Azucena Gracia

Azucena Gracia
Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón · Economía Agroalimentaria

Doctor of Business Administration

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149
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
This systematic literature review collected and summarized research on consumer preferences and the purchase behaviour of food products with nutritional claims (NCs) and health claims (HCs), to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. First, considering that consumer behaviour is affected by a wide range of factors, to narrow t...
Article
Full-text available
Local plant genetic resources are of vital importance for the resilience of the agroecosystems, especially under conditions of global climate change. The diversification of production using these resources is postulated as an alternative for the development of rural areas with non-optimal farming conditions and/or disadvantaged by depopulation. How...
Article
The European Union (EU) considers biofuels as an option to reduce GHG emissions. However, biofuels mandates are controversial because of the concerns regarding unintended environmental, social and economic consequences. EU renewable energy directives introduced some requirements that biofuels should meet to be certified as sustainable. Today almost...
Article
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Improving food sustainability and reducing food waste are among the top challenges for achieving global sustainable development. In particular, changes towards more sustainable consumption are of vital importance in creating a more sustainable world. To shed light on these issues, we analyze to what extent and how consumers’ food preferences move t...
Article
Nutritional claims (NCs) and health claims (HCs) on food products have been introduced as interpretative aids to simplify the information provided on food labelling. However, HCs have been criticised for being unappealing and an information overload on food packages. We aimed to explore whether adding a HC to the associated NC is a good strategy or...
Article
The objective of this research is to examine whether there is a relationship between the value of attributes based on the market price and on consumer utilities. To address this objective, the results from a hedonic price (HP) approach are combined with the actual consumer utilities from a real choice experiment (RCE) for extra virgin olive oil (EV...
Article
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Multiple quality labels that signal whether a particular food has special characteristics relating to geographical origin or production method have become standard within European food policy. The aim of this paper was to investigate how two of these labels in particular influence consumers' food choices. We assessed consumers' preferences for an e...
Article
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As a result of increased consumer awareness, demand for healthier food products is increasing day by day. Consumers seek healthier versions of food products which they relate to reduced presence of unhealthy components or increased presence of healthy ones. As a result, the food industry has not only increased the variety of products available but...
Article
As an extension of the current strategies employed to evaluate new products/attributes, this research presents a more realistic approach and obtains more accurate results through the combination of real choice experiments (RCEs) and sensory analysis. Two RCEs are carried out to mimic a real shopping scenario before and after experiencing the taste...
Article
Full-text available
The Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (NHCR) EC No 1924/2006 aims to provide an appropriate level of consumer protection whilst supporting future innovation and fair competition within the EU food industry. However, consumers’ interpretation of health claims is less well understood. There is a lack of evidence on the extent to which consumers...
Article
This study aims at testing a theoretical model explaining why people follow healthy eating habits and in particular to identify how the nutritional labels use influences this behavioural pattern. The results indicate that the individuals who utilise more often the nutritional labels follow healthier eating habits, such as avoiding snacking between...
Article
The use of vacuum packaging for fresh meat with low rate of turnover in the supermarket shelves, as it is the case of lamb meat in Spain, is recommended. Because the amount of mandatory information on fresh-meat labels has increased, there is a need to design new labels to enhance the support for this information. Therefore, to anticipate the consu...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate Spanish consumer preferences for several food-labelling schemes on semi-cured, pasteurised sheep milk cheese. In particular, the authors used three labels regulated by the European Union regulation (European organic logo, protected denomination of origin (PDO) and nutritional fat content), and the...
Article
The aim of the paper is to analyse biodiesel market acceptance in Spain. In particular, we study the intention to use biodiesel by Spanish diesel car drivers and the factors explaining this intention. To achieve this goal, we developed a model of the intention to use biodiesel based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour but extended in two ways. The f...
Article
Full-text available
The presence in the market of food products with nutritional claims is increasing. The objective of this paper is to assess consumers’ valuation of some nutritional claims (‘high in fiber’ and ‘reduced saturated fat’) in a European country and to test for differences among consumers. An artefactual non-hypothetical experiment was carried out in a r...
Article
Full-text available
Health-related claims and symbols are intended as aids to help consumers make informed and healthier food choices but they can also stimulate the food industry to develop food that goes hand in hand with a healthier lifestyle. In order to better understand the role that health claims and symbols currently have and in the future potentially can have...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the few fats that most people agree on containing health properties is the olive oil. Many studies have shown that the fatty acids and the antioxidants in olive oil have powerful health benefits associated with the reduction of heart chronic diseases, cholesterol and the prevention of certain cancers. These health benefits are one of the mai...
