Barbara Amon

Barbara Amon
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy | ATB · Department of Technology Assessment and Substance Cycles

Prof. UZ Dr.

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134
Publications
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Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Full-text available
European dairy production faces significant economic, environmental, and social sustainability challenges. Given the great diversity of dairy cattle production systems in Europe, region-specific concepts to improve environmental and socioeconomic sustainability are needed. Regionally integrated dairy cattle-crop systems emerge as a more resilient a...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock production contributes to releasing methane into the atmosphere. Liquid manure management offers significant opportunities to reduce these emissions. A better understanding of the factors controlling methane emissions from manure is necessary to select effective mitigation strategies. Our study aimed to identify the influence of storage t...
Article
Full-text available
One way to estimate ammonia emission rates from naturally ventilated housing systems is to scale-up mechanistic modeling results. However, obtaining the relevant data to set initial and boundary conditions adequately is usually very challenging and for a whole barn barely possible. This study has investigated the potential of coupling different mec...
Article
Full-text available
Ammonia and greenhouse gases have a negative impact on the environment. The most important agricultural sources of ammonia are dairy cattle housing systems, which are mainly naturally ventilated. Estimating emissions for naturally ventilated barns (NVB) is challenging due to the large number of influencing factors. Most notably, the direct coupling...
Article
Full-text available
The scientific evidence assembled in this Focus Collection on ‘Reactive nitrogen and the UN sustainable development goals’ emphasizes the relevance of agriculture as a key sector for nitrogen application as well as its release to the environment and the observed impacts. Published work proves the multiple connections and their causality, and presen...
Article
There is a worldwide focus on reducing the environmental impacts of livestock manure management. In China, there are different manure treatment and application modes, including complete treatment to remove nitrogen (N) for direct discharge into watercourses. But we lack a systematic quantitative comparison of the environmental losses that occur fro...
Article
Full-text available
Emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from livestock production may be measured for different reasons and in consequence reported in a wide range of units. For the purpose of compiling national inventories of emissions of those gases, emissions from buildings and stores usually need to be expressed per animal or as a pro...
Conference Paper
Feed management decisions are an important element of managing greenhouse gas (GHG) and nitrogen (N) emissions in livestock farming systems. Statistical and empirical models are well-suited for practical applications when evaluating mitigation strategies, such as GHG calculator tools for farmers and for inventory purposes, whilst process-based simu...
Article
Full-text available
The livestock sector is a major contributor to agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) and nitrogen (N) emissions and efforts are being made to reduce these emissions. National emission inventories are the main tool for reporting emissions. They have to be consistent, comparable, complete, accurate and transparent. The quality of emission inventories is...
Article
Full-text available
Manure application to land and deposition of urine and dung by grazing animals are major sources of ammonia (NH3 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Utilizing data on NH3 and N2 O emissions following land-applied manures and excreta deposited during grazing, emission factors (EFs) disaggregated by climate zone were developed and effects of mitiga...
Article
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Milk production in Europe is facing major challenges to ensure its economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It is essential that holistic concepts are developed to ensure the future sustainability of the sector and to assist farmers and stakeholders in making knowledge-based decisions. In this study, integrated sustainability assessment...
Article
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a long-lived greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Emissions of N2O mainly stem from agricultural soils. This review highlights the principal factors from peer-reviewed literature affecting N2O emissions from agricultural soils, by grouping the factors into three categories: environmental, management and measurem...
Article
Along with industry and transportation, agriculture is one of the main sources of primary particulate matter (PM) emissions worldwide. Bioaerosol formations and PM release during livestock manure field application and the associated threats to environmental and human health are rarely investigated. In the temperate climate zone, field fertilization...
Article
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Atmospheric NOx concentrations are declining steadily due to successful abatement strategies predominantly targeting combustion sources. On the European continent, total NOx emissions fell by 55% between 1990 and 2017, but only modest reductions were achieved from the agricultural sector; with 7.8% from twenty Eastern European countries and 19.1% f...
Article
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Methane emissions from livestock manure are primary contributors to GHG emissions from agriculture and options for their mitigation must be found. This paper presents the results of a study on methane emissions from stored liquid dairy cow manure during summer and winter storage periods. Manure from the summer and winter season was stored under con...
Article
Feed management decisions are an important element of managing greenhouse gas (GHG) and nitrogen (N) emissions in livestock farming systems. This review aims to a) discuss the impact of feed management practices on emissions in beef and dairy production systems and b) assess different modelling approaches used for quantifying the impact of these ab...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions from the manure management chain of livestock production systems are important contributors to greenhouse gases (GHG) and NH3 emitted by human activities. Several studies have evaluated manure‐related emissions and associated key variables at regional, national or continental scales. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
The direct measurement of emissions from naturally ventilated dairy barns is challenging due to their large openings and the turbulent and unsteady airflow at the inlets and outlets. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of the number and positions of sensors on the estimation of volume flow rate and emissions. High resolution measureme...
