Barbara S Chaparro

Barbara S Chaparro
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University · Department of Human Factors and Systems

PhD

About

241
Publications
110,866
Reads
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2,867
Citations
Citations since 2017
49 Research Items
1407 Citations
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Publications

Publications (241)
Article
Hundreds of colleges and universities in the United States produce newspapers for the campus community and general public. This paper discusses how a university user experience (UX) research lab has utilized their campus newspaper to regularly publish student research findings. Publishing through this medium promotes the visibility of the human fac...
Article
Augmented Reality (AR) has become increasingly popular in recent years in the realms of training, manufacturing, gaming, office work, and even a social platform. This technology has shown promise as different types of devices support AR, such as mobile phones, head-mounted displays (HMDs), desktop PCs, etc. As applications are deployed on multiple...
Article
Learning management systems (LMS) are prevalent in modern day education, but their implementation is often highly diverse based on individual faculty and course needs. This can result in students falling behind in their schoolwork if they do not understand how faculty use the e-learning platform in specific courses, which may be further exacerbated...
Article
From education to manufacturing and medicine, the Microsoft HoloLens 2 mixed reality headset has been increasingly adopted. Text entry is a core functionality of the HoloLens 2, enabling communication and search features. The device tracks hand and finger movements interacting with a virtual keyboard but is slow and cumbersome. Speech-to-text dicta...
Article
Academic programs benefit from the addition of a formalized peer mentorship program to help undergraduate and graduate students achieve academic success, social and psychological wellbeing, and career development. This article describes a peer mentorship program developed in the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF/E) program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautic...
Chapter
The Microsoft HoloLens 2 is a mixed reality (MR) headset that overlays virtual elements atop a user’s view of their physical environment. To input text, the device has the ability to track hands and fingers, allowing for direct interaction with a virtual keyboard. This is an improvement over the HoloLens 1 device, which required head tracking and s...
Chapter
Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) are new emerging technologies that are becoming increasingly popular. Because these technologies are so new, there is a lack of standards and consistency in application and hardware design. This can make it difficult to learn and frustrating for users. One way to standardized design and enhance the usab...
Chapter
It is estimated that 61 million Americans are living with a disability, and that 33 million of those play video games. Gamers with disabilities face many barriers in gaming, such as being unable to hear necessary audio or move various components on a controller, which may impact their game satisfaction. Since there has been little research to valid...
Article
Background With the rising demand for the use and application of modern immersive technologies, recent studies have investigated the user experience of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) for video game purposes. Despite AR's and VR's pervasiveness in the video game industry, research studies into the effects of mixed reality (MR) on vi...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, the concept of enjoyment has been used to measure the psychological benefits of activities and has been shown to determine future behavior toward activities and objects of interest. However, there has been little consensus on the definition and dimensionality of enjoyment. This study introduced a new measure of enjoyment with scale dev...
Article
According to a survey conducted by the CDC, it is estimated that 26% of Americans are living with a disability. Of those with disabilities in the United States, it is estimated that 33 million play video games. People with disabilities face many barriers in gaming, which is likely to impact game satisfaction. Measuring game satisfaction among this...
Article
Augmented reality (AR) is a new and emerging technology that could benefit from evaluating its usability to better the user’s experience with the device or application. This is often done through usability testing and heuristic evaluations. However, AR technology presents some challenges when completing these usability evaluations. Practitioners ne...
Article
Peer mentorship programs that pair more experienced students (i.e., mentors) with less experienced students (i.e., mentees) can have an effective, positive impact on university students’ personal, academic, and professional outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process and lessons learned in the creation of a peer mentorship progra...
Article
Companies produce increasing numbers of textbooks in electronic format (e-textbooks) for use by students and instructors. One would be remiss, however, to think that university bookstores are not filled with hard copies of textbooks; many students and instructors still insist on using traditional paper copy textbooks. Many models exist to explain t...
Article
Usability and typing performance on a smartphone with two unique QWERTY keyboard layouts (standard vs. curved) on two phone sizes (4.0-inch vs. 5.5-inch displays) was investigated in this study. The effect of hand posture was also investigated (one- vs. two-thumbs). Results show users typed the slowest when using one thumb with the curved keyboard...
Article
The Microsoft HoloLens, a mixed reality head-mounted display (HMD), has been demonstrated in domains such as medicine, engineering, and manufacturing. In order to interact with the device, voice input may be required. Given this range of environments, it is necessary to understand the impact of noise on voice dictation speed and accuracy. In this s...
