B. CHRISTIAN Schmidt

B. CHRISTIAN Schmidt
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada | AAFC · Ottawa Research and Development Centre

PhD

About

155
Publications
47,267
Reads
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2,143
Citations
Introduction
My primary research focus is on the taxonomy, systematics, and diagnostics of cutworm moths and their allies (Noctuoidea). I am also interested in cryptic species complexes, species boundaries, biogeography, faunal inventories, evolutionary systematics, and Lepidoptera conservation.
Additional affiliations
February 2007 - May 2015
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Position
  • Entomologist
January 2007 - present
Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes
Position
  • Entomologist
Education
September 2003 - June 2007
University of Alberta
Field of study
  • Systematics

Publications

Publications (155)
Article
Full-text available
We present results of an eight-gene molecular study of the subfamily Acronictinae and related Noctuidae. Amphipyrinae are recovered as sister to Acronictinae, but with weak support - not surprisingly, the content of the two subfamilies has often been mixed in classifications. Balsinae, previously placed near Acronictinae or within Noctuinae, is rec...
Book
The New World Noctuidae of the subfamilies Pantheinae (10 genera, 34 species), Raphiinae (1 genus, 1 species), Balsinae (1 genus, 3 species), and Acronictinae (5 genera, 92 species) are revised. With the exception of the Neotropical Pantheinae genera Lichnoptera Herrich-Schäffer, Gaujonia Dognin, and Bathyra Walker, 130 species are treated, 102 of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Noctuidae are one of the world's most diverse, ecologically successful, and economically important animal lineages with over 12,000 species in ~1,150 genera. We inferred a phylogeny using eight protein-coding genes for the global fauna, greatly expanding upon previous attempts to stabilize Noctuidae higher classification by sampling 341 genera (nea...
Preprint
Full-text available
An integrated assessment of geographic distribution, genetic variation and interpopulation reproductive barriers of the Great Plains and Great Lakes populations of the Hemileuca maia-nevadensis species complex is presented. The taxonomic circumscription of Hemileuca nevadensis Stretch, key to understanding the complex evolutionary history of the gr...
Article
Full-text available
The geometrid moth Hemithea aestivaria (Hübner, 1789) was introduced from Europe to North America, first being detected in British Columbia in 1973. Until 2019, its North American range was limited to a restricted area of the Pacific Northwest. Here, we report on the first records of H. aestivaria for eastern North America from three widely separat...
Article
Full-text available
Although the butterflies of North America have received considerable taxonomic attention, overlooked species and instances of hybridization continue to be revealed. The present study assembles a DNA barcode reference library for this fauna to identify groups whose patterns of sequence variation suggest the need for further taxonomic study. Based on...
Article
Full-text available
Lafontaineana Martinez, gen. nov. is proposed as a new Neotropical genus of Pantheinae, forming a sister group to Gaujonia Dognin, 1891 based on a phylogenetic analysis. In addition, one new combination and four new species are proposed: Lafontaineana marmorifera (Walker, 1865), comb. nov. (Colombia), Lafontaineana alexandrae Martinez, sp. nov. (Ec...
Preprint
Full-text available
The geometrid moth Hemithea aestivaria (Hübner, 1789) was introduced from Europe to North America, first detected in British Columbia in 1973. Until 2019, its North American range was limited to a restricted area of the Pacific Northwest. Here, we report on the first records of H. aestivaria for eastern North America from three widely separated urb...
Article
• Rare, threatened species often suffer from habitat fragmentation, which leads to smaller populations vulnerable to negative impacts including inbreeding depression and collapse of metapopulation dynamics. Therefore, understanding the population structure and relationships of each population of a threatened species is critical for prioritising hab...
Data
Comparative diagnosis of species in the Pseduohemihyalea labecula species-group based on external characters.
Article
Full-text available
The known Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) of the provinces and territories of Canada are summarised, and current knowledge is compared to the state of knowledge in 1979. A total of 5405 species are known to occur in Canada in 81 families, and a further 50 species have been reported but are unconfirmed. This represents an increase of 1348 specie...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Admetovis Grote is revised. Admetovisicarussp. n. is described from the mountains of western North America. A lectotype of Admetovisoxymorus Grote is designated. Illustrations of the adults, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are presented, together with an identification key. The classification of the genus is reviewed resu...
