Baerbel Gerowitt

Baerbel Gerowitt
University of Rostock · Chair Crop Health

Professor

About

175
Publications
28,724
Reads
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1,667
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
964 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (175)
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 30 years, many studies have surveyed weed vegetation on arable land. The ‘Arable Weeds and Management in Europe’ (AWME) database is a collection of 36 of these surveys and the associated management data. Here, we review the challenges associated with combining disparate datasets and explore some of the opportunities for future researc...
Article
Full-text available
Elymus repens (L.) Gould), Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Sonchus arvensis L. are important arable creeping perennial weeds in Europe. These are clonal plants with subterranean reproductive organs (E. repens, rhizomes, the two dicots, horizontal creeping roots) sprouting from ramets. We tested the sprouting ability and early growth of ramet sprouts...
Article
In the discussion about glyphosate-based herbicides, the question of how repeated applications affect biodiversity has become prominent. However, approaches are lacking to assess direct glyphosate effects under real, on-farm field conditions. This paper focuses the effect of post-harvest and / or pre-sowing glyphosate use on weed density, richness,...
Article
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The use of wildflower species as biogas feedstock carries the risk that their seeds survive anaerobic digestion (AD) and cause weed problems if spread with the digestate. Risk factors for seed survival in AD include low temperature, short exposure and hardseededness (HS). However, it is not possible to predict how AD will affect seed viability of p...
Chapter
The soil propagule bank acts as a reservoir from where weeds colonize arable fields and is composed of weeds seeds and ramets, which are fragments from clonal growth of perennial weeds. This chapter first describes the ways by which weed propagules have been historically managed. It then discusses advances in managing weed propagules with a special...
Article
Full-text available
Pelargonic Acid (PA) is a naturally occurring fatty acid that is used as a bio-based herbicide to control both annual and perennial weeds. In this particular study, we investigated the effects of influencing factors on the efficacy of PA on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. under semi-field and greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, we examined the effe...
Article
Full-text available
Two scientific disciplines, vegetation science and weed science, study arable weed vegetation, which has seen a strong diversity decrease in Europe over the last decades. We compared two collections of plot‐based vegetation records originating from these two disciplines. The aim was to check the suitability of the collections for joint analysis and...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphorus (P) is essential for agriculture; however, local P surpluses can have adverse environmental effects, such as eutrophication. Optimal P fertiliser use, therefore, means balancing these effects. Although P fluxes from soil to plants are key research areas, little is known about on-farm use of P fertilisers. As, typically, not all fields or...
Article
The establishment of plants in an ecosystem is limited by the availability of seeds and the availability of suitable sites for establishment. Describing plant population dynamics by the relative strength of seed and establishment limitation is an important concept in the study of natural ecosystems. To date it is unclear if this concept is eligible...
Article
Reversing the decline of biodiver-sity in European agricultural land-scapes is urgent. We suggest eightmeasures addressing politics, eco-nomics, and civil society to instigatetransformative changes in agricul-tural landscapes. We emphasizethe need for a well-informed societyand political measures promotingsustainable farming by combiningfood produc...
Article
Full-text available
1) Background: Weed control decreases the competition for nutrients, but also the potential of increased phosphorus (P) mobilization in soils caused by higher plant diversity. (2) Methods: Impacts of weed species under maize on mycorrhizal colonization and plant-availability of P were investigated in two pot experiments. Plant traits and P mobiliza...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Schwellenwerte im Pflanzenschutz sollen einen Anhaltspunkt geben, bei welcher Schaderregerdichte eine Bekämpfung mit Pflanzenschutzmitteln erfolgen soll bzw. wirtschaftlich sinnvoll ist. Für zahlreiche Ackerbaukulturen sind in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten Schwellenwerte erarbeitet bzw. festgesetzt worden. Wirtschaftliche Schadensschw...
Article
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The cropping of perennial wildflower mixtures to produce biomass for use in biogas plants is one option for breaking maize’s dominance as a bioenergy feedstock. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of weeds in commercially produced perennial wildflower mixtures. Weed control during the establishment of perennial wildflower mixtu...
