Ayman Hamed

Ayman Hamed
Suez University · Geological and Geophysical Engineering

Doctor of Engineering

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25
Publications
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71
Citations

Publications

Publications (25)
Article
Studies has shown that unexpected encounters with archaeological material can cause construction delays and damage to the cultural material in Egypt. Preconstruction planning that includes a thorough geophysical survey, coupled with other site data, will aid in the development process in designing strategies to avoid or to salvage subsurface archae...
Article
Construction activities close to cultural heritage sites are increasing in Egypt. Urban sprawl coupled with rising groundwater levels have a direct impact on cultural materials. Engineering and construction activity can be detrimental to the integrity of any site, particularly if ancient objects or structures are encountered. Damage to ancient subs...
Article
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Geophysical surveys are an essential tool in analyzing risks associated with unknown subsurface conditions. In Egypt, excavating on historic sites can be challenging when encounters of archaeological material occurs. For the contractor, delays and work stoppage affect costs. For the archaeologist, encounters risk the chance of damage as well as pos...
Article
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Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a modern geophysical tool that was developed for prospecting the ground subsurface. Recently, it has shown great potential for providing valuable information about the integrity of masonry structures, thus helping with their preservation and restoration. In this study, GPR was used to study and evaluate the state o...
Article
Full-text available
Al-Azhar is one of the oldest mosques in historic Cairo. It was constructed by the Fatimids between 970-972. Most of historic Cairo buildings included Al- azhar are made mainly of carbonate stones that belong to Eocene Mokattam formation. These carbonate stones exhibit considerable damage related in many cases to the salt crystallization. Mineralog...
Article
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This study was concerned at a limestone quarry located southeast of Helwan city, Egypt, in order to investigate the effect of hydric swelling on the geomechanical aspects of limestone rocks. The Volume of Egyptian limestones change due to the presence of clay minerals (swelling/shrinking). These changes in volume induced by changing environmental c...
Article
Full-text available
Construction activities close to cultural heritage sites are increasing in Egypt. Urban sprawl coupled with rising groundwater levels have a direct impact on cultural materials. Engineering and construction activity can be detrimental to the integrity of any site, particularly if ancient objects or structures are encountered. Damage to ancient subs...
Article
Throughout time, the area of historical Cairo has been affected by several earthquakes from near and distant seismogenic zones. The maximum earthquake intensity reported in Cairo is VII, on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale, due to the 1992 Cairo earthquake (Mw=5.9). About 212 Coptic and Islamic monuments were damaged. The spatial distribution...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a modern geophysical tool that was developed for prospecting the ground subsurface. However, it has shown recently good potential for providing valuable information for evaluating the integrity of masonry structure to help with their preservation and restoration. In this study, single trace reflected EM waves were...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper summarizes the findings of site measurements conducted to study the natural structural behavior of historical minarets due to variation in architectural configuration (height and cross-section). The examined minarets were belonging to Al-Azhar historical mosque located in Cairo-Egypt and were constructed with different architectural conf...
Conference Paper
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Mokattam limestone is the most frequent building stone used in the cultural heritage buildings in Historic Cairo (Egypt) and it is susceptible to the ongoing effects of salt weathering. A purpose-made simulation chamber was used to test in the laboratory the salt weathering on limestone samples from an active quarry at Helwan area (30 km, south Cai...
Conference Paper
Mokattam limestone is the most frequent building stone used in the cultural heritage buildings in Historic Cairo (Egypt) and it is susceptible to the ongoing effects of salt weathering. A purpose-made simulation chamber was used to test in the laboratory the salt weathering on limestone samples from an active quarry at Helwan area (30 km, south Cai...
Conference Paper
Most Egyptian limestones contain clays. Volume change of clay minerals (swelling / shrinking) induced by changing environmental conditions, especially humidity, causes accelerated physical deterioration of limestone. Petrographic investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Helwan limestone (biomicritic limestone) revealed the existence o...
Chapter
This study presents a new experimental chamber, which builds upon previous methods of testing salt weathering. This method is based on capillary rising in samples, as this corresponds to the actual imbibition process in building stone. This set-up allows control in setting both a specific thermal regime and cycling temperatures. Some of the signifi...
Article
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ABSTRACT: Limestone is one of the most frequent building stones used in monuments in Egypt from ancient Egyptian times and salt weathering is one of the main threats to these monuments. During this work, cylindrical limestone samples (2 cm diameter and approx. 4 cm length) from Mokattam group, one of the most frequent materials in historic Cairo, w...
Article
Full-text available
Limestone is one of the most frequent building stones used in monuments in Egypt from ancient Egyptian times and salt weathering is one of the main threats to these monuments. During this work, cylindrical limestone samples (2 cm diameter and approx. 4 cm length) from Mokattam group, one of the most frequent materials in historic Cairo, were subjec...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Limestone is one of the most frequent building stones used in monuments in Egypt from ancient Egyptian times and salt weathering is one of the main threats to these monuments. During this work, cylindrical limestone samples (2 cm diameter and approx. 4 cm length) from Mokkattam group, one of the most frequent materials in historic Cairo,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study deals with the characterization of the pore structure of fresh quarry limestone samples belonging to the Mid-Eocene Mokattam Group, and porosity changes in samples subjected to salt crystallization tests at different temperatures (20, 30 and 40 °C) in a purpose-made simulation chamber based on feeding samples by capillary imbibitions. Na...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mokattam formation is the source for limestone in most archaeological sites in Greater Cairo, including the World Heritage Sites of the Pyramid Fields and Historic Cairo. Three main outcrops of this limestone were quarried from ancient Egypt times to the present day: Helwan, Mokattam and Giza. In addition to the diversity of locations where this Mi...
Article
Full-text available
This article is discussing technical challenges within engineering works made during reexcavation of the 174 m long tunnel which was cut into bedrock of desert shale known as 'Esna shale'. Recent historical events, during the last decade, explained much of the tunnel deformations and dirt filling inside tunnel space "Debris", caused by multiple wat...
Article
Full-text available
weathering in Egyptian limestone after laboratory simulations with continuous flow of salt solutions at different temperatures Nevin Aly Mohamed (1), Miguel Gomez - Heras(2), Ayman Hamed Ahmed (1), and Monica Alvarez de Buergo(2). (1) Faculty of Pet. & Min. Engineering- Suez Canal University, Suez, Egypt, (2) Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM) Mad...

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Projects (3)