B. Kynard

B. Kynard
University of Massachusetts Amherst | UMass Amherst · Department of Environmental Conservation

phD

About

162
Publications
37,288
Reads
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4,450
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2007 - present
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Position
  • Adjunct Prof.
Description
  • BK-Riverfish, LLC is a business focused on migratory fish behavior and fish passage at hydro dams. Wet lab facilities enable studies on fish behavior in both areas of research. Species specialty are sturgeons of the Earth, shads, and sea lamprey..
September 1989 - December 2007
United States Geological Survey
Position
  • Fish Research Biologist
Description
  • Section Leader of Fish Behavior Conducted research on life history of migratory fish and fish passage in the USA, Brazil, China, and Romania----large river fisheries. Focused on sturgeons, American shad, and sea lamprey in USA..

Publications

Publications (162)
Poster
Electronarcosis (EN) is used to sedate fish for minor surgical procedures by immobilizing them within an electric field without causing tetany or inhibiting opercular ventilation. With minimal side effects, near-zero recovery times, and no chemical waste, EN is the preferred field sedation method of many fishery biologists. However, EN is rarely us...
Article
Full-text available
Three anadromous lamprey species support important commercial fisheries in the northern hemisphere, sea lamprey in the Iberian Peninsula and France, European river lamprey in the Baltic Sea countries and Russia, and Arctic lamprey in Russia. Pacific lamprey, Caspian lamprey, Korean lamprey and pouched lamprey are harvested for subsistence and local...
Article
Dams fragment the longitudinal flux of sediment and obstruct fish passage. To help remediate these impacts, dam removal has become an important tool in the river restoration toolkit. Scientifically, these removals also provide an important experimental design, fixed in time and space, to quantify geomorphic and ecological responses to removal of a...
Article
Full-text available
This study is the first to evaluate the results of 60 years of restoring anadromous sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, to historical spawning and rearing habitats using fish passage at barrier dams in the Connecticut River, USA. We obtained counts of pre‐spawning adult P. marinus annually passed upstream at Holyoke Dam (river km 140), Connecticut Riv...
Poster
Full-text available
As a result of over 500 million years of independent evolution, the skeleto-muscular system of the trunk of the jawless lampreys differs in several aspects from that of jawed vertebrates. Its fibroskeleton comprises the dermis, hypodermis, dorsal longitudinal ligament, perimysial lamellae, deep fascia (periaxial and perivisceral fasciae), and the m...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the relationship between hydraulics associated with the substrate and fish swimming behaviour has become increasingly important to the design of microhabitat around substrates for river restoration. To better understand the hydraulics associated with substrate on fish swimming, we studied the effects of a vertical half cylinder (he...
Article
Full-text available
Ecohydraulics research is just beginning to have all the tools needed to examine the 2-dimensional velocity preference of fish in flow fields. We developed an experimental system with a gradient flow field in a test channel to observe flow-field preference of juvenile silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitris. We used automatic methods, which acquir...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of water temperature on behaviour and life history of wintering age‐0 = young‐of‐the‐year (YOY) northern sturgeons (populations using winter refuge habitat) is poorly understood. Using artificial stream tanks, we observed the effect of water temperature on 1) day‐time activity of cultured YOY Kootenai River white sturgeon, Acipenser tran...
Article
Full-text available
Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) of fish sounds has been used as a means of detecting the presence and abundance of fishes. Prior to PAM, bioacoustical analyses of sounds are needed to characterize species-specific characteristics of calls. With hydrophones placed in outdoor ponds, we recorded the mating calls of three species of prochilodontid fi...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of water velocity on feeding of benthic cruising foragers, like sturgeons, is poorly understood. Using an artificial endless stream, we conducted experiments with wild juvenile Chinese Sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, to test the hypothesis that water current speed affects juvenile feeding efficiency on the Barcheek Goby, Rhinogobius giurin...
Article
The cover image, by X. Shi et al., is based on the Short Communication Preference by juvenile Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus, for substrate colour in zero versus slow velocity regimes suggest a change in habitat preference of wild juveniles after damming the Yangtze river, DOI: 10.1002/rra.3171.
Conference Paper
The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is considered a nuisance species where it has become landlocked due to its parasitism on important freshwater sport fish. Unfortunately, this negative reputation has carried over to anadromous (sea-run) adult sea lamprey, which is not parasitic during freshwater residency. While research and management for the p...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat preference of benthic riverine juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus, a protected species in China, is poorly understood. This situation makes it difficult to evaluate the potential impacts on juveniles after river alteration. To better understand the impact of damming, we studied preference of cultured juvenile Chinese sucker (7....