Article
Full-text available
Weeds remain a challenge in organic arable farming, as well as supply ecosystem services. The aim is to control weed densities while hosting a diverse and manageable weed community, preventing domination of few deleterious species. Therefore, we want to understand how specific species are stimulated, and which traits are selected for. This study fo...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of weed management that targets the seed stage on subsequent life stages is largely unknown. Post-dispersal seed predation reduces the number of seeds from the soil surface before the seeds contribute to the seedbank. Density-dependent processes can mitigate the effect of seed predation in subsequent life stages. In this study, we tested...
Article
Within organic crop production, weed interference remains one of the main constraints on productivity, yet diverse weed vegetation supports the ecosystem services of arable fields. The use of crop diversification could alter weed communities and increase diversity, preventing the dominance of single detrimental weed species. This study investigated...
Article
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“Arable Weeds and Management in Europe” is a collection of weed vegetation records from arable fields in Europe, initiated within the Working Group Weeds and Biodiversity of the European Weed Research Society (EWRS). Vegetation-plot data from this scientific community was not previously contributed to databases. We aim to prove the usefulness of co...
Article
In the years 2017 and 2018 in the district of Leer (northwest of Lower Saxony) nine experiments were conducted to investigate undersown crops and their effects on the weed vegetation in continuous maize cropping. In three treatments the maize was cultivated without an undersown crop or with two different undersown grasses (Lolium spp., Festuca rubr...
Article
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Crop protection and biodiversity in agro-ecosystems The Scientific Advisory Board for the National Action Plan on the Sustainable Use of Plant Protection Products (NAP) advises the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL). The Board has provided its opinion on the impact of crop protection on biodiversity in agro-ecosystems. This pub...
Article
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In autumn, agricultural perennial weeds prepare for winter and can store reserves into creeping roots or rhizomes. Little is known about influence of climate change in this period. We tested the effect of simulated climate change in autumn on three widespread and noxious perennial weeds, Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Sonc...
Article
Herbicide use simplified cropping systems, which lead to short rotations and sowing dates rather focusing on yield than on weed management. Re-diversifying these cropping systems should reduce the vast use of herbicides. We hypothesize that herbicide use decreases with more diverse cropping systems even with few common crops. Cropping system experi...
Article
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A better understanding of weed seed production is a key element for any long‐term management allowing some weeds to shed seeds. The challenge with measuring seed production in weeds is the large effort required in terms of time and labour. For the weed species Echinochloa crus‐galli, it was tested whether the number of seeds per panicle dry weight...
Article
Data on agricultural pesticide use are of increasing interest since understanding farmers’ pesticide use patterns is crucial for farm business, farm advisory, and agricultural and environmental policy. Member states of the European Union established different systems to estimate applied amounts of active ingredients per crop and hectare. However, t...
Article
Glyphosate herbicides play a prominent role internationally in weed management due to their broad spectrum effectiveness. There are concerns that a high reliance on glyphosate herbicides will negatively affect biodiversity over time. In Europe, where cropping systems are carried out without glyphosate resistant crops (GMO), glyphosate herbicides ar...
Article
Renewable energy produced at biogas plants has tremendously increased the demand for digestible biomass in central Europe over the last twenty years. As a consequence, new crop rotations combining conventional and recently introduced bioenergy crops are tested in long-term field trials. The aim of this work was to determine risks for soilborne whea...
Article
We present a detailed analysis of glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) use patterns with a dataset of herbicide use on arable farms in five districts of Northern Germany. Two aspects are focused: (1) The relationship between GBH and selective herbicides used on a specific field in the same cropping period and (2) the interplay of tillage, GBH and selec...
Article
Questions Does the mere introduction of maize into the crop sequence change the weed species community? Does a growing share of maize cropping lead to a more problematic weed species community? Do we generally have to expect problematic weed species communities when maize is continuously cultivated? Location Northern Germany. Methods Weeds in 224...