Article
European farmers of indigenous local breeds have benefited from European Union economic support in the past and it is forecast to continue being supported in the future. However, it is in the public debate that economic support cannot last forever. Then, for the long-run maintenance of indigenous local breeds to be possible, the derived meat produc...
Article
In the EU food market, different food labeling schemes co-exist with the aim of informing customers and providing trust on different quality characteristics of food products. To understand which food labeling schemes are the most and the least important for consumers is very relevant because a labeling strategy will be useful for food companies if...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for three different food claims on semi-cured, pasteurized sheep milk cheese. In particular, the authors used a health-related claim (the nutritional claim indicating a reduced fat content: “light”), a regional claim (“designation of origin – PDO”) and an organic c...
Article
Full-text available
This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL ("Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour"). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to test whether projection bias exists in consumers' purchasing decisions for food products. To achieve our aim, we used a non-hypothetical experiment (i.e., experimental auction), where hungry and non-hungry participants were incentivized to reveal their willingness to pay (WTP). The results confirm the existence of projec...
Article
Organically and locally grown products have positive environmental impacts due to the reduction in the greenhouse emissions required for their production. This paper contributes to this research stream by investigating consumers’ preferences and their willingness to pay for almonds that have different sustainable labels: distance claims (100 km, 80...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: CLYMBOL (Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour) is a European Commission supported project. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health claims found on prepackaged foods in five European countries. Method / Design: Food and drink products were s...
Article
The aim of the paper is to assess the effect of the participants' competitiveness on their valuation for food products. Specifically, to investigate the effect of the participants' competitiveness on their bids in a non-hypothetical experimental auction. Then, we designed an experimental auction to measure the consumers' preferences for food produc...
Article
The aim of the paper is to study consumers' acceptability for a lamb meat from a local autochthonous breed. An intention to purchase model was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and estimated using data from a survey conducted in Spain. Results indicated that consumers were willing to buy this lamb meat because 86% of responden...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the factors that influence intention to purchase premium foreign red wines in Spain. A model of intention to purchase premium foreign red wines is developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This model is specified as an ordered bivariate probit model and estimated by using data from a survey conducted on 200 consume...
Article
This paper analyses consumers’ preferences for a local food in Spain and assesses their willingness to pay (WTP) using a real choice experiment to mitigate possible hypothetical bias. In particular, preferences for fresh lamb meat were investigated and two attributes evaluated, “locally grown” and the type of lamb meat. Data came from an experiment...
Article
Research on wine consumers' preferences has largely been explored in the academic literature and the importance of wine attributes has been measured by rating or ranking scales. However, the most recent literature on wine preferences has applied the best-worst scaling approach to avoid the biased outcomes derived from using rating or ranking scales...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an analysis of consumer preferences for product claims, specifically about origin and production methods. In particular, it addresses two important questions: i) whether consumers are willing to pay a premium for food products carrying these claims; and ii) whether local and organic claims are complements or substitutes. A choic...
Data
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a b s t r a c t Scope insensitivity is a popular anomaly in many valuation studies. Although scope insen-sitivity is a problem that may be present in any valuation method, most previous literature has focused on evaluating scope sensitivity within the context of contingent valuation applications. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand the dema...
Article
This paper analyses consumer preferences for different eggs attributes to assess the importance placed by consumers on the origin and method of production when shopping. The data comes from an experiment conducted in Spain during 2009. An Error Component Random Parameter Logit model is used to estimate the effect of different eggs characteristics o...
Article
This paper analyzes consumers' preferences for different lamb meat attributes using a choice experiment. In particular, preferences for the type of commercial lamb meat ("Ternasco" and "Suckling") and the origin of production (locally produced "Ojinegra from Teruel") were evaluated. Moreover, we endogenously identify consumers' segments based on co...
Article
The aim of this paper is to analyse the intention to purchase animal welfare-friendly meat products and determine the factors explaining this intention. Additionally, a model of the intention to purchase animal welfare-friendly meat products has been developed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This model has been specified as a two-eq...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to analyse the factors that determine Spanish consumers' intention to purchase organic food. Then, an intention to purchase model based on the Theory of Planned Action (Ajzen) has been specified taking into account also other factors such as organic food knowledge and consumers' concerns on health and environment. An ordered...
