B. Van Loenen

B. Van Loenen
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Architecture and the Built Environment

Doctor of Philosophy

About

101
Publications
65,146
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Introduction
Promoting (re-)use of public sector geo-information (PSGI) has been central to my research. My research is dedicated to the relation between policy choices, quality and use of PSGI, and other aspects that may influence use of PSGI. Clearly open data is one of the keys to the successful utilisation of PSGI. Another key research area is the governance and assessment of spatial data infrastructures (SDI). Most recently, I dedicate my time to the concept of the open (data) city.

Publications

Publications (101)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The new concept of Open Spatial Data Infrastructures (Open SDIs) has emerged from an increased interest in open data initiatives together with national and international directives, such as the EU Open Data Directive (Directive (EU) 2019/1024), and the large investment of European public authorities in developing SDIs for sharing spatial data withi...
Article
Full-text available
Current open data systems lag behind in their promised value creation and sustainability. The objective of the current study is twofold: 1) to investigate whether existing open data systems meet the requirements of open data ecosystems, and 2) to develop a research agenda that discusses the gaps between current open data systems on the one hand and...
Article
Full-text available
Land and space are major driving factors in doing business in urban areas. Cities around the world are performing land management techniques to achieve sustainable urban development. The World Bank acknowledges the importance of land management practices and promotes it as the Ease Of Doing Business (EODB) indicators for a supportive environment fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Land management has four functions that are interlinkage to each other: land tenure, land valuation, land use planning and land development. These functions are the foundation of Indonesia's new strategy for improving its Ease Of Doing Business (EODB), directly in dealing with construction permits and registering property. Ideally, each permit incl...
Article
Cities establish and maintain Land Administration Systems (LAS) to manage information about the land and urban space. Recognizing the importance of the urban space for sustainable development, information from spatial planning will affect land administration and vice versa. Therefore, every aspect that influences land use, both from spatial plannin...
Article
Full-text available
Open data initiatives have resulted in greater availability of data, thereby realising ambitions such as improved efficiency and effectiveness of public services, increased transparency, accountability and citizen participation, and economic and social value creation. Open data research is a crucial component in creating and accelerating sustainabl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Land administration is essential for urban planning and Spatial Information Infrastructure (SII). Interoperability of land administration and spatial planning will determine the success of SII utilization. This information should be accessible to all member of SII, including businesses and the community. This article proposes spatial planning infor...
Article
Full-text available
Most urban planning monitoring activities were designed to monitor implementation of aggregated sectors from different initiatives into practical and measurable indicators. Today, cities utilize spatial information in monitoring and evaluating urban planning implementation for not only national or local goals but also for the 2030 Agenda of Sustain...
Chapter
In order to facilitate and coordinate the sharing of spatial data, governments worldwide have been developing Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) for many years. Recently, technological, institutional and societal developments have caused these SDIs to shift towards more open infrastructures in which non-governmental actors are embraced as key stak...
Article
National spatial data infrastructures are key to achieving the Digital Earth vision. In many cases, national datasets are integrated from local datasets created and maintained by municipalities. Examples are address, building and topographic information. Integration of local datasets may result in a dataset satisfying the needs of users of national...
Article
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The data and services analysis are indispensable for the refined development of SDI. This paper, taking Chinese NSDI as a study case, analyzed the data and services advantages and shortcomings of Chinese NSDI and developed a recommendable data and services framework which could improve the Chinese NSDI better services for public and private sectors...
Chapter
In the past 20 years, European public authorities have invested considerable resources in the development of spatial data infrastructures. With the European INSPIRE Directive as an important driver, national spatial data infrastructures were developed throughout Europe to facilitate and coordinate the exchange and sharing of geographic data. While...
Chapter
Full-text available
In today’s information society, geographic information (GI) also referred to as spatial information is extremely important to the operation of society, and thus very valuable. Citizens, businesses, and government use GI for many of their day-to-day decisions. Most of the societal, economic, and environmental challenges they face require spatial thi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces the Open Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Assessment Framework as a new approach for assessing the openness of SDIs. Open SDIs are SDIs in which non-government actors such as businesses, citizens, researchers and non-profit organizations can contribute to the development and implementation of the SDI, use spatial data with as...