Article
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We investigated the relationship between in-crop selective herbicide use and pre-harvest glyphosate applications. For this purpose, a comprehensive collection of agricultural on-farm data was analysed. Data on herbicide measures of 60 farms in four districts of Northern Germany were examined for the period 2005 until 2014. We used the Treatment Fre...
Conference Paper
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Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv. (barnyardgrass) is a widespread weed in maize cultivation. Herbicide application at seedling stage is a common weed management practice. The aims of this study are: i) can E. crus-galli compensate variations in plant density by increased per plant biomass, ii) the influence of early and late emergence on biomass...
Conference Paper
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Arable weeds are important theme in organic farming. In this study the weed densities and diversity in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were studied. To achieve this, 17 fields of winter cereal on organic farms in the region were surveyed. Consequently the density of weeds was estimated within these fields in the months of June and July in 2016. This was com...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mecklenburg Vorpommern has one of the highest percentages of organic arable production nationwide. Weeds remain to be the main challenge within this agricultural system. There is also an increase in the national support of agrobiodiversity. Weeds should therefore be continuously kept within manageable limits, while on the other side encourage a spe...
Book
Full-text available
Der Klimawandel und die Globalisierung der Märkte beeinflussen zunehmend unsere Gesellschaft. Ein zukunftsfähiges, nachhaltiges Landmanagement hat diesen Entwicklungen Rechnung zu tragen. Es muss sich neu ausrichten und dabei seine Ziele und Maßnahmen so konzipieren, dass es flexibel auf sich ändernde Rahmenbedingungen reagieren kann. Im Verbundpro...
Chapter
Weeds must be considered in any conceptual framework that seeks to explain, explore and analyse biodiversity if the focus is on human activities and utilisation of natural systems. This chapter concentrates on weeds in annual and perennial crops associated with terrestrial systems used for agricultural purposes: weeds of non-terrestrial or nonagric...
Article
Weeds typically occur in patches of different sizes and densities. Post-dispersal seed predators contribute to biological weed control by removing newly produced weed seeds before they can enter the seedbank. Seed predation can limit weed population growth if seed predators respond to seed densities so that seed predation is highest within weed pat...
Article
The reduction of pesticide use intensity is a societal and political ambition. Crop rotation is one important method to control pests and diseases in arable farming. We investigated the contribution of crop rotation to the variability of herbicide and fungicide use of 60 farms in four regions of Northern Germany. Our study aimed at answering the qu...
Article
Full-text available
In Europe, farmers are encouraged to reduce pesticide use. Pesticide use intensity in arable farming depends on many factors. Numerous studies report a high variance in pesticide use between farms. The aim of the present study is to identify farm specific determinants for the intensity of pesticide use. We investigated which farm characteristics an...
Article
Arable weeds always accompany arable farming; however, species and abundances vary in space and change in time. Surveys assess weeds on a large spatial scale. The regional and national importance, the abundances in which weeds occur, is derived from surveys. Environmental and management background data assist to explain the weed vegetation. Arable...
Article
Full-text available
Glyphosate is the worldwide mostly used herbicide substance. Glyphosate use in arable cropping is under strong discussion in scientific and public communities. In the present study, we investigated the use of glyphosate from 15 farms in four districts in North German arable farming from 2005 until 2014. Objective of our research is to reveal influe...
Article
Full-text available
FlorSys is a model that aims to quantify the effects of the agricultural systems on the weed demography. With successful parameterization, it can be used to predict weed growth. FlorSys is a multi-species-model which was developed at INRA in Dijon (France). The model is based on the representation of the weed life cycle. The consecutive stages are...
Article
Full-text available
Arable weeds accompany arable land use – we define them based on their affiliation to ar able systems. They are adapted to such a degree that most of them cannot exist without arable land use. Weeds are part of the total biodiversity on arable fields, as primary producers they are basic for important functions within the ecosystem. This paper elabo...