Article
In this paper we estimate the willingness to pay for mix of renewable sources of electric power by means of a discrete choice experiment survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Two main categories of power supply attributes are explored: source of renewable power (wind, solar and biomass) and the origin of such power. The findings suggest that most cons...
Article
The authors assess consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a local food product using an experimental auction. As local foods involve a social component, they aim also to test if social influence affects WTP for local foods and if the effects of social influence on WTP are different between men and women. They found that consumers are willing to pa...
Article
We test whether the use of an honesty priming task from the social psychology literature can help mitigate hypothetical bias in stated preference choice experiments (CE). Using a between-sample design, we conducted experiments with five treatments: (1) hypothetical CE without cognitive task, (2) hypothetical CE with cheap talk script, (3) hypotheti...
Article
This article reviews only those empirical works that report results on the influence of sociodemographic factors on food consumption. It highlights those recent papers that can be helpful to the interested reader as a base from which to explore further aspects of demographics and food consumption. Reviewed empirical studies analyze the influence of...
Article
The aim of this article is to determine consumers’ valuation for an EU Animal Welfare (EU-CAW) Label for products providing higher animal welfare standards than the current legal requirements. Using revealed preference data from random nth price auction mechanism and two auction procedures, our results generally suggest that consumers are willing t...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing concern about food security and environmental consevation might enhance demand for ecological food products. However, consumption has not kept pace with production. Higher prices than conventional food products, distribution deficiencies and lack of knowledge might explain it. The goal of this paper is to analyse those limitations in dep...
Article
Due to the importance of comparability and external validity of results, nonhypothetical experimental methods are increasingly used to elicit consumers’ willingness to pay for various goods. Two of the increasingly popular preference elicitation methods are the nonhypothetical choice experiments and experimental auctions. We conduct experiments to...
Article
The objective of the article is to examine whether relationship quality in the Spanish pig-to-cured ham supply chain positively influence small and medium enterprise (SME) stakeholders' competitiveness. A structural equation modeling approach has been used with information from a survey conducted on farmers, processors, and retailers in the pig-to-...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The aim of this study is to analyse Millennial generation's preferences for wine attributes in two countries, one from the “New World” (USA) and the other from the “Old World” (Spain), in order to see whether they are different. Heterogeneity in attribute importance is investigated, with wine consumers classified into different segments a...
Article
Consumers are increasingly concern about their health and therefore, fruits are being considered an important healthy food product. However, the consumption of fresh fruits in the last years remains constant or decreases slightly. This trend can be due to the increasing consumers' demand for convenience. Then, a convenience and enjoyable way to tak...
Article
The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' concern on farm animal welfare and their attitudes towards animal friendly meat products to establish consumers' segments. First, factors affecting consumers' concern on farm animal welfare have been studied using an Ordered Probit model. Second, consumers' segmentation based on their attitudes towards...
Article
The aim of the paper is to assess consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a local food produced in a less-favoured area in the Aragon region (Spain). In particular, we examine whether consumers value lamb meat products (lamb and suckling lamb) labelled as “Ojinegra from Teruel”, traditionally produced in these area. We use a nonhypothetical experim...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports results from a large, six-nation, internet-based survey of consumer attitudes toward food safety and food defence administered during the fall of 2008. Responses were obtained from separate samples of approximately 1,000 each in Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Food defence was generally a greater concern, and r...
Article
Full-text available
One of the priorities of the European Union is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation. The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' valuation of one type of renewable energy which is important to reach the European emission reduction targets, biodiesel, and to assess the extra price co...
Article
The objective of this chapter is to investigate whether the quality of inter-organizationalrelationships positively influences the competitiveness of small- and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs) in the wheat-to-bread chain in the Spanish region of Aragon.Relationship quality is composed of trust, satisfaction and commitment between buyers andsellers....
Article
The role of inter-organizational relationships in European meat and cereals chains is analysed. Using survey data from 1442 farmers, processors and retailers in six countries (Germany, UK, Spain, Poland, Ireland, Finland), the empirical relevance of several factors potentially influencing the sustainability of agri-food chain relationships is teste...
Article
This paper examines the link between nutrition label use and consumers’ healthier food choices. Label use is considered for the two main types of labels currently found on food products; nutrition facts panels and nutrition/health claims. This link is tested using a three-equation multivariate probit model. Data were obtained from an ad hoc survey...