Article
The current study investigated three user experience scales, the GUESS-24, the ENJOY, and the UEQ-S scale, as well as their relationship to gameplay continuance and purchasing intention for six popular online games. Results indicated that each of the three scales (GUESS-24, ENJOY, UEQ-S) could be used to predict continuance and purchase intention i...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the tools and technology construct within the SEIPS model, which involves factors such as usability, accessibility, and familiarity as they relate to things such as information technologies, medical devices, and physical tools and equipment within the context of surgery. The authors discuss the complexity of the operating roo...
Chapter
Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology that is gaining in popularity as it becomes more affordable. AR applications superimpose computerized objects on top of the users’ physical world. Through the use of mobile devices or AR glasses, users can see their physical environment around them as well as the digital artifacts. AR has been touted...
Chapter
We conducted 3 studies to learn about elements of satisfaction for leisure reading in low vision. Study 1 focused on alternative reading formats such as scrolling text and rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Study 2 explored use and satisfaction with alternative formats over time using a tablet device. Study 3 meant to assess prevalence and pe...
Article
Background. As video game usage continues to rise, it is important to understand why people choose and continue playing a game. Purpose. This research presents a theoretical framework to explore the relationships between gameplay motivations, satisfaction, continuance intention and gameplay. Methods. To examine these relationships, survey data was...
Article
Objective The user experience of typing on a smartwatch was evaluated with three unique input methods (tap, trace, and handwriting) while standing and while walking. Background Despite widespread development within the technology industry, smartwatches have had a relatively slow adoption worldwide compared to smartphones. One limiting factor of sm...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Users can make judgments about web pages in a glance. Little research has explored what semantic information can be extracted from a web page within a single fixation or what mental representations users have of web pages, but the scene perception literature provides a framework for understanding how viewers can extract and represent d...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of color on eye movements while viewing a restaurant menu. Heat maps suggest that participants tended to view the middle and upper-left parts of the menu the most, regardless of color upon first exposure. Gaze plots showing the order of fixations indicated that color may have impacted initial eye...
Article
Immersive simulation technology has transformed the training and learning environment. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) devices have been adopted by medical professionals, military forces, and marketing firms. Aviation training facilities are also integrating VR and AR technology into a variety of training. To ensure students begin t...
Article
Past research has shown that text input methods must be quick, efficient, and involve little to no learning in order for them to be accepted in a consumer market. The Microsoft HoloLens is a mixed reality head-mounted display (HMD) that requires gestures or a physical clicker for interaction, including text entry. In this study, we investigated per...
Article
Full-text available
With so many video games being released, there is strong competition among developers to create the most successful games. Questionnaires are one tool that can be used to measure aspects of a video game like perceived flow, presence, engagement, and controls. The current study investigated the relationship between several user experience scales and...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed reality is a new technology that requires users to control a head-mounted device via gestures with their hands. Users of these devices must learn and remember a new way of interacting. It has been shown that creating gestures that resemble movements used to operate touch screens can help with this new transfer. This study investigates how wel...
Article
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This study demonstrates the user experience measurement technique of Out-of-Box Experience (OOBE) with a commercially available board game. This method of study has yet to be tested on board games in the current literature. Participants experienced four phases of the board game - Unboxing, Setup, Initial Play, and Disassembly – and were queried for...
Article
Full-text available
Novel input devices can increase the bandwidth between users and their devices. Traditional desktop computing uses windows, icons, menus, and pointers – an interface built for the computer mouse and very effective for pointing-and-clicking. Alternative devices provide a variety of interactions including touch-free, gesture-based input and gaze-trac...
Article
Preprint of the article available here: https://soar.wichita.edu/handle/10057/14746. This study used two successive phases of usability testing to evaluate two different versions of a Communication 430 course LibGuide. The first version of this guide had a longer, more visually complex navigation menu, with more course-related research information...
Article
Smartphones and tablets continue to be weaved into our everyday lives. The proliferation of these technologies has also led to rapid growth in the number of medical technologies that are available. In particular, medical software offers a large variety of benefits, with specific applications serving as communication platforms, information reference...
Article
In 1966, the Human Factors Program Psychology of Texas Tech University (TTU) was inaugurated. The program has been accredited by HFES since 2002, when it was one of 14 accredited programs. The panel of former and current faculty (Drs. Halcomb, DeLucia, and Endsley) as well as successful alumni (Drs. Liddell and Chaparro) discusses the development o...
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Virtual reality (VR) headsets like the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, and PlayStation VR can provide a unique experience different from traditional computer monitors. Research demonstrates some support for VR resulting in more immersive gaming than traditional games using a computer or TV monitor. This study investigates how VR technology impacts game user...
