Barbara Fruth

Barbara Fruth
Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior

About

129
Publications
35,248
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6,010
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
2751 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500

Publications

Publications (129)
Article
Full-text available
In animals with slow ontogeny and long-term maternal investment, immatures are likely to experience the birth of a younger sibling before reaching maturity. In these species, the birth of a sibling marks a major event in an offspring's early life, as the older siblings experience a decrease in maternal support. The transition to siblinghood (TTS) i...
Article
Full-text available
Group-living primates exhibit variable reactions to intergroup encounters (or IGEs), reflecting species-specific strategies and individual motivations. In chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ), dominating in IGEs provides fitness benefits. Less is known about responses to IGEs in bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) despite their equal relevance for understanding th...
Preprint
Full-text available
In mammals with a slow ontogeny, the birth of a sibling marks a major developmental transition. Behavioral studies suggest that this event is stressful for the older offspring, but physiological evidence for this is lacking, and it remains unknown whether the birth of a sibling is stressful beyond mere weaning stress. Studying transition to sibling...
Article
Full-text available
Here we show that sexual signaling affects patterns of female spatial association differently in chimpanzees and bonobos, indicating its relevance in shaping the respective social systems. Generally, spatial association between females often mirrors patterns and strength of social relationships and cooperation within groups. While testing for propo...
Article
Full-text available
Observations of animals in the wild can result in the discovery of plants for human medicinal purposes. In this context, our closest relatives, the great apes, are of particular interest. The Euphorbiaceae Manniophyton fulvum possesses both phytochemical and biomechanical properties. Its use in the genus Pan (P. troglodytes; P. paniscus) is thought...
Article
Full-text available
Animal communication has long been thought to be subject to pressures and constraints associated with social relationships. However, our understanding of how the nature and quality of social relationships relates to the use and evolution of communication is limited by a lack of directly comparable methods across multiple levels of analysis. Here, w...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Existing data on bonobo and chimpanzee dental eruption timing are derived predominantly from captive individuals or deceased wild individuals. However, recent advances in noninvasive photographic monitoring of living, wild apes have enabled researchers to characterize dental eruption in relatively healthy individuals under naturalistic c...
Article
Full-text available
Since 1994, IUCN Red List assessments apply globally acknowledged standards to assess species distribution, abundance and trends. The extinction risk of a species has a major impact on conservation science and international funding mechanisms. Great ape species are listed as Endangered or Critically Endangered. Their populations are often assessed...
Article
Full-text available
Ecoimmunology conceptualizes the role of immunity in shaping life history in a natural context. Within ecoimmunology, macroimmunology is a framework that explains the effects of habitat and spatial differences on variation in immune phenotypes across populations. Within these frameworks, immune ontogeny—the development of the immune system across a...
Article
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Predation is a major cause of mortality in non-human primates, and considered a selective force in the evolution of primate societies. Although larger body size is considered as protection against predation, evidence for predation on great apes by carnivores comes from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo...
Article
Full-text available
Viruses closely related to human pathogens can reveal the origins of human infectious diseases. Human herpes simplexvirus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are hypothesized to have arisen via host-virus co-divergence and cross-species transmission. We report the discovery of novel herpes simplexviruses during a large-scale screening of fecal sample...
Article
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Fission-fusion dynamics have evolved in a broad range of animal taxa and are thought to allow individuals to mitigate feeding competition. While this is the principal benefit of fission-fusion, few studies have evaluated its costs. We compared gregariousness, foraging budgets, and social budgets between lactating bonobos and chimpanzees from wild p...
Article
Objectives Although fermented food use is ubiquitous in humans, the ecological and evolutionary factors contributing to its emergence are unclear. Here we investigated the ecological contexts surrounding the consumption of fruits in the late stages of fermentation by wild primates to provide insight into its adaptive function. We hypothesized that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Existing data on bonobo and chimpanzee dental eruption timing are derived predominantly from captive individuals or deceased wild individuals. However, recent advances in noninvasive photographic monitoring of living, wild apes have greatly expanded our knowledge of chimpanzee dental eruption in relatively healthy individuals under naturalistic con...