Article
Consumers face an increasing availability of information on health and nutritional aspects of foods, especially on food package labels. Previous research has identified that this information is positively valued, but the effect of presenting several items of information simultaneously is not well understood. We conduct a choice experiment to identi...
Article
This study aims at testing a theoretical model explaining why people follow healthy eating habits and in particular to identify how the nutritional labels use influences this behavioural pattern. The results indicate that the individuals who utilise more often the nutritional labels follow healthier eating habits, such as avoiding snacking between...
Chapter
This book is the result of several years of research activity on the topic of how to better link farmers, processors and retailers with each other in order to ensure and improve the supply of food products which meet consumer needs and wants. The book is structured in three parts. Starting with an overview regarding main developments in the agri-fo...
Chapter
This book is the result of several years of research activity on the topic of how to better link farmers, processors and retailers with each other in order to ensure and improve the supply of food products which meet consumer needs and wants. The book is structured in three parts. Starting with an overview regarding main developments in the agri-fo...
Article
The role of inter-enterprise relationships in European pig meat, beef and cereals chains is analysed. Using survey data from 1,442 farmers, processors and retailers in six countries, the empirical relevance of several factors potentially influencing the choice of contract types and the sustainability of relationships is tested. In particular, the s...
Article
The European Union is implementing new regulations regarding the provision of nutritional information on food products. A random utility model is used to evaluate European consumers’ valuation of two general types of nutritional information: nutritional facts panel label and a nutritional claim (i.e., a “light” claim). Results suggest that although...
Article
Full-text available
Consumer concern for health impacts of diet has increased the use of nutritional information and claims by agro-food industry. Under the current European legislation on nutrition and health claims and on nutritional labelling, three type of nutritional information can be provided on food products: nutritional facts panel, nutritional claims and hea...
Article
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Copyright 2009 by Gracia, Loureiro and Nayga. All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice appears on all such copies.
Article
Full-text available
The provision of nutrition and health information on food labels is increasing as an industry and regulation answer to the growing consumer concern with diet-health relationships. Prior research has shown that the presence of this information on food labels is valued by consumers; however there is still no clear pattern on which labelling options a...
Article
This paper analyses organic food consumer’s demand that can help advising on implementing organic food policies at European level or, for a particular European country. In particular, it investigates the main factors explaining organic food demand in the South of Italy. Following the Lancaster consumer’s demand theory we assume that consumer’s util...
Article
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to investigate the consumers' decision‐making process for organically produced foods in Italy. Design/methodology/approach – A structural equation modelling approach has been used with information provided by a survey conducted in Italy (Naples). Findings – Results indicate that consumer' attitudes towards organi...
Article
The provision of nutrition and health information on food labels is increasing as an industry and regulation answer to the growing consumer concern with diet–health relationships. Prior research has shown that the presence of this information on food labels is valued by consumers; however, there is still no clear pattern on which labelling options...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to provide an econometric, dynamic, multi-product and partial equilibrium model for the Spanish agriculture able to analyse the effects of the SFP and subsequent reforms in both the irrigated and non-irrigated cultivation. In the case of the EU Mediterranean countries, irrigated agriculture is very relevant because farmers i...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the paper is to investigate the impact of co-operation amongst stakeholders of the food chain on enterprise competitiveness. The analysis focuses on the Spanish wheat to bread chain. A theoretical model is developed which covers the main components that define competitiveness (profitability, turnover, market share, customer loyalty...
Article
Full-text available
The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the rel...
Article
Full-text available
The roles of business relationships in selected European agri-food chains are analysed. Using survey data from 1,442 farmers, food processors and retailers in two commodity sectors (meat and cereals) and across six different EU countries, we test the empirical relevance of several theory-based determinants influencing the choice of relationship typ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to explain factors that influence organic food purchases of urban consumers in the South of Italy. To achieve this goal, a multivariate limited dependent variable model has been specified to simultaneously analyse consumers' organic food purchases, the intention to purchase organic food products and the level of organic kno...
Article
The research agendas of psychologists and economists now have several overlaps, with behavioural economics providing theoretical and experimental study of the relationship between behaviour and choice, and hedonic psychology discussing appropriate measures of outcomes of choice in terms of overall utility or life satisfaction. Here we model the rel...