Article
Full-text available
Experiments on the swimming kinetics and behaviour of weather loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus showed that horizontal swim speed was significantly greater than swim speeds when ascending to or descending from the water surface to gulp air. Vertical swimming speeds during ascending or descending were similar. Misgurnus anguillicaudatus swam unsteadi...
Article
Full-text available
We studied calling and spawning of the potamodromous fish zulega (Prochilodus argenteus, Prochilodontidae) in the São Francisco River (SFR), Brazil. The study reach was the 143 river km (rkm) downstream from Três Marias Dam (TMD), but most effort was at the Pontal spawning ground (PSG). PSG is located in the SFR at the mouth of the first major trib...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments were conducted in artificial stream tanks with juvenile Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, captured in the Yangtze Estuary to test two null hypotheses (1) juveniles have no preference for white or black substrates, and (2) white or black substrate color has no effect on juvenile feeding efficiency on the barcheek goby,Rhinogobius giu...
Article
Full-text available
The Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, is a large member of the family Acipenseridae, historically reaching lengths of at least 4.6 m in length (with some estimates of 5–6 m). In North America, A. o. oxyrinchus occurs in major rivers and coastal environments along the east coast from Labrador, Canada to Florida, USA; there are also...
Article
Full-text available
Shortnose Sturgeon = SNS (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a small diadromous species with most populations living in large Atlantic coast rivers and estuaries of North America from New Brunswick, Canada, to GA, USA. There are no naturally land-locked populations, so all populations require access to fresh water and salt water to complete a natural life...
Article
Long lifespan and late maturation make it difficult to establish gamete maturity and breeding age of captive endangered Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis. This greatly handicaps timely breeding and future conservation stocking efforts. We used ultrasound imagery and sex steroids to determine the gender and gonadal maturity stage of captive Chine...
Poster
Full-text available
Lampreys play a key role in the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of vertebrates, but little is known about their functional morphology or their interactions with their environment. Our study integrates field observations and functional morphological studies of adult Sea Lampreys. We observed and video-recorded the body movements of spawni...
Article
Full-text available
Dam removal is becoming an increasingly important component of river restoration, with > 1100 dams having been removed nationwide over the past three decades. Despite this recent progression of removals, the lack of pre- to post-removal monitoring and assessment limits our understanding of the magnitude, rate, and sequence of geomorphic and/or ecol...
Article
Full-text available
China began to develop fish passage at hydroelectric dams in the 1960s, but few were implemented until the 2000s, when a federal law was passed in 2002 that required fish passage at new hydroelectric dams that block fish migrations. Because of this regulation, in the past 10 years, about 40 fish passage facilities have been or are being built. Even...
Poster
Lampreys are capable of a wide range of motions, including flexion, extension, and twisting. Sea Lampreys, in particular, are capable of extreme ventral flexions up to a 90 degree angle, which was observed during their upriver migration, when they navigate high velocity rivers, transport stones to build nests, spawn, and defend their territory. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Two hypotheses were tested on intraspecific variation in early behaviour of Shortnose Sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum: (i) ontogenetic behaviour of Shortnose Sturgeon from a northern and a southern population is different, and (ii) dispersal time by southern Shortnose Sturgeon is longer than that of northern Shortnose sturgeon. The hypotheses were...
Article
Full-text available
The effect was studied of two channel velocity regimes (slow regime = mean, 16.9 cm s−1; fast regime = mean, 23.4 cm s−1) on the behaviour and dispersal of Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus early life stages (ELS = free embryos, larvae, early-juveniles) in artificial streams. A conceptual model incorporating velocity effects on...
Article
Full-text available
The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an "endangered species threatened with extinction" in the US and "Vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploi...
Conference Paper
In artificial stream tanks during November 2009−April 2010, we examined the effect of the winter temperature cycle on activity of YOY Kootenai River White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, (hereafter, KRWS) and Connecticut River Shortnose Sturgeon, A. brevirostrum (hereafter, CRSNS). Temperature range during tests was 11 to 3°C. Daytime activity (...
Article
Full-text available
Guidelines for creating rearing substrate for sturgeon early life stages are needed for restoration programmes creating habitats for spawning and rearing of early life stages. To determine the effects of rock size on motile early life stages, experiments were conducted in artificial streams to observe the behaviour of free embryos and larvae of Koo...
Data
Full-text available