Article
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Weed seeds can enter the biogas reactor by the harvest of biomass or by animal manure. All seeds that enter the biogas process chain and survive anaerobic digestion can be spread with the digestate. The inactivation of seeds in the biogas reactor is mainly due to temperature. In comparison of a laboratory-scale biogas reactor and a water bath exper...
Article
Full-text available
Glyphosate is a non-selective, broad-spectrum, systematic herbicide that is the world’s most widely used herbicide since its introduction in the 1970s as a pre-plant, post-directed and post-harvest herbicide application with further technological developments leading to its use within glyphosate resistant crops (GRCs) as of the 1990s. In countries...
Article
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Weed species easily establish in crops with a similar life cycle. Especially mono-cropping provides best conditions for such weeds. In maize this is true for Echinochloa crus-galli, which is a C4 plant and one of the worst weeds worldwide. In Germany E. crus-galli is one of the few typical weed species in maize. When recurrent herbicide treatments...
Article
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This study is a component of the CORE Organic Plus PRODIVA project, a collaboration between international weed research institutions, which aims to improve utilization of crop diversification for weed management in northern European organic arable cropping systems. The overall goal is to maintain a diversified and manageable weed flora that can sup...
Article
During the last decade, maize has become the crop with the second largest acreage in Germany. Therefore, agricultural advisors and the plant protection sector are interested in an overview of the weed species composition in maize fields, their determining factors and trends. From 2001 to 2009, a weed survey was conducted in 1460 maize fields throug...
Article
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p>Within the ERA-net CORE Organic Plus transnational programmes supported project PRODIVA producing of the information required for a better utilization of crop diversification for weed management in North European organic arable cropping systems was started. To fulfill the goal of this project- not to eradicate weed problems, which is unlikely to...
Article
The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for field populations would be the same as intraregional...
Article
Climate change is predicted to result in rising temperatures which directly influence weed growth. Moreover, alterations in farming practice and variations in the timing of maize sowing affect weeds also indirectly. The main objective of this study was to establish the methodological concept of time-for-climate substitution for use in applied resea...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decades, climate change has induced transformations in the weed flora of arable ecosystems in Europe. For instance, thermophile weeds, late-emerging weeds, and some opportunistic weeds have become more abundant in some cropping systems. The composition of arable weed species is indeed ruled by environmental conditions such as temperat...
Article
Climate change is predicted to result in rising temperatures and reduced precipitation during spring and summer in Central Europe. As a consequence, crops and weeds will be affected. Our study focuses on the three weed species in maize Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria viridis. These weeds occur numerously in European maize...
Article
Rare weeds are currently under pressure due to intensifying arable management practices, and as a consequence of climate change, these practices will likely become even more intensive, together with a greater uniformity of land use. As a result, ecological stresses will increase for most species of rare weeds, in some cases leading to their further...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the past years, a large number of studies have examined various aspects of possible consequences of climate change for the biology and damage potential of arable weeds. However, there are merely a few examples that have comprehensively investigated individual weed species or arable crop systems within a clearly delimited geographical area. In th...
Article
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To choose herbicides and their optimal dosages is a great challenge in chemical weed control in arable crops, because the choice of possible herbicide mixtures is big and economic consequences are hardly estimated. DSSHerbicide is a computer aided decision support system calculating cost-saving weed control measures. It is adapted to German conditi...
Article
Full-text available
The area cultivated with maize in Germany is continuously increasing throughout the last years. Nevertheless weeds in maize get small notice, probably since they are still easy to control. If maize cropping frequency and intensity continue to increase, problems with adapted weeds are likely to occur. To face these effects, it is worthwhile to know...
Article
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Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenbur...
Article
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Several studies indicate links between regional occurrence of well adapted weed species and crop rotations. Monocultures or very short crop rotation, which increased in the past decades are crucial for the establishment and dispersion of problematic weed species. In this study the impact of crop rotation on the occurrence of the species Amaranthus...
Article
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Weeds in agriculture are controlled indirectly by strategic management tools (crop rotation, fertilization, tillage). Herbicide use is a direct tactical management tool for weed control. However, strategic and tactical measures interact together regarding weed management and thereby influence weed infestations and herbicide use. This study investig...
