Axel J. Schmidt

Axel J. Schmidt
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | LSHTM · Sigma Research, Department of Social and Environmental Health Research

Dr. med., MPH
Fundraising for EMIS-2023

About

145
Publications
40,213
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,242
Citations
Citations since 2016
101 Research Items
1828 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - April 2017
Kantonsspital St. Gallen
Position
  • Lead STI clinic
Description
  • STI
October 2014 - present
Kantonsspital St. Gallen
Position
  • Project Manager
October 2012 - present
Bundesamt für Gesundheit, Schweiz
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (145)
Article
Full-text available
Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) carry a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections across Europe. Health planners require sexual health needs assessment data to respond appropriately. In addition, surveillance of risk and precaution behaviours in this population enables evaluative judgements of policy responses. The European MSM Int...
Article
Full-text available
In 2019, only 14 European and Central Asian countries provided reimbursed HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Using EMIS-2017 data, we present the differ-ence between self-reported use and expressed need for PrEP in individual countries and the European Union (EU). We estimate that 500,000 men who have sex with men in the EU cannot access PrEP, al...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives There is no estimate of the current number of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Switzerland, or of their geographical distribution. We aimed to (1) estimate MSM concentration factors and population sizes for 83 Swiss postal code areas (PCA), including the nine largest Swiss cities, and (2) calculate MSM-specific local HIV prevalence and...
Article
Background: Anecdotal evidence suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasingly combining sex and illicit drugs (an activity referred to as 'chemsex'), in particular GHB/GBL, ketamine, crystal meth, or mephedrone (here called 4-chems). Use of such drugs has been associated with mental health and sexual health harms. We aim to compare...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the impact of migration and acculturation of Turkish men who have sex with men (MSM) to Germany, using data from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS-2010), on measures of acculturation including circumcision status, internalized homonegativity (IH), HIV/STI knowledge, sexual orientation, outness, HIV-testing, and sexual behaviors. We...
Article
Full-text available
Despite men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) from Latin America (LA) are still a vulnerable population for known health-related conditions and social problems, availability of comparable data across LA countries for assessment and monitoring purposes is limited. The objective of this article is to present the study design and the questionnaire of LAMIS-...
Article
Full-text available
Background Syphilis case notifications among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) have increased markedly over the past two decades in Europe. We tested several potential factors for this resurgence. Methods Self-reported data from two cross-sectional waves of the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS-2010 and EMIS-2017, N = 278,256 participants living in...
Article
Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE) - Fundamentals Abstract. There is widespread endemicity of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in all German-speaking countries. In most regions there is a gradual increase in incidence and further territorial spread. As a proportion of the cases is not diagnosed and since the clinical course is getting worse with growing ag...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning is increasingly introduced into medical fields, yet there is limited evidence for its benefit over more commonly used statistical methods in epidemiological studies. We introduce an unsupervised machine learning framework for longitudinal features and evaluate it using sexual behaviour data from the last 20 years from over 3'700 pa...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The population of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) includes people who are on the masculine spectrum but were assigned female at birth (AFAB), that is trans MSM. This study aims to identify current circumstances regarding sexual happiness and safety among German trans MSM. To date, there is no health information about trans MSM in Ger...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Since 2017, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care has been provided through an intersectoral collaboration at WIR (Walk-in-Ruhr, Center for Sexual Health and Medicine, Bochum, Germany). The aim of this study was to establish possible impact of COVID-restrictions on the sexual behavior of PrEP users in North Rhine-Westphalia. Methods The cu...
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to understand how the association between internalized homonegativity (IH) and sexual risk behavior differed in Spain (N = 3,336) and Turkey (N = 550). Methods: We used multigroup structural equation modeling. Results: HIV and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) knowledge mediated the relationship between IH and sexual risk...
Article
Background In Germany, oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was licensed in 2016. Health insurances have been covering the costs since 09/2019. This study compares the sociodemographic profiles of PrEP users before and after PrEP re-imbursement. Methods Participants were recruited in a cross-sectoral sexual health centre in Germany. baseline d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Changes in mental and sexual health among men having sex with men (MSM) due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remain unclear. Methods: Design: Longitudinal analysis of an ongoing, multicentre, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohort (NCT03893188) in Switzerland. Participants: HIV-negative MSM aged ≥18 who completed at least one questionnaire...
