Barbara Harper

Barbara Harper
Oregon State University | OSU · Department of Public Health (PH)

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38
Publications
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Publications

Publications (38)
Article
One expectation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is participant access to study results. However, reporting experimental data produced by studies involving biological measurements in the absence of clinical relevance can be challenging to scientists and participants. We applied best practices in data sharing to report the results of...
Article
Full-text available
Native American cultures, genetics, nutrition, and ways of life co-evolved with their natural systems through thousands of years. This process has resulted in seamless eco-cultural systems of humans, plants, animals, rivers, landforms, and air sheds. These eco-cultural systems have also provided its peoples with unique and valid environmental manag...
Article
Full-text available
The relative influences of trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport on measured concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PAH derivatives (nitro- (NPAH) and oxy-(OPAH)), organic carbon (OC), and particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were investigated in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. in 2010-2011. Ambien...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated the metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated T...
Article
The distinction between contemporary Native American fish consumption rates and original baseline heritage rates is important as heritage rates have long been recognized as a baseline relevant to the fishing tribes of the Pacific Northwest, and are generally protected by Treaties and case law. This paper reviews two approaches to accurately definin...
Article
Fish consumption rates (e.g., pounds or grams per day (gpd), or meals per week) are used in a variety of regulatory processes such as setting water quality standards. Many Native American tribes eat more fish than the general population, especially in areas such as the Columbia River Basin, which was renowned for abundant fish. However, contemporar...
Article
A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) using GC-MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker's Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker's Urine). The method...
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Full-text available
Indigenous cultures perceive the natural environment as an essential link between traditional cultural practices, social connectedness, identity, and health. Many tribal communities face substantial health disparities related to exposure to environmental hazards. Our study used qualitative methods to better understand the Confederated Tribes of the...
Conference Paper
Presentation of a case study describing a community-based participatory research project between Oregon State University and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) in Oregon to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures from consumption of traditionally smoked foods and from the practice of traditional s...
Article
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The paper provides an overview of methods that can be used to develop exposure scenarios for unique tribal natural resource usage patterns. Exposure scenarios are used to evaluate the degree of environmental contact experienced by people with different patterns of lifestyle activities, such as residence, recreation, or work. In 1994, Executive Orde...
Article
Although it is known that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be found in smoked meats, little is known about their prevalence in Native American smoked fish. In this work, the effect of traditional Native American fish smoking methods on dietary exposure to PAHs and possible risks to human health has been assessed. Smoking methods consider...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental justice in the tribal context cannot be contemplated apart from a recognition of American Indian tribes’ unique historical, political, and legal circumstances. American Indian tribes are sovereign governments, with inherent powers of self-government over their citizens and their territories. Their status as sovereign entities predates...
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The goal of environmental justice (EJ) is for all peoples to achieve the same degree of protection from environmental health hazards. Although each tribe is an independent sovereign nation and a single federal approach may not suit all tribes, this article presents an improved method for evaluating and quantifying potentially disproportionate impac...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of environmental justice (EJ) is for all peoples to achieve the same degree of protection from environmental and health hazards. This suggests that impacts should be evaluated from the perspective of the affected community because only the community truly knows what is at risk from adverse impacts. If the EJ assessment is based solely on s...
Article
Full-text available
When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers. In this article, we review sovereignty, research ethics, and data-sharing c...
Conference Paper
The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon and other tribes in the United States may be at increased risk of disease due to cumulative PAH exposures from traditionally smoked foods, air exposure from traditional smoking of foods, and ambient air pollution. This community-based participatory research project with the Oregon...
Article
The concept that all peoples should have their voices heard on matters that affect their well-being is at the core of environmental justice (EJ). The inability of some people of small towns, rural areas, minority, and low-income communities, to become involved in environmental decisions is sometimes due to a lack of information. We provide a templa...
Article
The environmental health goals of many Native American tribes are to restore natural resources and ensure that they are safe to harvest and consume in traditional subsistence quantities. Therefore, it is important to tribes to accurately estimate risks incurred through the consumption of subsistence foods. This article explores problems in conventi...
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Full-text available
Risks from mercury and other contaminants in fish for a large Columbia River dataset are evaluated in this paper for a range of consumption rates. Extensive ethnohistorical, nutritional, recent ethnographic surveys, and other documentation was reviewed to confirm previous determinations that the traditional subsistence fish consumption rate is 500...
Article
Exposure scenarios are a critical part of risk assessment; however, representative scenarios are not generally available for tribal communities where a traditional subsistence lifestyle and diet are relevant and actively encouraged. This article presents portions of a multipathway exposure scenario developed by AESE, Inc. in conjunction with the Sp...
Article
Lead exposure is still a national concern, and it is possible that Native Americans who live on reservations and pursue traditional lifestyles may be at higher risk through both their unique exposure profiles and their potentially greater sensitivity. A major component of the exposure assessment is the diet. For tribal members, traditional lifestyl...
Article
Peoples and communities, especially indigenous communities, are forced to deal with an increasingly complex set of environmental, social, cultural, and economic problems related to pollution. It is important to use evaluation tools that reflect the values and perspectives of the affected peoples, and which can evaluate risks and impacts to the natu...
Article
The foundation of risk assessment, characterization and management in the Indian Country rests on the federal trust responsibility to protect the people, their homelands and natural and cultural resources. Hence, tribal risk assessments include the probabilities of adverse health, ecological and cultural impacts. Elements of this environmentally-ba...
Article
Full-text available
In traditional tribal communities, people, their geographic place, resources, culture, health, language, art, religion, trade networks, social and survival activities, and their past and future are all interconnected into a single ethno-habitat. A healthy ethno-habitat, as defined in the Eastside EIS, is one that supports its natural plant and anim...
Article
Full-text available
DOE wants to ensure that decisions coming from the Waste Management PEIS (WM PEIS) and the 2006 Plan are equitable, responsible, and scientifically defensible. In order to be able to substantiate this, however, certain types of information about community impacts that have never been collected will be needed. This pap&r presents an initial descript...
Article
EPA's Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) and later documents provide guidance for estimating exposures received from suburban and agricultural activity patterns and lifestyles. However, these methods are not suitable for typical tribal communities whose members pursue, at least in part, traditional lifestyles. These lifestyles are derive...
Article
An automated procedure for estimation of blood cholinesterase activities was evaluated and used to determine baseline cholinesterase activities in rabbits. In addition, the kinetics of cholinesterase inhibition and recovery from diazinon challenge were determined by use of this procedure. The procedure developed is a modification of the colorimetri...
Article
This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Informa...
Article
Given the broad array of environmental problems, technical alternatives, and outcomes desired by different stakeholders at Hanford, DOE will have to make difficult resource allocations over the next few decades. Although some of these allocations will be driven purely by legal requirements, almost all of the major objectives of the cleanup and econ...

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Project
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are re-emerging as an environmental pollutant of concern. PAHs, found at Superfund sites and urban settings, are formed in the burning of carbon-based energy sources, e.g., diesel, gasoline, coal, petroleum and in cooking or tobacco smoke.