Article
Full-text available
Bhattacherjee and Premkumar (2004) propose a temporal model of belief and attitude change to understand fluctuating patterns of information technology (IT) usage. However, they overlook the role of perceived enjoyment in the process of temporal IT usage. Perceived enjoyment has become an increasingly important part of how consumers assess technolog...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically validate a new instrument that comprehensively measures video game satisfaction based on key factors. Background: Playtesting is often conducted in the video game industry to help game developers build better games by providing insight into the players' attitudes and preference...
Article
Reading with Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) has shown promise for optimizing screen space and increasing reading speed without compromising comprehension. Given the wide use of small-screen devices, the present study compared RSVP and traditional reading on three types of reading comprehension, reading speed, and subjective measures on a s...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines text input performance on a smartwatch using tap and trace input methods on a standard QWERTY keyboard (SwypeTM). Participants were either experts or novices to the tracing technique on their smartphone. No users had experience typing on a smartwatch. Participants were able to type at speeds comparable to, or exceeding, those re...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the personality traits of onscreen typefaces and the perceived appropriateness of typefaces for a variety of onscreen document types including website ads, written assignments, email, résumés, spreadsheets, and web pages. Results from two studies will be discussed. In Study 1 participants rated the perception of 40 typefaces'...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of smartwatches is increasing exponentially as is consumer interest. Currently, smartwatches offer the ability to read text messages, notifications, and email once they are synchronized with a smartphone. Text input, however, is limited to voice or predefined response phrases and no input keyboard is typically provided. A general consensus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alternative input devices to the computer mouse are becoming more affordable and accessible. With greater availability, they have the potential to provide greater access to information for more users in more environments, perhaps while also providing more natural or efficient interaction. However, most user interfaces are built to be mouse-driven,...
Conference Paper
This study investigated the usability and functionality of 6 different fitness tracking wristbands that have been suggested to improve and encourage healthy behaviors. While many previous studies assess the accuracy and behavioral effects of fitness tracking devices, limited research has been done to analyze the usability and desirability of these...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Studies have shown that first impressions of websites can lead to lasting opinions regarding usability and trustworthiness. However, little research has been conducted concerning first impressions of video games. In this study, 20 college-age students were asked to view and rate images of 48 game box covers after a brief exposure while their eye mo...
Article
User performance, perceived usability, and preference for five smartphone text input methods were compared with younger and older novice adults. Smartphones are used for a variety of functions other than phone calls, including text messaging, e-mail, and web browsing. Research comparing performance with methods of text input on smartphones reveals...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The rapid increase in mobile devices (such as smartphone, tablet, smartwatch, and Google Glass) has resulted in the need for more usability research of mobile applications and devices. However, tools for usability testing in a mobile environment are lacking. This demonstration introduces a new mobile usability research tool called uSee, which uses...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that users scan traditional text-based web pages using an “F-shaped” pattern. Evidence of this pattern exists because of the hierarchical structure of search engine result pages (SERP). With the recent implementation of Windows 8, search results are presented as a horizontal grid rather than a list. Due to the structural...
Article
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This chapter addresses the pressing demand to increase our knowledge of mobile device use and toolkits for mobile user experience research, especially mobile eye-tracking hardware and usability study methods. The unique mobile user behaviors are discussed, and case studies for mobile user experience are presented to demonstrate how to use an eye tr...
Article
This study presents an evaluation of user performance and satisfaction of three physical keyboards that accompany two popular tablet computers. All keyboards were dual purpose in that they served as tablet covers in addition to typing input devices. The keyboards varied in weight, thickness, and key travel. The thinnest keyboard featured durability...
Article
Full-text available
In two studies we investigate the effects that typeface "personality" has on readers' processing of affective information. In study 1, personality trait words were briefly shown in a typeface with a personality either congruent or incongruent to the word's meaning. Readers were faster at an emotion lexical decision task with congruent typeface pers...
Article
Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design...
Article
Full-text available
Current research on Hispanic consumers focuses on Hispanics as a market segment, not their user experience, usability preferences, or cultural differences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three versions of the Microsoft Product Reaction Cards (MPRC) tool in Spanish when capturing user experience feedback from Hispanic consumers. Since the...
Article
This study was an evaluation of typing performance and user satisfaction of three tablet keyboards: Surface TouchCover Keyboard, Surface Onscreen Keyboard, and iPad Onscreen Keyboard. Results show that participants typed faster with the Surface TouchCover Keyboard, but also committed more typing errors (e.g., unintended omission of letters and spac...
Article
The popularity of social network sites have helped build and popularize the social (network) game genre. Presently, there are reports that social games are still growing in the established video game industry. This study focused on a giant sector of social games, that is, Facebook games. Particularly, the main goal of this study was to assess the g...
