Barbara Gemmill-Herren

Barbara Gemmill-Herren
World Agroforestry Centre

Ph.D., Ecology

About

75
Publications
107,547
Reads
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6,125
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Position
  • Senior Associate
September 2004 - August 2015
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Position
  • Professional Officer
January 2000 - December 2014
African Pollinator Initiative
Position
  • Consultant
Education
June 1992
University of California, Davis
Field of study
  • Ecology

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Full-text available
Pollinator decline has attracted global attention and substantial efforts are underway to respond through national pollinator strategies and action plans. These policy responses require clarity on what is driving pollinator decline and what risks it generates for society in different parts of the world. Using a formal expert elicitation process, we...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review assembles evidence for rights-based approaches–the right to food and food sovereignty–for achieving food security and adequate nutrition (FSN). We evaluated peer-reviewed and gray literature produced between 1992 and 2018 that documents empirical relationships between the right to food or food sovereignty and FSN. We classifi...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species can reach high abundances and dominate native environments. One of the most impressive examples of ecological invasions is the spread of the African sub‐species of the honey bee throughout the Americas, starting from its introduction in a single locality in Brazil. The invasive honey bee is expected to more negatively impact bee co...
Article
Pollination management recommendations are becoming increasingly precise, context specific and knowledge-intensive. Pollination is a service delivered across landscapes, entailing policy constructs across agricultural landscapes. Diversified farming practices effectively promote pollination services. Yet it remains difficult to secure large-scale u...
Article
Full-text available
Local markets are access points to local agrobiodiversity and to part of the informal seed systems on which most small-scale farmers worldwide depend. With the urgent need for more sustainable food systems, detailed studies of the food plant diversity in local markets contribute to a better understanding of the role of local markets in a functionin...
Article
Full-text available
There is consensus that the global food system is not delivering good nutrition for all and is causing environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity, such that a profound transformation is needed to meet the challenges of persistent malnutrition and rural poverty, aggravated by the growing consequences of climate change. Agroecological approac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pollinator decline has attracted global attention, and substantial efforts are underway to respond, through national pollinator strategies and action plans. These policy responses require clarity on what is driving pollinator decline, and what risks it generates for society, in different parts of the world. Using a formal expert elicitation process...
Article
There is a need for scaling-up agroecology to promote sustainable agriculture at global level. Although, recent studies show that agroecological approaches can achieve both high yields and profits compared with conventional systems, the performance of other socioeconomic indicators remains unknown. This study has two objectives (i) identify the mai...
Article
Full-text available
The magnitude and urgency of the challenges facing agriculture and food systems demand profound modifications in different aspects of human activity to achieve real transformative change and sustainability. Recognizing that the inherent complexity of achieving sustainability is commonly seen as a deterrent to decision-making, the Food and Agricultu...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequacies of the current agriculture and food systems are recognised globally in the form of damages to environment and human health. In addition, the prevailing economic and policy systems do not reflect these damages in its accounting systems and standards. These shortcomings lead to perverse and pervasive outcomes for society at large. Our pr...
Article
Ecological intensification aims to increase crop productivity by enhancing biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while minimizing the use of synthetic inputs and cropland expansion. Policies to promote ecological intensification have emerged in different countries, but they are still scarce and vary widely across regions. Here, we propose...
Book
Full-text available
Our goals are bold and ambitious: to contribute a framework approach for better understanding and managing the impacts and externalities of agriculture and food value chains, and to incite a global network of scholars and decision-makers dedicated to disclosing and valuing those impacts. Without a doubt, the complexity is daunting as we embrace, ho...
Chapter
Full-text available
It demonstrates an initial exploration of the TEEBAgriFood Evaluation Framework through ten existing case studies that focus on various aspects of the value chain: agricultural management systems, business analysis, dietary comparison, policy evaluation and national accounts for the agriculture and food sector. Various issues within the Framework a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter 3 provides an overview of the diversity of agriculture and food systems, each with different contributions to global food security, impacts on the natural resource base and ways of working through food system supply chains. We describe “eco-agri-food systems” and further identify their many manifestations through a review of typologies. We...
Article
Agroecology potentially offers a sustainable path to agricultural development as it integrates ecological principles and social and economic concerns into agri-food systems. While many descriptive studies have documented the experience of farming communities using agroecological approaches, evidence on social and economic indicators of agroecology...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Most of the world’s wild flowering plants (87.5%) are pollinated by insects and other animals (established but incomplete), more than three quarters of the leading types of global food crops can benefit, at least in part, from animal pollination (well established) and it is estimated that about one-third of global food volume produced similarly ben...
Article
Scientists and policy-makers globally are calling for alternative approaches to conventional intensification of agriculture that enhance ecosystem services provided by biodiversity. The evidence reviewed here suggests that alternative approaches can achieve high crop yields and profits, but the performance of other socioeconomic indicators (as well...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change, population growth and social conflict have left many farmers and pastoralists in sub-Saharan Africa at near constant crisis conditions. Participatory climate resilience assessments can help farmer and pastoralist communities to identify, measure and prioritize actions to improve the climate resilience of their agricultural systems....
Article