Article
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Livestock manure is recycled to agricultural land as organic fertilizer. Due to the extensive usage of antibiotics in conventional animal farming, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are highly prevalent in feces and manure. The spread of wind-driven particulate matter (PM) with potentially associated harmful bacteria through manure application may pose...
Article
The air change rate (ACR) of naturally ventilated dairy buildings (NVDBs) plays an important part in the design and control of the ventilation system, as well as in the estimation of the gaseous emission rate. The objectives of this research were to model the ACR based on a quantitative investigation of the relationship between the ACR and its pote...
Article
Full-text available
Storage of slurry is an important emission source for ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from livestock production. Therefore, this study collected published emission data from stored cattle and pig slurry to determine baseline emission values and emission changes due to slurry treatme...
Article
Full-text available
Inputs of nitrogen to agricultural production systems are necessary to produce food, feed and fibre, but nitrogen (N) losses from those systems represent a waste of a resource and a threat to both the environment and human health. The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of an agricultural production system can be seen as an indicator of the balance betwe...
Article
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Airflow inside naturally ventilated dairy (NVD) buildings is highly variable and difficult to understand due to the lack of precious measuring techniques with the existing methods. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate the effect of different seasonal opening combinations of an NVD building on airflow patterns and airflow ra...
Article
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Emissions and ventilation rates (VRs) in naturally ventilated dairy barns (NVDBs) are usually measured using indirect methods, where the choice of inside and outside sampling locations (i.e. sampling strategy) is crucial. The goal of this study was to quantify the influence of the sampling strategy on the estimation of emissions and VRs. We equippe...
Article
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The application of naturally ventilated pig buildings (NVPBs) with outdoor exercise yards is on the rise mainly due to animal welfare considerations, while the issue of emissions from the buildings to the surrounding environment is important. Since air pollutants are mainly transported by airflow, the knowledge on the airflow characteristics downwi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The application of naturally ventilated pig buildings (NVPBs) with outdoor exercise yards is on the rise mainly due to animal welfare considerations, while the issue of emissions from the buildings to the surrounding environment is important. Since air pollutants are mainly transported by airflow, the knowledge on the airflow characteristics downwi...
Article
Full-text available
The mandate to limit global temperature rise calls for a reliable quantification of gaseous pollutant emissions as a basis for effective mitigation. Methane emissions from ruminant fermentation are of particular relevance in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation. The emission dynamics are so far insufficiently understood. We analyzed hourly meth...
Article
Scientific meetings should be organized in the spirit of responsible consumption and production, including the prioritization of plant-based meals for reduced nitrogen loss. The Cercedilla Manifesto indicates how: https://www.openpetition.eu/petition/online/cercedilla-manifesto-research-meetings-must-be-more-sustainable The paper has been publish...
Article
Globally, particulate matter (PM) emissions are a growing cause of concern due to the potential impact on human health and environment. The agricultural sector is responsible of the 17% of the total anthropogenic emission of PM10 and the agricultural operations (tilling, harvesting, residue burning etc.) have been recognized as one of the main driv...
Article
The discharge coefficient (Cd) is a characteristic parameter of an opening, which represents the effect of flow contraction and frictional losses when the flow goes across the opening. It is an important parameter for the ventilation rate determination when using the orifice equation method. The objectives of this study were to investigate the rela...
Chapter
Good soil quality implies the maintenance of properties at levels capable of ensuring an equilibrated and healthy ecosystem, with sustained agricultural production to supply the world population. Climate change, land-use change, and agriculture intensification are causing a decline in soil quality, which in most parts of the world is becoming sever...
Article
Full-text available
Concepts of material flow and mass consistency of nitrogen compounds have been used to elucidate nitrogen’s fate in an urban environment. While reactive nitrogen commonly is associated to agriculture and hence to large areas, here we have compiled scientific literature on nitrogen budget approaches in cities, following the central role cities have...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, a global warming trend was observed. Along with the temperature increase, modifications in the humidity and wind regime amplify the regional and local impacts on livestock husbandry. Direct impacts include the occurrence of climatic stress conditions. In Europe, cows are economically highly relevant and are mainly kept in natur...
Chapter
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https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2019rf/vol4.html
Chapter
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This chapter provides guidance on methods to estimate emissions of methane from Enteric Fermentation in livestock, and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Manure Management. Carbon dioxide(CO2) emissions from livestock are not estimated because annual net CO2 emissions are assumed to be zero – the CO2 photosynthesized by plants is returned to...
Conference Paper
The Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB) works on a range of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary basic and applied research projects which deal with emissions, animal welfare and veterinary issues. Through activate participation in Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, The Intergovernmenta...
