B. R. Adhikari

B. R. Adhikari
Tribhuvan University · Department of Civil Engineering

Doctor of Science

About

110
Publications
51,097
Reads
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764
Citations
Introduction
Basanta Raj Adhikari holds a PhD degree in Earth Sciences from the University of Vienna. His main research interest is disaster risk reduction and management, Climate change and hill slope dynamics, tectonic geomorphology, landslide, floods, and Earthquakes in the mountain. He is involved in many national and international research projects including sediment fluxes, watershed management, disaster risk reduction, climate change.
Additional affiliations
June 2015 - July 2018
Institute of Engineering
Position
  • Managing Director
November 2011 - present
Tribhuvan University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
July 2011 - July 2011
Università degli Studi di Torino
Field of study
  • Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Management in Mountains
October 2006 - December 2009
University of Vienna
Field of study
  • Geology
December 2001 - December 2003
Tribhuvan University
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Full-text available
Nepal has been experiencing different kinds of natural hazards in recent decades due to its unique topographic and climatic diversities. Earthquakes, landslides, floods, lightning, fire, cold and heat wave are major hazards. Among them, the landslide is one of the major natural hazards, and the occurrence of landslides is due to active tectonics an...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Nepalese Himalayas is one of the world’s most active mountain belts, with widespread natural hazards of various types, including landslides, which claim numerous lives and properties in Nepal. Landslides occur due to the combined effects of seismic activity, monsoon rainfall, and improper land-use practices. The prevention and mitigation of lan...
Article
Full-text available
Cascading hazards are becoming more prevalent in the central Himalayas. Primary hazards (e.g., earthquakes, avalanches, and landslides) often trigger secondary hazards (e.g., landslide dam, debris flow, and flooding), compounding the risks to human settlements, infrastructures, and ecosystems. Risk management strategies are commonly tailored to a s...
Chapter
The study of land use and land cover (LULC) changes has become a key index in identifying and understanding the patterns of urbanization, land use changes and their contribution to the exposure and distributions of hazards. The increasing urbanization has resulted in the acquisition of a large area of forest and cultivable land, thereby converting...
Chapter
Nepal Himalaya is one of the seismically active mountain belts in the world with several kilometers of relief and very prone to catastrophic mass failure. The collision between Indian and Eurasian plates resulted in numerous tectonic faults and highly deformed rocks, which are responsible for triggering many earthquakes of different scales. High gr...
Book
This book presents the select proceedings of the Virtual Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (VCDRR 2021). This book discusses various relevant topics such as Disaster resilience and Infrastructure, Risk reduction and structural measures, Evidence based approach for DRR Case studies, Numerical modelling and Constructions methods, Prevention Metho...
Chapter
The Nepal Himalayas lies in the central part of the Himalayan arc. The range is a product of the collision between Indian and Eurasian plates in the Miocene period (50 M yr) and is bounded by Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ) to the north and the Ganga basin to the south. The coupling effect of earthquake reoccurrences and strong Asian monsoon has r...
Chapter
The land is one of the major components of the Earth’s surface. Land with anthropogenic activities and interaction is known as land use and land with natural status is recognized as land cover. This chapter deals with the overall land use and land cover (LULC) pattern of Nepal, with the changing trends of major LULC types. Further, it also covers a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) has been gaining attention in science, policy and practice as an effective way to address climate change and contribute to sustainable development. In Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), EbAs are implemented to enhance resilience of mountain communities to the harsh realities of climate change. However, very little documenta...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of landslides in the Nepal Himalaya is a common phenomenon due to active seismotectonics coupled with the strong monsoon, fragile landscape, and inadequate agricultural practices. This research has analyzed the trends of landslide events, total fatalities, and economic losses from 1971 to 2016 and discussed the landslide early warnin...