Chapter
Open data in The Netherlands dates back to the 1990s when the Ministry of Internal Affairs published the memorandum ‘Towards accessibility of government information’. More than two decades later, open data in The Netherlands has matured with the assignment of a responsible Ministry for open data, an open data vision and an open data action plan. Th...
Chapter
At the moment of writing, we are witnessing a data revolution. In this chapter we present our perspective on the direction of the developments in the coming 30 years. By offering both a dystopian and a utopian vision on the (open) data world in 2050, we open the debate on the direction the use of open data should take. This final chapter demonstrat...
Chapter
This book is about open data, i.e. data that does not have any barriers in the (re)use. Open data aims to optimize access, sharing and using data from a technical, legal, financial, and intellectual perspective. Data increasingly determines the way people live their lives today. Nowadays, we cannot imagine a life without real-time traffic informati...
Chapter
The chapter explains that the single typical user of open government data does not exist. Therefore, data suppliers should take a five-step approach in the design of the user oriented policy: (1) define its objective(s) of open data, (2) recognise and identify the user types needed to arrive at the objectives, (3) assess the appropriateness of the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Since 2009, Open Government Data initiatives have been launched worldwide and the concept of open data is gaining momentum. Open data are often associated with realizing ambitions, such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems and increased economic value. There has been ample literature describing the (potential) b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Following open data policies worldwide, an increasing number of public organisations has now published open data that is free to be used by anyone. However, despite the significant increase in use of this open data, the open data providers are mostly not aware of their users and the way in which the data is actually re-used. This is rooted in the p...
Conference Paper
The general processing procedure and models for CORS stations’ spatial deformation characteristic analysis are presented in this paper. The soft threshold filtering formula is deduced, which is for the Daubechies wavelet denoising, by utilizing the variance–covariance of Tianjin CORS baselines solution. The methods and models are adopted for Tianji...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dit onderzoek geeft inzage in de (potentiële) maatschappelijke kosten en baten van open data. Achtergrond vormt de ambitie die de Minister van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijkrelaties in de Nationale Open Data Agenda (NODA) heeft geformuleerd om zoveel mogelijk overheidsgegevens die zich daarvoor lenen, als open data beschikbaar te stellen. Daarbij...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the 1990s, public administrations in Europe and worldwide have invested considerable resources in the development of infrastructures for promoting, facilitating and coordinating the exchange and sharing of geographic data. A crucial driver in the development and implementation of these spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) in Europe was the 200...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2009, Open Government Data initiatives have been launched worldwide and the concept of open data is gaining momentum. Open data are often associated with realizing ambitions, such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems and increased economic value. There has been ample literature describing the (potential) b...
Chapter
Full-text available
SDI practitioners require user friendly SDI assessment tools to assess the performance of their SDI. This Chapter provides the next step of the development of such user friendly assessment tool. Core SDI Principles are defined based on the 29 Basel Core Principles used to assess financial infrastructures. Additionally, a set of essential and additi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The central research questions this paper aims to answer are: 1) which governance instruments are adopted for governing open spatial data infrastructures in Europe and 2) which tools and instruments do European members states use to monitor and evaluate the performance of their open spatial data policies? The paper will provide a first explorative...
Article
Full-text available
Open data are currently a hot topic and are associated with realising ambitions such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems, and increasing economic value. To describe and monitor the state of open data in countries and organisations, several open data assessment frameworks were developed. Despite high scores in t...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2009, Open Government Data initiatives have been launched worldwide and the concept of open data is gaining momentum. Open data are often associated with realizing ambitions, such as a more transparent and efficient government, solving societal problems and increased economic value. However, between proposing an open data policy and successfu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Onderzoek is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het ministerie van Economische Zaken en het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu.
Article
Full-text available
The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the...
Article
Full-text available
The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits, including societal and economic benefits. The pr...
Article
The European Union's policy on open data aims at generating value through re-use of public sector information, such as mapping data. Open data policies should be applied in full compliance with the principles relating to the protection of personal data of the EU Data Protection Directive. Increased computer power, advancing data mining techniques a...