Article
Full-text available
Compared with most mammals, postnatal development in great apes is protracted, presenting both an extended period of phenotypic plasticity to environmental conditions and the potential for sustained mother-offspring and/or sibling conflict over resources. Comparisons of cortisol levels during ontogeny can reveal physiological plasticity to species...
Article
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In mammals, allogrooming is prominent in forming and maintaining social and cooperative relationships. Yet an animal's social time is constrained, which may limit its access to a large number of partners. Dunbar (1993, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16 (4), 681–694) proposed that human polyadic conversations, which allow access to several social pa...
Article
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Several theories have been generated to understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying the unique cooperative abilities of humans. The 'inter-dependence hypothesis' posits first, that the cognitive dimension of human cooperation evolved in contexts when several individuals needed to act together to achieve a common goal, like when hunting lar...
Article
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With animal species disappearing at unprecedented rates, we need an efficient monitoring method providing reliable estimates of population density and abundance, critical for the assessment of population status and trend. We deployed 160 camera traps (CTs) systematically over 743 locations covering 17,127 km2 of evergreen lowland rainforest of Salo...
Article
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Objectives: Primates exhibit variation in rates of growth and development. Variation in female growth and development across ape species appears to be explained by the Ecological Risk Aversion Hypothesis (ERAH). Indeed, existing data on variation in somatic growth and reproductive maturation between humans' closest living ape relatives, bonobos an...
Article
Full-text available
In some species habitual same-sex sexual behavior co-occurs with high levels of intra-sexual alliance formation, suggesting that these behaviors may be linked. We tested for such a link by comparing behavioral and physiological outcomes of sex with unrelated same-and opposite-sex partners in female bonobos (Pan paniscus). We analyzed behavioral out...
Article
Full-text available
Herpesviruses are thought to have evolved in very close association with their hosts. This is notably the case for cytomegaloviruses (CMVs; genus Cytomegalovirus) infecting primates, which exhibit a strong signal of co-divergence with their hosts. Some herpesviruses are however known to have crossed species barriers. Based on a limited sampling of...
Article
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Background Expansion of brain tissue and development of advanced cognitive skills are characteristic traits of human evolution. Their emergence has been causally linked to the intake of nutrients that promote brain development and iodine is considered a critical resource. Rich sources of iodine exist in coastal areas and evolutionary scenarios asso...
Article
In many group-living mammals, mothers may increase the reproductive success of their daughters even after they are nutritionally independent and fully grown [1]. However, whether such maternal effects exist for adult sons is largely unknown. Here we show that males have higher paternity success when their mother is living in the group at the time o...
Article
Temperament and personality research in humans and nonhuman animals measures behavioral variation in individual, population, or species-specific traits with implications for survival and fitness, such as social status, foraging, and mating success [1-5]. Curiosity and risk-taking tendencies have been studied extensively across taxa by measuring bol...
Article
In the course of our studies on the valorization of plants used by the Nkundo people in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRCongo), we have carried out a preliminary screening of 50 aqueous extracts (at a standard concentration of 1%) from 35 plants for their larvicidal potential on late third or early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. It...
Article
Sleep is a universal behavior in vertebrate and invertebrate animals, suggesting it originated in the very first life forms. Given the vital function of sleep, sleeping patterns and sleep architecture follow dynamic and adaptive processes reflecting trade‐offs to different selective pressures. Here, we review responses in sleep and sleep‐related be...
Article
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Evolutionary models consider hunting and food sharing to be milestones that paved the way from primate to human societies. Because fossil evidence is scarce, hominoid primates serve as referential models to assess our common ancestors' capacity in terms of communal use of resources, food sharing, and other forms of cooperation. Whereas chimpanzees...
Article
This report describes bonobo (Pan paniscus, Hominidae) behavioral flexibility and inter-community differences with high tannin level fruit processing. In fruiting plants, tannin should discourage certain seed dispersers (direct deterrence hypothesis) such as primates. Based on data deriving from five study sites; LuiKotale, Lomako, Wamba, Malebo and M...
Article
The two closest living relatives of humans, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), share many traits that are common in humans but rare in other mammals, including societies with high fission–fusion dynamics, male philopatry, female dispersal and extensive social bonding among unrelated individuals [1] . The major difference betw...