Article
The lightning hazard is one of the devastating hazards in Nepal due to a large amount of atmospheric water vapor coming from the Indian Ocean and a large orographic lifting of this moist air. In 2019, a total of 2884 people were affected with loss of 110982 USD and the fatality was highest (94) in reported lightning events in reported lightning eve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Landslide hazard along China-Nepal road corridors in the Kali Gandaki valley is one of the major natural hazards. In this research, the random forest method was used to calculate the landslide sensitivity index (LSI) of settlements along the Kali Gandaki valley and identify the landslide susceptible area. The results show that the AUC of random for...
Article
Full-text available
The Thakkhola Graben, a north-south graben, lies in central Nepal Himalayas consisting of Neogene sediments. The presence of pollens in these sediments provides a unique natural laboratory to understand the paleoenvironment during the formation of the graben. This study provides a detailed description of the pollen collected from the Tetang and Tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben represents the Cenozoic extensional tectonic phase of the Tibetan Plateau and the whole Himalaya lies at the northern side of the Dhaulagiri and Annapurna Ranges and south of the Yarlung Tsangpo Suture Zone. More than 850 m thick graben sediments are stratigraphically divided into five formations, namely the Tetang Form...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Landslide is one of the major natural disaster for rural communities in Nepalese Himalaya which takes huge number of lives destructing infrastructures and livelihood systems. Increasing population and rural-urban migration with unmanaged settlement in recent years are influencing factors for big loss of life and property every year. To address this...
Article
Full-text available
Following a disaster, the majority of families rebuild their homes themselves. In this paper, we consider how the physical environment influences such ‘self-recovery’ by investigating disasters in the Philippines (typhoons Haiyan in 2013 and Haima in 2016) and Nepal (the 2015 Gorkha earthquake). Despite the many differences in the disaster contexts...
Chapter
The Himalayan Range is generally classified into a number of broad longitudinal tectonic belts. Despite a long history of investigation, some fundamental issues of their stratigraphy and structure are still unresolved. Especially, there has been considerable controversy over delineating the Greater Himalayan and Lesser Himalayan belts of Nepal. The...
Article
Full-text available
Debris flow susceptibility mapping is considered to be useful for hazard prevention and mitigation. As a frequent debris flow area, many hazardous events have occurred annually and caused a lot of damage in the Sichuan Province, China. Therefore, this study attempted to evaluate and compare the performance of four state-of-the-art machine-learning...
Article
Full-text available
Soil degradation is a severe and growing threat to ecosystem services globally. Soil loss is often nonlinear, involving a rapid deterioration from a stable eco‐geomorphic state once a tipping point is reached. Soil loss thresholds have been studied at plot scale, but for landscapes, quantitative constraints on the necessary and sufficient condition...
Article
In the central Nepal Himalaya, landslides form the major natural hazards annually resulting in many casualties and damage. Structural as well as non-structural measures are in place to minimize the risk of landslide hazard. To reduce the landslide risk, a Landslide Early Warning System (LEWS) as a non-structural measure has been piloted at Sundrawa...
Article
Soil degradation is a severe and growing threat to ecosystem services globally. Soil loss is often nonlinear, involving a rapid deterioration from a stable eco-geomorphic state once a tipping point is reached. Soil loss thresholds have been studied at plot scale, but for landscapes, quantitative constraints on the necessary and sufficient condition...
Article
Full-text available
The 2015 Gorkha earthquake (Mw = 7.8) caused significant earthquake triggered landslides (ETL) in a landscape that is heavily intervened by rainfall triggered landslides (RTL). China's Belt and Road Initiative plan to boost South-Asian regional trade and mobility through two key highway corridors, i.e. 1) Longmu-Rasuwa-Kathmandu (LRK) and 2) Nyalam...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The drainage network characteristics of watershed has a significant impact on mountain landscape. The Kali Gandaki River basin has various topographic variation with geomorphology to be crossed by the Sino-Nepal road corridor. In this research, the ALOS PRISM data is used to extract the watershed DEM, and then the drainage network is automatically...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The interaction between scientists and community is always challenging because of having different ways of analysis of the events. The fundamental issue is that most of the academic researchers are working independently and often failed to discuss with community in public forum. In such case, communities are not aware or do not understand the very...
