroom aggression on the development of individual aggression and on the path from individual aggression to social rejection over time. The study included 1,284 elementary school children and consisted of two data waves 10 months apart. At both time points, teachers assessed the children's phys...
Article
This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided re...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalenc...
Article
This longitudinal study from Germany examined the dynamic progression of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence based on the social interactional model by Patterson, DeBaryshe, and Ramsey. It examined the link between antisocial behavior, social rejection, academic failure, and affiliation with deviant peers in a sample of 1,657 children...
Article
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In Turkey, there is a shortage of studies on the prevalence of sexual aggression among young adults. The present study examined sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 15 in a convenience sample of N = 1,376 college students (886 women) from four public universities in Ankara, Turkey. Prevalence rates for different coerciv...
Chapter
Seit der Legalisierung sexueller Medieninhalte Anfang der 70er Jahre des letzten Jahrhunderts und insbesondere angesichts des digitalen Wandels hat die Verfügbarkeit pornografischer Darstellungen deutlich zugenommen. Laut Untersuchungen der britischen Regierung im Rahmen der Etablierung von Filtersystemen zu Nutzerzahlen pornografischer Internetsei...
Article
The link between cognitive scripts for consensual sexual interactions and attitudes towards sexual coercion was studied in 524 Polish high school students. We proposed that risky sexual scripts, containing risk elements linked to sexual aggression, would be associated with attitudes condoning sexual coercion. Pornography use and religiosity were in...
Chapter
Sexual violence is an omnipresent threat to women’s sexual well-being, physical and mental health all over the world. In addition to the impact of the victimization experience itself, many survivors are faced with negative social reactions when they disclose it to third parties, which amount to a form of secondary victimization and differ from reac...
Article
Full-text available
Examining equivalence in the interpretation of survey items on sexual assault by participants from different cultures is an important step toward building a valid international knowledge base about the prevalence of sexual aggression among young adults. Referring to the theoretical framework of contextualism, this study presents qualitative data fr...
Article
It is argued that, despite differences in cultural norms and practices, the evidence for a link between violent media use and aggression is remarkably consistent across different countries. Along with evidence that different operationalizations of violent media use also converge across countries, these findings strengthen the conclusion that violen...
Article
Objective: This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the links between sexual assault victimization, depression, and sexual self-esteem by examining their cross-lagged paths among both men and women. Method: Male and female college students (N = 2,425) in Germany participated in the study that comprised 3 data waves in their first, second...