Article
Full-text available
Clemensiaalbata Packard, previously thought to be a single, widely distributed North American species, is here shown to consist of three distinct, primarily parapatric species: Clemensiaalbata Packard, C.umbrata Packard, stat. rev. , and Clemensiaochreata Schmidt & Sullivan, sp. n. Adults and genitalic structures of the three species are illustrate...
Article
Full-text available
A summary of all taxonomic and nomenclatural changes to the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico since the last update published in 2015 is provided. A total of 64 changes are listed and discussed, consisting of 26 recently published changes and additions, and an additional 38 presented herein. One stat. n., one stat. rev.,...
Article
Full-text available
Euchaetesnancyaesp. n. is described from southeastern Arizona. Although superficially similar to species of Pygarctia Grote, structural and molecular variation shows it to be most closely related to Euchaeteshelena (Cassino). Adults, genitalic structure, eggs, and first instar larvae are described and illustrated. The larval host plant remains unkn...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of the Sympistisbadistriga species-group, Sympistiseleaner Adams, sp. n. is described from Sapelo Island, a back-barrier island in coastal Georgia, United States of America. Adults and genitalia of S.eleaner are illustrated, in addition to adults of similar species in the Sympistisbadistriga species-group. The composition of this spec...
Data
Table S1. DNA barcode voucher specimen data.
Article
Full-text available
A summary of all taxonomic and nomenclatural changes to the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico since the last update published in 2015 is provided. A total of 64 changes are listed and discussed, consisting of 26 recently published changes and additions, and an additional 38 presented herein. One stat. n., one stat. rev.,...
Article
Full-text available
The recent discovery of a new Colias species from the central Arctic of Canada, a region with a relatively small, well-studied butterfly fauna, has remained relatively unknown among North American lepidopterists. The status of this species, C. rankinensis Verhulst, as a species distinct from other Arctic Colias has also been treated with skepticism...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We examined the global phylogeography of L. dispar using molecular data based on two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear genes. All known populations of L. dispar from every biogeographic region were sampled to fully document intraspecific variation and to identify potential cryptic species, as well as clarifying the relationships among major phy...
Article
Full-text available
A population of Arctia plantaginis was discovered on the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland, 1800 km east of its previously known range limits. Comparison of DNA barcode data to other Holarctic A. plantaginis populations reveal that the Newfoundland population is not a European introduction, and likely represents a Pleistocene glacial relict.
Article
Full-text available
Through integrating molecular, morphological and natural history evidence, nominal Hemaris diffinis (Boisduval) of eastern North America is shown to include a second, cryptic species, Hemaris aethra (Strecker) stat. rev. Despite highly divergent mtDNA sequences and differing larval phenotypes, genitalic morphology, habitat and larval host plants, a...
Book
Full-text available
A definitive species list is the foundation of biodiversity and conservation work. As we deal with massive climatic changes in the Anthropocene, knowing which species make up our diverse ecosystems will be critically important if we wish to protect and restore them. The Lepidoptera, moths and butterflies, are the fourth-largest insect order in term...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports the assembly of a DNA barcode reference library for species in the lepi-dopteran superfamily Noctuoidea from Canada and the USA. Based on the analysis of 69,378 specimens, the library provides coverage for 97.3% of the noctuoid fauna (3565 of 3664 species). In addition to verifying the strong performance of DNA barcodes in the di...
Data
Introduced species into North America. List of introduced species of noctuoids in North America with the approximate date of their arrival. (XLS)
Data
Two-way presence-absence data for 3252 North American noctuoid species in 12 ecoregions of North America. Each region designated by a numeric code: 1 Arctic (Arctic Cordillera + Tundra); 2 Boreal (Taiga + Hudson plain + Northern forests); 3 Northwestern forested mountains; 4 Marine west coast forests; 5 Eastern temperate forests; 6 Great plains; 7...
Data
Barcode performance among ecoregions of North America. Data set for the analysis of barcode performance in the discrimination of noctuoid species from the 12 ecoregions of North America. (XLS)
Data
Data set for the analysis of BIN overlap among zoogeographical regions. (XLS)
Data