Chapter
The civilization of Kathmandu Valley has started alongside the holy Bagmati River. However, rapid urban expansion and overpopulation have resulted not only in water shortage but ended up polluting the same water body based on which the settlements had grown, a classic example can be taken as that of Kathmandu and other surrounding cities in Kathman...
Article
Full-text available
The number of deaths from landslides in Nepal has been increasing dramatically due to a complex combination of earthquakes, climate change, and an explosion of informal road construction that destabilizes slopes during the rainy season. This trend will likely rise as development continues, especially as China's Belt and Road Initiative seeks to con...
Article
Himalayan rivers are frequently hit by catastrophic floods that are caused by the failure of glacial lake and landslide dams; however, the dynamics and long-term impacts of such floods remain poorly understood. We present a comprehensive set of observations that capture the July 2016 glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Bhotekoshi/Sunkoshi Riv...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain rivers respond to strong earthquakes by rapidly aggrading to accommodate excess sediment delivered by co‐seismic landslides. Detailed sediment budgets indicate that rivers need several years to decades to recover from seismic disturbances, depending on how recovery is defined. We examine three principal proxies of river recovery after eart...
Chapter
Pokhara city (800 m), the second largest city of Nepal, lies in the midlands hills. It is built on an exceptionally broad, flat plain located at the foot of the Annapurna Range (>8000 m). It is a very attractive place for tourists, since it offers a wide variety of interests (lakes, caves, gorges, scenic glaciated mountains) related to its geomorph...
Preprint
Full-text available
Landslides are common in the hills of Nepal where the terrain slopes are steep and consist of fragile geo-morphology. In Nepal the causal and triggering factors of the landslides are respectively the underlying geology and rainfall is highly recognized, which is however less known and limited in study. Establishment of rainfall threshold for landsl...
Article
Full-text available
p>Every year, flood impose substantial economic, social and environmental cost on Nepalese community through direct damage to residential, commercial, educational and structures. Moreover, the flood destroys animal farm, commercial stock and records and other content of the building and pollutes the water. Early Warning Systems are important to sav...
Article
Full-text available
The number of deaths from landslides in Nepal has been increasing dramatically due to a complex combination of earthquakes, climate change, and an explosion of road construction. We compare the distribution of landslides in Sindhupalchok district before the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake with those generated by the earthquake to demonstrate that landslides...
Article
Uncertain timing and magnitudes of past mega-earthquakes continue to confound seismic risk appraisals in the Himalayas. Telltale traces of surface ruptures are rare, while fault trenches document several events at best, so that additional proxies of strong ground motion are needed to complement the paleoseismological record. We study Nepal's Pokhar...
Conference Paper
Open image in new windowPapers accepted in Session 2.4—Landslide Hazard, Risk Assessment and Prediction of the Fourth World Landslide Forum are pertinent to the advances in landslide science ranging from remote sensing to landslide forecasting and the validation of the landslide. Different case studies from Asia, Europe and other parts of the world...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Gorkha earthquake of 2015 had significant impact on the private sector in Nepal. The study takes a mixed approach to considers recovery process of manufacturing sector in Kathmandu valley and how is the impact on the resilience based on the Sendai framework of action for disaster risk reduction. The findings suggest three areas of importance fo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of an extensive mapping of co-seismic landslides triggered by the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in central Nepal. More than 19,332 landslides have been identified covering 61.5 km2 of land in about 20,500 km2 area of investigation using Google Earth imagery. Their spatial distribution characteristics and relation to the tri...
Article
Full-text available
p class="Default"> Abstract: Nepal Himalaya is one of the most active mountain belts with several kilometers of relief which is very prone to catastrophic mass failure and this region encounter the problem of landslide almost every year during monsoon period causing large scale of devastation. Most of the landslides are caused by river bank erosion...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming leading to climate change is a rapidly growing global threat to humanity and environment of the world. The present research in the Langtang Valley, Central Nepal attempts to find out the impact of climate change on glacier retreat and local community based on the studies of available long-term hydrological-meteorological data, satell...
