Barbara K. Hofer

Barbara K. Hofer
Middlebury College · Department of Psychology

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33
Publications
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8,267
Citations

Publications

Publications (33)
Article
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Science is of critical importance to daily life in a knowledge society and has a significant influence on many everyday decisions. As scientific problems increase in their number and complexity, so do the challenges facing the public in understanding these issues. Our objective is to focus on 3 of those challenges: the challenge of reasoning about...
Article
Full-text available
There have been a number of research programs that have investigated students’ thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing, including definitions of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge is evaluated. However, these different research programs have pursued varying definitions and conceptual frameworks and use...
Chapter
Full-text available
The role that personal epistemology plays in intellectual development, learning, and education has been investigated for several decades in the USA (see Hofer & Pintrich, 1997, 2002) and has recently been pursued in other cultural environments. Research suggests that epistemological understanding has important implications for learning: for example...
Article
A growing body of work addresses the nature of epistemological development and epistemological beliefs: how individuals come to know, the theories and beliefs they hold about knowing, and the manner in which such epistemological premises are a part of and an influence on the cognitive processes of thinking and reasoning. This study investigates the...
Article
In academic learning, searching for information, and encounters with competing truth claims, individuals engage their epistemic cognition. This chapter provides an introduction to this psychological construct and discusses research about how instructional practice can promote epistemological understanding for the development of an educated citizenr...
Article
Reflection on practice is a core principle for guiding improvement in professional work such as teaching and can be enhanced by reflection on epistemic cognition, the way we think about knowledge and knowing. Viewed as an intellectual virtue, a habit of mind, and a learnable skill, epistemic reflection can help teachers learn to critically question...
Article
The need for public understanding of science is especially critical in today’s society when citizens frequently confront complex, conflicting information on challenging topics. This article presents research on challenges for public understanding of science: In addition to increased scientific literacy (knowledge), people may need to shift epistemi...
Article
Evaluated the mathematics achievement of high school students, and assessed the relevance of students' attitudes and beliefs about mathematics to explain differences in achievement between students from China and other developed countries (Taiwan, US, Canada, Hungary, Germany). A total of nearly 6,000 11th grade students from at least 9 private or...
Article
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The contributors to this special issue explore the connections between metacognition and personal epistemology. This commentary on the five articles addresses definitional concerns regarding both epistemology and metacognition, discusses the conceptual relation between the constructs, critiques methodological approaches, and suggests developmental...
Article
Full-text available
Personal epistemology is a rapidly advancing area of research in the field of psychology concerned with the nature of human knowledge. Although epistemology has historically been pertinent to philosophers, it has more recently been adopted by psychologists concerned with how people develop, interpret, evaluate, and justify knowledge and beliefs abo...
Article
In previous decades the movement away from home to attend college generally involved diminished contact between students and their parents. This has changed substantially in recent years, as the comments above from parents attest. Technological developments such as e-mail, cell phones, instant messaging, and text messaging make it possible for coll...
Article
Beliefs that individuals hold about knowledge and knowing, or what has been termed “personal epistemology”, are related to learning and achievement in complex ways. These beliefs are also differentiated by discipline (e.g., math, science, history) as well as by judgment domains (e.g., personal taste, morality, meaning). This commentary on five arti...
Article
Full-text available
In their review of the empirical research, Muis, Bendixen, and Haerle (2006) bring closure to the debate between domain specificity and domain generality of epistemic beliefs and provide a framework for future research. In response to their review, this article comments on issues that remain for those who wish to examine the nature of the interacti...
Article
Full-text available
Across multiple areas of educational psychology, Paul Pintrich's work was characterized by a (a) press for conceptual clarity, (b) focus on developing and refining measures, (c) conviction that researchers interested in learning and cognition should span K-12 and higher education, (d) attention to discipline and context specificity, and (e) interes...
Article
The study of personal epistemology has typically addressed the theories and beliefs that individuals hold about knowledge and knowing, and the way in which such epistemological perspectives are related to academic learning. This qualitative, exploratory case study focuses on the epistemology of instructional practices as interpreted by students in...
Article
Full-text available
Personal epistemology has typically been conceptualized in one of two primary ways: as a cognitive developmental process or as a system of beliefs. The approach that is elaborated here is to conceive of epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process that activates epistemic theories, a multidimensional set of interrelated beliefs about kn...
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of the TIMSS Case Study Project data collected in the United States, Japan, and Germany in 1994–1995, this article examines the phenomenon of tracking as part of curricular differentiation and student placement practices in public K–12 school systems. The authors document clear national differences in differentiation and placement meas...
Article
Full-text available
This study addressed the impact of a semester-long course called Learning to Learn, an undergraduate psychology course designed to teach college students to be self-regulated learners. Results of pretesting and posttesting of 78 students with the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1993) provided s...
Article
The beliefs that individuals hold about knowledge and knowing have been the focus of a growing body of work on “personal epistemology.” There has been general agreement among researchers about a developmental trajectory of epistemological understanding that takes place in adolescence and adulthood. Rarely has this research included children, howeve...
Book
This is the first book to provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of personal epistemology from a psychological and educational perspective. Both theory building and empirical research have grown dramatically in the past decade but, until now, this work has not been pulled together in a single...
Article
Full-text available
The ideas that individuals hold about knowledge and knowing have been the target of research programs with disparate names, such as epistemological beliefs, reflective judgment, ways of knowing, and epistemological reflection, all of which appear to be a part of a larger body of work on personal epistemology. Epistemological perspectives are salien...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the education policy in the United States and in other countries. Most of the comparisons in the chapter involve Germany, Japan, and the United States, all of which were examined in the case study project of the third international mathematics and science study (TIMSS), a project that involved interviewing hundreds of student...
Article
Examines students' beliefs about knowledge, and their motivation, learning strategies, and academic performance in two instructional contexts in introductory Calculus classes. Sophistication of epistemological beliefs was positively correlated with motivation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and grades. Students in the more active, cooperative clas...
Article
Students begin their college studies with a set of epistemological beliefs about what they think knowledge is and how they think it is learned; for most students, the experience of college alters these beliefs in fundamental, transformative ways. This study explores the relation between epistemological beliefs, motivation, and cognition in two diff...

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