Barcode coverage. List of North American noctuoid species without barcode coverage. (XLS)
Data
Noctuidae-3. NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the family Noctuidae-3. (PDF)
Data
Checklist for North American noctuoids. The table represents barcode coverage in terms of the number of specimens analyzed and geographic coverage. Species lacking barcode data are in red. (XLS)
Data
Species with extraterritorial barcode records. Forty-eight species barcoded from other nations likely share the same barcode as specimens collected in the USA. For species collected in Texas and Arizona—barcodes from Mexican specimens are the best proxy, followed by Guatemala. For species collected in Florida—barcodes from Cuban specimens are best,...
Data
Low sequence divergence. List of North American noctuoid species with low sequence divergence from another taxon. (XLS)
Data
Noctuidae-1. NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the family Noctuidae-1. (PDF)
Data
Noctuidae-2. NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the family Noctuidae-2. (PDF)
Data
Barcode sharing. List of North American noctuoid species sharing a barcode haplotype. (XLS)
Data
Deep split. List of North American noctuoid species with deep intraspecific sequence divergence. (XLS)
Data
List of all noctuoid species known from North America with number of BINs, mean intra-specific divergence, and number of specimens per species. (XLS)
Data
Euteliidae. NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the family Euteliidae. (PDF)
Data
Nolidae. NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the family Nolidae. (PDF)
Data
Erebidae (rest). NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the family Erebidae (rest). (PDF)
Data
Notodontidae and Doidae. NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the families Notodontidae and Doidae. (PDF)
Data
Erebidae (Arctiinae). NJ tree based on sequence variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene for North American species in the family Erebidae (Arctiinae). (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of the DNA barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene from a specimen of the extinct Jamaican sunset moth, Urania sloanus, places this species as a sister to the Central American U. fulgens. We found that all Urania F. species were closely related (<2.8% maximum divergence at COI), with the Cuban endemic U. boisduvalii appearing as...
Data
Material examined, localities and GenBank accessions. (XLS)
Data
List of non-tailed primers used in Sanger sequencing to amplify six short, overlapping fragments of the COI-5P barcode region. (XLSX)
Data
Detail on the technologies used—Sanger or NGS—to successfully amplify each fragments (F1-F6) of COI-5P barcode region. To see additional information on primer combinations, reactions attempted on each sample, and download the trace files please go to http://dx.doi.org/10.5883/DS-URANIA. (XLSX)
Data
Min, max, and average base coverage for 10 samples amplified using NGS post-QC read filtering. Although the minimum coverage was 0 for all samples (because none of the samples had 100% success), for the final consensus sequence we generally only included regions with a minimum coverage of 10, unless we were absolutely certain that the low-coverage...
Article
Full-text available
The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (C. serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Pr...
Data
Data for DNA barcode voucher specimens of Celastrina
Article
Full-text available
The Lacinipolia vicina (Grote) species complex, previously consisting of L. vicina, L. teligera (Morrison), L. pensilis (Grote), and L. subalba Mustelin is revised to six species: L. vicina (eastern USA), L. teligera (southern Great Plains), L. pensilis (Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains), L. acutipennis (Grote), stat. rev. (= L. subal...
Data
Table S1. Specimen data for mtDNA barcode vouchers
Article
Full-text available
The maple leafcutter moth (Paraclemensia acerifoliella (Fitch) (Lepidoptera: Incurvariidae) has been discovered in western Canada, feeding on saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia (Nuttall) Nuttall ex Roemer (Rosaceae)), a previously undocumented host. New records are detailed, and historical records are reviewed and assessed. Western populations are co...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Schmidt BC, Anweiler GG (2014) Taxonomy and biogeography of the Nearctic Raphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Raphiinae). In: Schmidt BC, Lafontaine JD (Eds) Contributions to the systematics of New World macro-moths V. ZooKeys 421: 91–113. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.421.7517 Abstract The taxonomic status and biogeography of the North American...
Article
Full-text available
AbstractThe taxonomic composition and systematic position of Agriopodes Hampson is examined through an integrated approach using adult and larval morphology, biology, and molecular sequence data. The type-species of Agriopodes, Moma fallax Herrich-Schäffer is shown to be derived within the Acronicta grisea Walker species-group; accordingly, Agriopo...