Article
Full-text available
In several group-living species, individuals’ social preferences are thought to be influenced by cooperation. For some societies with fission-fusion dynamics, sex-specific association patterns reflect sex differences in cooperation in within- and betweengroup contexts. In our study, we investigated this hypothesis further by comparing sex-specific...
Chapter
All great apes (Hominidae) make nests. These sleeping platforms are similarly constructed, despite species' differences in habitat and social organization. However, these simple shelters vary, not only across but also within great ape species. Nests serve mainly for rest but also have other purposes. Nest-building in great apes ranges from simple t...
Article
Full-text available
Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 (STLV-1) enters human populations through contact with nonhuman primate (NHP) bushmeat. We tested whether differences in the extent of contact with STLV-1-infected NHP bushmeat foster regional differences in prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). Using serological and PCR assays, we screened humans and NH...
Article
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Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal s...
Data
Plant stable isotope data for the different plant food type categories in the LuiKotale bonobo habitat (*crude protein data from [40]). (PDF)
Data
A and B: AICs obtained from 66 models each for the ?13C values and ?15N values with different time lags (14 to 80 days) of temperature (indirectly representing season and plant phenology/fruiting) having an effect on the variation in bonobo hair isotopic ratios. Points under the dashed line represent models with a ?AIC ?2, suggesting a similarly hi...
Data
Bonobo hair section stable isotope data including hair sampling date and estimated mean hair section date and all further information on individuals (indiv.) including age (estimated birth year), social rank, sex, age of infant (inf. age) in days prior/after parturition, reproductive state of females (rep. state), and also disappearance date (month...
Data
Climatic variation measured in LuiKotale, DRC. (TIF)
Technical Report
Full-text available
Due to high levels of illegal hunting, and habitat destruction and degradation, Pan paniscus is estimated to have experienced a significant population reduction in the last 15–20 years and it is thought that this reduction will continue for the next 60 years. Currently, by far the greatest threat to the Bonobo's survival is poaching for the commerc...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The Nkundo people (Nkundo area of Bolongo, Mai-Ndombe district, Bandundu Province, DR Congo) use various plant parts of the tree Greenwayodendron suaveolens (Engl. & Diels) Verdc. (syn. Polyalthia suaveolens Engl. & Diels) (Annonaceae) against malaria, but its antiprotozoal constituents are not known. Materials and...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: The processes involved in viral evolution and the interaction of viruses with their hosts are of great scientific interest and public health relevance. It has long been thought that the genetic diversity of double stranded DNA viruses was generated over long periods of time, similar to typical host evolutionary timescales. This was als...
Article
Full-text available
Human language is a fundamentally cooperative enterprise, embodying fast-paced and extended social interactions. It has been suggested that it evolved as part of a larger adaptation of humans’ species-unique forms of cooperation. Although our closest living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, show general cooperative abilities, their communicative...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human language is manifested by fast-paced and extensive social interactions, thereby representing an essentially cooperative endeavour. It has been repeatedly claimed that the cognitive skills related to participation in cooperative communication are unique to the human species (Levinson, 1995; Tomasello, 2008). One way to enable a better understa...
Article
Food transfers are often hypothesised to have played a role in the evolution of cooperation amongst humans. However, they also occur in non-human primates, though no consensus exists regarding their function(s). We document patterns of begging for food and success rates as well as associated factors that may influence them for wild bonobos at LuiKo...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has highlighted the importance of edible insects as a protein source in the developed and developing world, both as a traditional food and a more sustainable alternative to conventional livestock. However, there is concern that traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) concerning wild-collected insects is in danger of being lost. The D...
Preprint
Full-text available
Comparative studies in relation to language origins have mainly focused on our closest living relatives, bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) and chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ). Direct comparisons however are still lacking and/or concerned individuals living in captive environments only. Here, we carried out a systematic, quantitative comparison of communicat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Comparative studies in relation to language origins have mainly focused on our closest living relatives, bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) and chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ). Direct comparisons however are still lacking and/or concerned individuals living in captive environments only. Here, we carried out a systematic, quantitative comparison of communicat...
Article
Full-text available
Human adenoviruses (HAdV; species HAdV-A to -G) are highly prevalent in the human population, and represent an important cause of morbidity and, to a lesser extent, mortality. Recent studies have identified close relatives of these viruses in African great apes, suggesting that some HAdV may be of zoonotic origin. We analyzed more than 800 fecal sa...