Article
Full-text available
The 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha earthquake and its aftershocks weakened mountain slopes in Nepal. Co- and postseismic landsliding and the formation of landslide-dammed lakes along steeply dissected valleys were widespread, among them a landslide that dammed the Kali Gandaki River. Overtopping of the landslide dam resulted in a flash flood downstream,...
Chapter
The 2015 Gorkha earthquake triggered thousands of landslides and rockfalls distributed mainly in and nearby the seismogenic fault. Here, a comparative study of geomorphological and geological susceptibility parameters for pre-2015 Gorkha earthquake (mainly) rainfall triggered landslides and post-earthquake co-seismic landslides is made in a major r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large earthquakes can substantially perturb a wide range of Earth surface processes. The strong shaking caused by large earthquakes weakens rockmass, causes extensive landsliding, and alter the hydrological conductivity of the near surface. This leads to subsequent responses that include sediment loading of rivers and changes in subsurface water fl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research illustrates the application of geophysical method to detect karst features in the Kusma area, Parbat district. The Kusma area is covered by at least three levels of very thick river terraces. The upper (oldest) and middle terraces are composed of matrix-supported calcareous conglomerate with angular clasts of various sizes and shapes....
Conference Paper
River response to strong earthquakes often implicates fast aggradation and flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-and post-seismic landsliding. Studies in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand show that river systems recover from earthquake-triggered sedimentation for several years to decades. Here, we report one valley-fill deposits in the Pokh...
Poster
Full-text available
Strong earthquakes trigger large number of landslides in mountainous areas, creating a secondary disaster of loss of lives and property, blocking of lifelines and rivers-threats to landslide dam bursts. The 25 April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, occurring in a predominantly young mountain formation, has triggered more than 16,000 co-seismic and post-seis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information ha...
Article
Full-text available
Strong earthquakes cause transient perturbations of the near Earth's surface system. These include the widespread land sliding and subsequent mass movement and the loading of rivers with sediments. In addition, rock mass is shattered during the event, forming cracks that affect rock strength and hydrological conductivity. Often overlooked in the im...
Conference Paper
Strong earthquakes trigger large number of landslides in mountainous areas, creating a secondary disaster of loss of lives and property, blocking of lifelines and rivers which could also cause landslide dam bursts. The 25 April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, occurring in a predominantly young mountain, has triggered more than 17,000 co-seismic and post-se...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Tai-wan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology...
Chapter
Full-text available
The use of land and soil is very important for human life and land is one of the most important resources in Nepal. Nepal is a mountainous country and has multiple types of land and crops due to different climatic conditions. The barren or uncultivated land is generally unsuitable for agriculture either of topography or its inaccessibility. Most of...
Article
Full-text available
Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, though urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalayas. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofos...
Article
Full-text available
The Gorkha 2015 earthquake is very unique and destroyed many houses and infrastructures. The damage distribution indicates significant ground motion directivity which results more damage in the eastern side compared to western side of the epicenter. The slope failure, landslides and ground failure are very much concentrated in the 14 districts. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
4) Kitami Institute of Technology, Japan On 25 April 2015, a large-scale earthquake of M7.8 attacked central Nepal. Epicenter is located in Gorkha, west of Kathmandu. Aftershocks epicenter area extended about 100 km long and 150 km wide. Acceleration records inside Kathmandu basin show that the main shock predominant period is 3-5 s and PGA is smal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large earthquakes trigger widespread mass failures, and the estimated volumes of landslide material are often used to estimate seismically triggered erosion, assuming that all landslide material is transported out of the affected area. The expectation that earthquakes can generate a pulse of sediment output from the affected area can also potential...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Strong shaking by earthquake causes massif landsliding with severe effects on infrastructure and human lives. The distribution of landslides and other hazards are depending on the combination of earthquake and local characteristics which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. The Himalayas are one of the most active mountain belts with sever...