Article
Climate change affects the frequency and intensity of extreme weather, the results of which include production losses and climate-induced crop productivity fluctuations. Double-cropping systems (DCSs) have been suggested as a way to increase biomass-production while simultaneously delivering environmental benefits. In a three-year field-test, two...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This review gathers information about the current legal requirements related to the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from animal housing in 21 out of the 28 EU countries and in 5 non-EU countries. Overall the review shows that most of the included countries have established substantial procedures to limit ammonia emission and practically no...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, an exceptional global warming trend was observed. Along with the temperature increase, modifications in the humidity and wind regime amplify the regional and local impacts on livestock husbandry. Direct impacts include the occurrence of climatic stress conditions. In Europe, cows are economically highly relevant and are mainly...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock production is important for food security, nutrition, and landscape maintenance, but it is associated with several environmental impacts. To assess the risk and benefits arising from livestock production, transparent and robust indicators are required, such as those offered by life cycle assessment. A central question in such approaches i...
Article
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The main objective of this study was to identify the influences of different climatic conditions and cow-related factors on the respiration rate (RR) of lactating dairy cows. Measurements were performed on 84 lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows (first to eighth lactation) in Brandenburg, Germany. The RR was measured hourly or twice a day with up...
Article
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National emission inventories for UN FCCC reporting estimate regional soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes by considering the amount of N input as the only influencing factor for N2O emissions. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of N2O fluxes from agricultural soils, including region specific soil and climate properties into the estimation of emiss...
Article
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p>The increasing global demand for food and the environmental effects of reactive nitrogen losses in the food production chain, increase the need for efficient use of nitrogen (N). Of N harvested in agricultural plant products, 80% is used to feed livestock. Because the largest atmospheric loss of reactive nitrogen from livestock production systems...
Article
Gaseous emissions from livestock buildings have been a research focus for many years. In particular, quantifying emissions from naturally ventilated buildings is not trivial because it requires accurately determining the air exchange rate (AER) and representative gaseous concentration values in the exhaust and in the incoming air. Improvements are...
Technical Report
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The aim of the methodology developed in these guidelines is to introduce a harmonized international approach assessing nutrient flows and impact assessment for eutrophication and acidification for livestock supply chains taking the specificity of the various production systems involved into consideration. The methodology strives to increase underst...
Article
In recent years, the problem of the welfare and heat load of dairy cows has become increasingly important in moderate climate zones. The objective of the present study was to determine heat load thresholds of average daily temperature-humidity index (THI) that lead to changes in different activity traits of lactating high-yielding dairy cows. Furth...
Article
Greenhouse gas emissions during storage of manure and digestates: Key role of methane for prediction and mitigation Khagendra R. Baral1, Guillaume Jégo2, Barbara Amon3, Roland Bol4, Martin H. Chantigny2, Jørgen E. Olesen1 and Søren O. Petersen1* 1Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2Quebec Research & Development Centre,...
Conference Paper
To provide good indoor air quality for livestock, and quantify emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases, it is essential to understand indoor air characteristics with respect to ventilation openings in naturally ventilated livestock buildings. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of the sidewall opening size and location o...
Article
Well-understanding indoor air movement with respect to openings in naturally-ventilated buildings is essential to provide healthy and comfortable indoor climate for livestock. This study investigated the effects of the sidewall opening configurations on internal airflow fields and air velocity characteristics within the animal occupied zone (AOZ)....
Article
Full-text available
The microclimatic conditions in dairy buildings affect animal welfare and gaseous emissions. Measurements are highly variable due to the inhomogeneous distribution of heat and humidity sources (related to farm management) and the turbulent inflow (associated with meteorologic boundary conditions). The selection of the measurement strategy (number a...
Article
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Dietary manipulation of animal diets by reducing crude protein (CP) intake is a strategic NH3 abatement option as it reduces the overall nitrogen input at the very beginning of the manure management chain. This study presents a comprehensive meta-analysis of scientific literature on NH3 reductions following a reduction of CP in cattle and pig diets...
Article
Full-text available
Farm livestock manure is an important source of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Concerns over the environmental impact of emissions from manure management have resulted in research efforts focusing on emission abatement. However, questions regarding the successful abatement of manure-related emissions remain. This study uses a meta-analytical approac...
Conference Paper
Choices over different animal housing systems affect the welfare of animals, the environment and the economics of farming. In agronomic studies, animal welfare is usually measured in terms of biological functioning (reproductive fitness and lack of disease). We argue that biological functioning alone is insufficient to capture animal welfare, and e...
Technical Report
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The methodology and guidance developed here can be used by stakeholders in all countries to assess the sustainability of nutrient use in livestock supply chains. In developing the guidelines, it was assumed that the primary users would be individuals or organizations with a good working knowledge of environmental assessment of livestock systems bas...