Article
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Increasing maize cultivation and changed cropping practices promote the selection of typical maize weeds that may also profit strongly from climate change. Predicting potential weed problems is of high interest for plant production. Within the project KLIFF, experiments were combined with species distribution modelling for this task in the region o...
Article
Weed seed predation is an ecosystem service, influencing weed population dynamics. The impact of weed seed predation on weed population dynamics depends on how predators respond to seed patches at the field scale. Seed predation will be most effective if the proportion of seeds predated increases with increasing size and seed density of patches. De...
Book
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Aus Sicht des Beirats hängt die Erreichung des Ziels, den Biodiversitätsverlust insbesondere in der breiten, landwirtschaftlich genutzten Fläche Deutschlands aufzuhalten, wesentlich von einer positiven Entwicklung des Grünlands und dessen Qualität als Lebensraum ab. Für die Landwirtschaft ist Grünland eine Grundlage der Tierernährung. Viele Leistun...
Article
Anaerobic digestion using animal manure and crop biomass is increasingly being used to produce biogas as a durable alternative to fossil fuel. The sludge, the leftover after processing, is returned to the field as a crop fertilizer. If weed seeds survive anaerobic digestion, the use of contaminated sludge poses a phytosanitary risk. The conditions...
Book
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Der Beirat sieht in der Implementierung von ökologischen Vorrangflächen im Zuge des „Greening“ der EU-Agrarpolitik eine greifbare Chance dafür, dass Biodiversität auch oder gerade in hochproduktiven Agrarsystemen einen gewissen Stellenwert erhält. Damit dies erreicht werden kann, sollte der vorgeschlagene Umfang von 7% der betrieblichen landwirtsch...
Article
We present an approach of Linear Mixed Effects Modelling to analyse the influence of crop management factors like rotation, tillage, seeding time and cultivar on pesticide use intensity from on-farm data. We use data from 761 winter wheat crops in eight commercial farms and six different regions of Eastern Germany. By defining cropping year, farm a...
Article
Westerman PR, Heiermann M, Pottberg U, Rodemann B & Gerowitt B (2012). Weed seed survival during mesophilic anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Weed Research52, 307–316. Digestate, the semi-solid leftover after anaerobic digestion in biogas reactors, is frequently used as a crop fertiliser. The ability of seeds from five plant species (four weed...
Article
Data on weed species currently found in winter oilseed rape, the extent of their occurrence and regional distinctions were collected in autumn 2005, 2006 and 2007 from a total of 1463 oilseed rape (OSR) fields throughout Germany. Investigations took place in untreated parts of OSR fields at the four to six leaf stage of rape. Weed frequencies and d...
Article
We analysed pesticide use data of 539 winter wheat fields grown on seven commercial farms in North East Germany in the seasons 2001–2007. The data were originally collected as part of economic analysis. The aim of our study was to show the impact of agronomic measures typical for integrated pest management (IPM) on pesticide use intensity.We used m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
IPM is a strategic approach towards crop protection aiming at effective and feasible approaches that safeguard the quality and quantity of the agricultural production whilst minimizing the impact of pesticide use on human health and the environment. IPM is part of a more comprehensive concept of Integrated Production that targets overall sustainabi...
Article
Westerman PR, Hildebrandt F & Gerowitt B (2012). Weed seed survival following ensiling and mesophilic anaerobic digestion in batch reactors. Weed Research52, 286–295. Digestate, the semi-solid leftover after anaerobic digestion in biogas reactors, is frequently used as a crop fertiliser. The ability of seeds from various weed species to survive ana...
Book
Full-text available
Das 2010 verabschiedete Nagoya-Protokoll zum Zugang zu genetischen Ressourcen und gerechten Vorteilsausgleich (Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing, ABS ) sieht generell einen bilateralen Austausch genetischer Ressourcen vor, bei dem von Fall zu Fall die Zugangs- und Benefit-Sharing-Bedingungen zwischen dem Ursprungsland der Ressource un...