Article
Full-text available
To stimulate the Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) development effectively and efficiently, it is key to assess the progress and benefits of the SDI. Currently, several SDI assessment methods exist. However, these are still in an infant stage and none of these appear to meet the requirements of practitioners. As a result, SDI decision makers are s...
Article
In recent years, there is an increasing trend of releasing public sector information as open data. Governments worldwide see the potential benefits of opening up their data. The potential benefits are more transparency, increased governmental efficiency and effectiveness, and external benefits, including societal and economic benefits. The private...
Article
Full-text available
Ready access to public sector information offers unprecedented opportunities for the development of new products and applications and to make existing processes more efficient and effective. These developments have perhaps the greatest opportunities in the field of geographic information. Although the Directive on the re-use of public sector inform...
Book
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De ontwikkeling binnen de overheid om data vrij te geven, lijkt niet te stuiten. Niet in de laatste plaats omdat er in Europees en nationaal beleid steeds meer aandacht komt voor digitalisering en de waarde die digitale gegevens vertegenwoordigen voor zowel publieke diensten als economische ontwikkelingen. Netwerkbedrijf Alliander was begin 2011 zi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spatial data infrastructure (SDI) facilitates the collection, maintenance, dissemination and use of spatial information. To stimulate SDI development effectively and efficiently, it is key to assess the progress and benefits of the SDI. SDI is difficult to assess because of its complex, dynamic, multi-faceted and constantly evolving nature. Several...
Article
There is a growing tendency to release all sorts of public data on the Internet. The greater availability of interoperable public data catalyses secondary use of such data, which leads to growth of information industries and better government transparency. Open data policies may, nevertheless, be in conflict with the individual’s right to informati...
Article
Publicatie n.a.v. de studiedag 'Open geodata: van ideaal naar realiteit' op 9 november 2011 in Amersfoort georganiseerd door Geonovum in samenwerking met ICTU.
Article
Dit rapport gaat in op de monitoringsaspecten van de invoering van open data bij organisaties. Het gepresenteerde raamwerk kan worden gebruikt om de wereldwijde claims van het succes van open data nader te onderbouwen. Want hoewel veelal het gebruik van data bij vrijgave explosief toe kan nemen zijn er geen onderzoeken bekend die deze toename in he...
Article
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The ability to share geo‐data is key to the success of spatial data infrastructures. A major barrier in sharing geo‐data is the use of non‐standard Licenses which are difficult to understand both for human beings and computers. This article compares existing (national and international) licensing frameworks as to the key components they share. It d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the development and diffusion of major technologies, it is well known that standards provide an essential input, establishing compatibility or interoperability between components in the system (DTI, 2005). In addition, standards facilitate coordination and reduce complexity (Brunsson et al., 2000). Only after a standard has been adopted, the tec...
Article
a b s t r a c t The motives for constructing Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) are often based on their anticipated ben-efits for society, economy, and environment. According to those widely articulated but rarely proven ben-efits, SDI coordinators have been defining more specific objectives to be achieved by their SDIs. However, there is a limit...
Article
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As a response to the growing interest in assessing Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) the Multi-view SDI assessment framework has been proposed. The Multi-view SDI assessment framework collects multiple assessment approaches and methods with the aim to assess many different aspects of SDI in a comprehensive and unbiased way. Despite the potential...
Article
Full-text available
In a digital age public sector geoinformation (PSGI) is potentially a vital link in the added-value chain. Yet private sector value-added resellers (VARs) still face a number of barriers to using PSGI. Price is only one impediment. The complexity of licences and restrictive licence conditions of PSGI may be an even bigger obstacle. Especially when...
Article
Assessment of geographic information infrastructures (or spatial data infrastructures) is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the Geographic information (GI) domain. Especially the assessment of value added GI appears to be complex. By applying the concept of value chain analysis to geographic information, this paper provides a...
Article
Location based services (LBS) are among ICT developments that potentially put the privacy of individuals at risk. LBS technology allows for tracking and tracing the location of mobile phones or other terminal equipment. The increased possibility to know people's whereabouts, both in a geographical and temporal sense, is posing the question of possi...