Agroecological intensification (AEI) integrates ecological principles and biodiversity management into farming systems with the aims of increasing farm productivity, reducing dependency on external inputs, and sustaining or enhancing ecosystem services. This review develops an analytic framework to characterize the fulfilment of these objectives by...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach....
Article
Full-text available
Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach....
Article
Full-text available
Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) project has recently launched a study focusing on the agri-eco-food system. The TEEB approach categorizes and makes visible the dependencies that agricultural systems have on inputs from nature as well as the provisioning of benefits from the agri-eco-food system to humans.In both cases there are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Numerous recent reviews have emphasized that future needs for food and nutrition security will have to be addressed by transitioning to regenerative systems of food production based on an effective and enhanced use of ecosystem services that minimize negative impacts while improving or at least stabilizing yields (The Royal Society 2009; Foley et a...
Chapter
Full-text available
What do we know about the relationship between agroecology and its effects on the socio-economic aspects of farmers’ livelihoods? Do we have evidence that agroecology leads to positive impacts such as creating jobs, and increasing incomes and social well-being? This chapter will provide preliminary, indicative evidence that agroecology has positive...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Raffaele.Dannolfo@fao.org FAO along with numerous recent reviews has emphasized that future needs of food and nutrition will have to be addressed by transitioning agriculture to regenerative systems of food production based on an effective and enhanced use of ecosystem services that minimize negative externalities while improving or at least stabil...
Article
Full-text available
2014 was the United Nations' International Year of Family Farming, yet the importance of family farming for global food security is still surprisingly poorly documented. In a review of agricultural census data, we find that globally family farms constitute over 98% of all farms, and work on 53% of agricultural land. Across distinct contexts, family...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Counting the costs and benefits of rice farming. A trade-off analysis among different types of agricultural management. FAO, unpublished project report for The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) global initiative for Agriculture and Food. 3 ABSTRACT Rice farming today is faced with several agronomic and environmental challenges related...
Article
Full-text available
Yields of commercially important crops in Kenya are often far below their potential. Amongst the possible reasons for such low yields may be the ecosystem degradation that can be expected to have negative impacts on pollinator presence in cropland, and the consequent food security issue for smallholder farmers who depend on these crops for their li...
Article
While it is well recognised that pollination is an ecosystem service of vital importance to human well-being through its role in food production, it is still remarkable how little is known, on a crop-by-crop basis, about this role, and the extent and causes of declines in the service. Without better documentation of the specific contribution of pol...
Article
Full-text available
It is increasingly recognized that a sustainable future for agriculture must build on ecosystem services. Pollination is an important ecosystem service in all agroecosystems. In much of Africa the main challenge is conserving pollinator biodiversity in traditionally "ecologically-intensive" agroecosystems that are changing to meet different demands...
Chapter
Pollination is an essential ecosystem service in many agricultural systems. Three quarters of globally important crops benefit, at least in part, from animal pollination, which can increase the yield, quality, and economic value of crops. As the global population continues to grow and demand for food production increases, the areas of flowering cro...
Article
Full-text available
In order to conduct a proper risk assessment of pesticides to bees, information is needed in three areas: (i) the toxicity of the pesticide; (ii) the probability of bee exposure to that pesticide; and (iii) the population dynamics of the bee species in question. Information was collected on such factors affecting pesticide risk to (primarily wild)...
Book
Full-text available
À l'occasion de la Journée Mondiale des Sols, le Centre commun de recherche (JRC), service scientifique de la Commission européenne, publie la version française de sa cartographie unique des sols européens. L'atlas européen de la biodiversité des sols est un outil d'aide à la décision visant à protéger les sols, ressource essentielle aux cycles de...
Book
Full-text available
À l'occasion de la Journée Mondiale des Sols, le Centre commun de recherche (JRC), service scientifique de la Commission européenne, publie la version française de sa cartographie unique des sols européens. L'atlas européen de la biodiversité des sols est un outil d'aide à la décision visant à protéger les sols, ressource essentielle aux cycles de...
Article
Full-text available
Recently there has been considerable concern about declines in bee communities in agricultural and natural habitats. The value of pollination to agriculture, provided primarily by bees, is >$200 billion/year worldwide, and in natural ecosystems it is thought to be even greater. However, no monitoring program exists to accurately detect declines in...
Article
Full-text available
In order to conduct a proper risk assessment of pesticides to bees, information is needed in three areas: (i) the toxicity of the pesticide; (ii) the probability of bee exposure to that pesticide; and (iii) the population dynamics of the bee species in question. Information was collected on such factors affecting pesticide risk to (primarily wild)...
Article
Full-text available
Cocoa is strictly entomophilous but studies on the influence of the ecosystem on insect pollinators in cocoa production systems are limited. The abundance of cocoa pollinators and pod-set of cocoa as influenced by a gradient of farm distances from natural forest and proportion of plantain/banana clusters in or adjacent to cocoa farms were therefore...
Book
Full-text available
In agro-ecosystems, pollinators are essential for orchard, oilseed crop, horticultural and forage production, as well as the production of seed for many root and fibre crops. Pollinators such as bees, birds and bats affect 35 percent of the world’s crop production, increasing outputs of 87 of the leading food crops worldwide, plus many plant-derive...
Article
Full-text available
Diversity and effi ciency of wild pollinators of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.) at Yatta (Kenya) Abstract Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf. (Watermelon) is an important crop plant in Kenya. Being monoecious, watermelon is entirely dependent upon pollination services usually by insects for production. Although the centre of origin fo...
Book
Full-text available
Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and...
Article
Full-text available
Pollinators are important natural agents for fruit and seed formation in most tree crops and the use of appropriate sampling methods is fundamental in studying their population. A study to develop surveying and monitoring protocols for cocoa pollinators was undertaken in Ghana. Yellow, white and blue UV-bright painted pan traps (UVPPT), McPhail tra...