Article
Many schools and universities are starting to offer e-Textbooks in place of traditional paper textbooks. While this option is typically more cost-effective, limited research has been done to demonstrate whether e-Textbooks are a viable alternative in the classroom. This study investigated the satisfaction, perceived workload, engagement, and compre...
Article
First impressions of a web page are important since users can form a lasting impression of a site in as little as 50ms (Lindgaard et al, 2006; Lindgaard et al, 2011). This study examined gender differences of initial impressions of 50 e-commerce web pages. Participants rated each page on five attributes: masculinity/femininity, brightness, attracti...
Article
Since coming into mainstream culture in the 1970s, video games have become increasingly popular. While both men and women play video games, game companies have begun developing games specifically for women that, unfortunately, adhere to stereotypes about females (i.e., pink, fashion, and shopping). This study aims to help game developers better und...
Article
Even though more people are beginning to use e-Readers, electronic reading devices, little research exists on the usability of these devices for book reading. This study looks at the usability of three touch-screen e-Readers (iPad, Kindle Fire, and Nook Tablet) for basic book navigation tasks. During the study, participants (N = 16) were asked to c...
Article
Since its release in April 2010, the Apple iPad has become the de facto tablet for consumers. Given the increasing popularity of the iPad as a consumer, educational, and work device, we were interested in how different groups of people use the iPad. More specifically, we were interested in how students and non-students use the iPad at work, school,...
Conference Paper
Both users and retailers benefit from optimizing e-commerce web pages for consumers who freely browse, subjectively search (e.g., “Find a gift for your uncle.”), or objectively search (e.g., “Find the laptop.”) for merchandise online. However, search behavior of e-commerce web pages under these conditions is not well understood. We studied how gaze...
Conference Paper
Previous studies have found that using multiple monitors increases productivity, but there are also documented drawbacks to increased monitor count and/or size. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in productivity hold true with newer technology, like wide flat-screens, in the multitasking context. Sixty participants were as...
Article
The Olympics is one of the most renowned sporting events with billions of followers around the world. In order to aid the Olympics-viewing experience many Olympic apps were developed for various mobile devices. In this study four popular Olympic iPad apps (i.e., NBC Olympics, NBC Live Extra, Reuters, and London 2012 Results) were evaluated across f...
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Project Lead the Way (PLTW) is a rigorous and relevant pre-engineering curriculum implemented in middle schools and high schools throughout the United States. PLTW has a hands-on approach using activities and project-based learning. The College of Engineering at Wichita State University has partnered with three local school districts to implement t...
Article
Full-text available
Banner blindness, the phenomenon of website users actively ignoring web banners, was first reported in the late 1990s. This study expands the banner blindness concept to text advertising blindness and examines the effects of search type and advertisement location on the degree of blindness. Performance and eye-tracking analyses show that users tend...
Article
This study reports on the legibility of digits, symbols, and letters from 20 onscreen typefaces. Participants were asked to identify individual characters after a brief exposure and performance was recorded. Classification tree analysis was used to examine the influence of specific character features on legibility. Features included attributes such...
Article
This study evaluated performance and subjective perceptions of three keyboard styles: the iPad soft keyboard (in both landscape and portrait orientation), as well as a Acer netbook keyboard. Sixteen participants (8 touchscreen phone users, 8 physical keyboard phone users) provided measures of hand anthropometry and performed phrase typing tasks on...
Article
This study compares the on-screen legibility of six ClearType typefaces to that of two existing typefaces widely used for business documents, email, and websites. Participants were presented with individual letters, digits, and symbols from each typeface for brief durations and asked to verbally identify the character. Percent correct identificatio...
Article
AdSense text ads have become a popular method of advertising on the web, specifically within blogs when using Blogger. With increasing popularity of blogs, AdSense ads are enticing to bloggers because they offer financial rewards with relatively little effort. The biggest challenge with AdSense is generating revenue through clicks or impressions. G...
Article
Almost half of all advertising revenues are attributed to the sponsored links on pages generated by search engines (IAB, 2008). This drives the need to better understand how users view and search the contents of a search engine results page that includes sponsored links. In the current study, we manipulated whether target information was located in...
Article
This study investigates the eye movement patterns of users viewing a portal web page. Previous research has shown that users scan a portal page in a top-to-bottom manner by row. In this study, the saliency of one of the portal channel titles was manipulated to see what impact this would have on the users' scan pattern. The saliency of the channel t...
Article
Full-text available
User eye movements of five different text-based web page layouts were compared. The layouts evaluated were a narrow 1-column, narrow 2-column and full-length text layouts, including those with a picture on the right and a picture on the left of the article paragraph. All of these were evaluated while users conducted a simple browse task. Heatmap an...