Article
Within societies, information availability is a key issue affecting society's well‐being. For geographic information, a geographic information infrastructure (GII) facilitates availability and access to geographic information for all levels of government, the commercial sector, the non‐profit sector, academia, and ordinary citizens. Although the im...
Article
Full-text available
Het afgelopen decennium is discussie ontstaan over in hoeverre de overheid haar geo-informatie mag of kan vermarkten. De commercialiseringdiscussie gaat om de vraag wanneer de overheid de markt mag betreden en aan welke spelregels zij zich dan moet houden. Een overheid verricht in principe een marktactiviteit als zij goederen of diensten, al dan ni...
Article
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The development of a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) not only has to address technical and non-technical data issues but the organisational component is also relevant, to the extent that the SDI is able to address societal challenges. This chapter elaborates on different stages of SDI development from an organisational perspective which has been...
Article
The removal of Public Sector Geo-Information (PSGI) from current ‘silo systems’ is a socio-political challenge based on intertwined regional and national policies along with the different policies and cultures of public sector agencies. These socio-political issues have created a web of complex access policies (e.g., pricing, copyright, and licensi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter five focused on the theoretical bases to assess the Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and presented a Multi-view SDI assessment framework. The framework needs to be tested in order to evaluate its applicability to assess SDIs. Testing will also indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the framework. In this chapter we present the results of...
Article
Location technology allows for the tracking and tracing of individuals. Developments in location technology allow for increasing levels of detail to keep an eye on ones private life. There are concerns that the privacy awareness among citizens and privacy legislation hinders the success and further development of these technologies. This article as...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Location technology allows for the tracking and tracing of individuals. Users may increasingly be concerned about the abilities of new technology to keep an eye on ones' private life. There are concerns that the increased privacy awareness among citizens and legislation may hinder the success and further development of these technologies. An analys...
Conference Paper
Location technology allows for the continuous tracking of individuals. Knowledge about the person's whereabouts also allows for the development of location based services at a very detailed levels. However, there is a potential danger that the further development of the appealing technologies will be blocked by privacy regulations. This paper asses...
Conference Paper
Stel: een groepje studenten bedenken een simpele doch briljante toepassing waarvoor verschillende geo-informatie bestanden nodig zijn om deze toepassing te produceren. De toekomst zal moeten uitwijzen of deze toepassing inderdaad zo briljant is maar onze studenten zijn ervan overtuigd dat het zeker de moeite van onderzoeken waard zal zijn. Aangezie...
Article
Within information societies, information availability is a key issue affecting societyâs well being. The infrastructure underlying the foundation of the information society may be referred to as the information infrastructure. A geographic information infrastructure (GII) supports the information infrastructure with regard to geographic informatio...
Article
De ontwikkeling van de nationale geografische informatie-infrastructuur kan niet snel genoeg gaan. Kritische geluiden zijn alom te horen. Maar presteren we echt zo slecht zoals menigeen ons wil doen geloven? Nee, in internationaal perspectief valt dat alleszins mee. Maar dat zegt natuurlijk lang niet alles, want veel zaken kun1nen en moeten inderda...
Article
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An increase in trans-border property transactions within the European Union poses a demand for easy access to information belonging to the national land administrations of Member States. A common European Land Market also requires a uniform system of land registration. The authors propose introduction of the EuroTitle, a standard for land registrat...
Article
In the information age, information has become of vital importance to the economic and social development of a country. Especially geographic information is of increasing importance for the successful execution of (public) tasks. Spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) facilitate the collection, maintenance, dissemination, and use of spatial informatio...
Article
An increase in cross-border transactions of real estate within the European Union demands for easy access to the information of the national land registries of the member states. The EULIS project brings together the registrations of eight European countries in one portal. Thus it provides access to cross-border information about the rights on real...
Article
Full-text available
Data availability is a key issue affecting the collective well-being of society. Economic and legal scholars have argued that the current, relatively open, access-to-data environment in the United States is beneficial to advancing knowledge and the economy. However, little empirical evidence exists to validate the extent to which various access pol...