We conducted laboratory experiments with early life stages of kaluga sturgeon, Huso dauricus, from the middle reach of the Amur River to quantify ontogenetic behavior and compare their behavior with similar laboratory data collected previously on young kaluga from the Amur River. Our hatchling free em-bryos initiated an intense downstream migration...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted laboratory experiments with early life stages of kaluga sturgeon, Huso dauricus, from the middle reach of the Amur River to quantify ontogenetic behavior and compare their behavior with similar laboratory data collected previously on young kaluga from the Amur River. Our hatchling free em-bryos initiated an intense downstream migration...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of two environmental factors (substrate type and water velocity regime) was studied in the ontogenetic migra-tion intensity of kaluga, Huso dauricus, a protected species in the Amur River. Early-life stages studied were: free embryos = days 0–8; larvae = days 9–49; and juveniles = days 50–66. Effect of treatments on fish migration intens...
Data
Full-text available
The effect of two environmental factors (substrate type and water velocity regime) was studied in the ontogenetic migra-tion intensity of kaluga, Huso dauricus, a protected species in the Amur River. Early-life stages studied were: free embryos = days 0–8; larvae = days 9–49; and juveniles = days 50–66. Effect of treatments on fish migration intens...
Article
Full-text available
The study objectives were to identify the horizontal and verti-cal distributions of adult Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) in relation to the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) in order to assess the utility of the only remaining spawning grounds by adults and to understand the effects of river alterations on habitat use. Twenty-five adults were...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Guidelines for creating rearing substrate for sturgeon early life stages are needed for restoration programs. We conducted experiments in artificial streams to observe the use of rock size by free embryos and larvae of Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Most (≥ 90%) free embryos in streams with 100% gravel, 100% pebble, or 100...
Article
Full-text available
From 2006 to 2009, 27 ultrasonic-tagged wild adult Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis [eight males, 19 females; total length (L(T)) range = 245-368 cm] were captured on the spawning ground just downstream of Gezhouba Dam (GZD) in the Yangtze River. Twenty-six individuals were tracked for 7 to 707 days (mean number of relocations = 859; range = 3-4...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is a great need for a fish ladder design that passes sturgeons, so we studied ascent and de-­‐ scent of 186 wild male pre-­‐spawning adult Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon = ConnR SNS (Acipenser brevirostrum) and adults of eight other species of riverine fishes in a prototype side-­‐ baffle fish ladder to observe their movements and behav...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although thermal effluents from industry and power generation enter rivers with sturgeons, the potential impact of this pollution on sturgeons has been poorly studied. To test the hypothesis that sturgeons will be attracted to warmer than ambient temperatures in the winter and that this attraction is stronger in some species than others, we compare...
Chapter
Full-text available
During 1990−2005, we studied Connecticut River shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) to evaluate the effects of Holyoke Dam, located in the middle of the river range, on migrations and population structure. Annual up¬ and downstream migrations by sturgeons living upstream of the dam (Upstream Group = UG) and those living downstream of the dam...
Chapter
Full-text available
During 1990−2007, we studied during spring upstream migrating adult DS ConnR SNS (A. breviros-¬‐ trum) to the HolyR just downstream of Holyoke Dam. Our working hypotheses were (1) the de-¬‐ mography of this run was like the spawning run at a known spawning reach 53–54 rkm upstream, (2) adults were not migrating to spawn at HolyR, but rather upstrea...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews movements of the five life stages of ConnR SNS (Acipenser brevirostrum). Embryos (fertilized eggs) are sticky and negatively buoyant, characteristics that keep spawned eggs on the bottom at spawning sites (rkm 193–194; MontSR). Free embryos do not disperse downstream, and instead, have evolved behavioural habitat preferences th...
Chapter
Full-text available
In a common garden experiment using a large, endless artificial stream, we observed upstream and downstream movements of cultured yearling pallid sturgeon = PAS (Scaphirhynchus albus), green sturgeon = GRS (Acipenser medirostris), lake sturgeon = LAS (A. fulvescens), and shortnose sturgeon = SNS (A. brevirostrum) to determine if yearlings have an i...
Chapter
Full-text available
For seven spawning seasons (2002−2008), we studied spawning and rearing of shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) in a large artificial stream with gravel−rubble substrate and variable water velocity (mean @ 0.6 depth, 48 cm s‐1). Females began spawning within 36–81 h after being placed into the stream, showing they could quickly spawn when th...
Chapter
Full-text available
For 15 yr, we studied wintering of ConnR SNS (Acipenser brevirostrum) at two of the three river concentration areas used by the species. Sturgeon movements to and from a wintering site (pre¬winter, winter, and post¬winter periods) were related to day length, not to river temperature or discharge. In the fall, most (≥ 80%) of the radio¬tagged adults...
Chapter
Full-text available
Telemetry tracking of SNS (Acipenser brevirostrum) found the foraging range of 15 MerrR adults (mean, 6.7 rkm) was not different from the foraging range of seven ConnR adults (mean, 8.4 rkm). However, the mean foraging range of four juvenile ConnR SNS (2.2 rkm) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the mean range of adults. This suggests an ont...