Article
Certains travaux de recherche montrent que le choix alimentaire vise à éviter l’ingestion des substances qui altèrent la qualité organoleptique. D’autres encore montrent que le choix d’aliments et l'efficacité de recherche des nourritures sont susceptibles d'être affectés par la qualité nutritionnelle, la distribution et l'abondance des sources. L’...
Article
Malgré leur protection officielle par les lois Congolaises et internationales - Classe A de la convention Africaine sur la conservation de la nature et des ressources naturelles (1968); Convention de Washington (1973); Appendice I de CITES (1976-2013); IUCN Red List (2008) - les bonobos sont extrêmement menacés, et de ce fait de plus en plus en dis...
Article
Les plantes comme d’autres êtres vivants ont développé un certain nombre de mécanismes pour se protéger contre les prédateurs et les infections. Les métabolites secondaires sont considérés comme des moyens de défense des plantes contre les herbivores. Servant d’antidotes, dans certains cas, ils peuvent être ingérés pour l'automédication chez les an...
Article
Full-text available
Observations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide valuable comparative data for understanding the significance of conspecific killing. Two kinds of hypothesis have been proposed. Lethal violence is sometimes concluded to be the result of adaptive strategies, such that killers ultimately gain fit-ness benefits by incre...
Article
Full-text available
In an Afrotropical forest, we tested the hypothesis that fleshy-fruit plants with interspecific differences in fruit quality and quantity affect ranging behaviour of their seed dispersal vector. If fruiting plants could affect their dispersal vector, the plants also affect their seed dispersal distance and eventually their plant population biology....
Article
Full-text available
L’écologie des forêts d'Afrique tropicale dépend non seulement de la protection des habitats, mais également de la protection des espèces qui la composent telle que les primates frugivores identifiés parmi les disperseurs de graines les plus importants pour de nombreuses plantes. L’étude de la dispersion de graines par des bonobos (Pan paniscus) da...
Data
In this experiment, the rodent is attracted by the stick with dung smell while the control stick do not affect the porcupine behavior. LuiKotale, Salonga NP, DR Congo
Data
75 empirical data on seed dispersal induced by free ranging bonobo LuiKotale, Salonga NP, DR Congo
Article
The swallowing of entire leaves by apes across Africa without chewing has been observed for over 40 plant species. Here we add evidence for (a) a new site, LuiKotale where leaf-swallowing of Manniophyton fulvum (Euphorbiaceae) is observed in bonobos, (b) a so far unreported ingestion of unchewed stemstrips of M. fulvum, we name stemstrip-swallowing...
Article
De nombreuses études ont prouvé le rôle important que jouent les antioxydants en tant que capteurs de radicaux libres dans la protection des organismes contre les affections pathologiques causées par les radicaux libres telles que l’arthrite, l’ischémie, les anémies, l’asthme, les affections neuro-dégénératives, la maladie de Parkinson, le mongolis...
Article
Full-text available
Seed dispersal mode of plants and primary interactions with animals are studied in the evergreen Afrotropical forest of LuiKotale, at the south-western part of Salonga National Park (DR Congo). We first analysed seed dispersal strategies for (a) the plant species inventoried over a decade at the study site and (b) the tree community in 12 9 1 ha ce...
Article
Full-text available
Survival of Afrotropical primary forests depends not only on habitat protection but also on the protection of animal species such as frugivorous primates, recognized as the most important seed dispersers for many plants. Here we investigate seed-dispersal services by the bonobo (Pan paniscus) in an evergreen lowland tropical rain forest of the Cong...
Article
Full-text available
Species of the gender Dialium commonly are trees found in Central African rainforests. They produce tasty sugary fruits, feeding numerous frugivores, but are, despite their valuable nutritional value, rarely exploited by humans. A potential reason for this could be the complexity of symbiotic dependence between trees and pollinators, germination ac...
Article
Full-text available
In an evergreen lowland rain forest of the Cuvette Centrale, DR Congo, at the LuiKotale Max-Planck research site, forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are close to extinction. Between January 2009 and June 2011 we investigated the influence of elephant decline on sustainability of elephant-dispersed tree populations. For this, we explored how tree...