Conference Paper
Introduction Heterosexual-identifying men who have sex with both men and women (H-MSMW) are an under-researched population who may facilitate STI/HIV transmission between MSM and heterosexual sexual networks. Using a mixed-methods approach, we investigated perceptions and management of STI/HIV transmission risk among H-MSMW, and how their relations...
Article
Full-text available
In a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) (N = 3436) in Spain who bear intrinsic HIV risk, we investigated how internalised homonegativity (IH) is associated with the number of non-steady male partners with condomless intercourse (as a proxy of sexual risk behaviour). Using structural equation modelling (SEM), we examined the relationship betw...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To estimate effectiveness of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination by time interval (<5, 5-10 and 10+years) postvaccination. Design: A retrospective, matched case-control study PARTICIPANTS: Cases-all adult (age 18-79) TBE cases in Switzerland reported via the national mandatory disease reporting surveillance system from 2006 to 20...
Article
Full-text available
Structural stigma shapes men who have sex with men’s (MSM’s) mental health and sexual behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine how stigmatizing policies interact with downstream anxiety/depression and sexual behaviours to structurally pattern HIV disparities among European MSM. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the European Men-who-...
Article
Full-text available
Background To provide empirically based guidance for substituting partner number categories in large MSM surveys with mean numbers of sexual and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) partners in a secondary analysis of survey data. Methods We collated data on numbers of sexual and CAI partners reported in a continuous scale (write-in number) in thirte...
Article
OBJECTIVES The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of a national pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme using smartphone-compatible data collection. METHODS This was a multicentre cohort study (NCT03893188) enrolling individuals interested in PrEP in Switzerland. All centres participate in the SwissPrEPared programme, which uses smart...
Article
Introduction: HIV is still a central public health issue in Latin America, disproportionally affecting key populations. Knowledge and access to biomedical prevention strategies, including treatment as prevention (TASP) or undetectable = untransmissible (U=U), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), are the first steps...
Article
Full-text available
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective prevention tool being scaled up in Canada. We describe PrEP uptake and identify demographic correlates of uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) at elevated HIV risk using data from an online survey of gbMSM residing in Canada between Oct 2017 and Jan 2018. Among t...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, syphilis diagnoses among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) have strongly increased in Europe. Understanding the drivers of the ongoing epidemic may aid to curb transmissions. In order to identify the drivers of syphilis transmission in MSM in Switzerland between 2006 and 2017 as well as the effect of potential interventions, we...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of a national pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme using smartphone-compatible data collection. Methods This was a multicentre cohort study (NCT03893188) enrolling individuals interested in PrEP in Switzerland. All centres participate in the SwissPrEPared programme, which uses smar...
Article
Sexual minority men are at greater risk of depression and suicidality than heterosexuals. Stigma, the most frequently hypothesized risk factor for this disparity, operates across socioecological levels-structural (e.g., laws), interpersonal (e.g., discrimination), and individual (e.g., self-stigma). Although the literature on stigma and mental heal...
Article
Background: In 2006, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health decided recommending a prolongation of vaccine booster intervals after the 3rd dose for the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) from 3 to 10 years. Methods: To ascertain whether this amendment resulted in an increased rate of vaccine breakthroughs we conducted a retrospective an...
Article
Objective: To describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Switzerland from 2009 to 2019.METHODS: Analysis of Swiss notification data. Results: Tuberculosis cases declined from 553 (7.1/100,000) in 2009 to 437 (5.1/100,000) in 2019. The male-to-female ratio was 3:2. Although the number of tuberculosis cases of Swiss origin has steadily declined,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Europe, surveillance and monitoring of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) remains important, particularly in the light of migration in recent years. The aim of the study was to evaluate incidence rates of childhood TB and detailed diagnostic pathways and treatment. Methods: Data were collected through the Swiss Pediatric Surveillance Uni...
Conference Paper
Background HIV testing guidelines recommend MSM test at least annually. However, heterosexual- and bisexual-identifying MSM (heterosexual-MSM; bisexual-MSM) may be less likely to test for HIV than gay-identifying MSM (gay-MSM). We hypothesised that differences in HIV testing may reflect differences in sexual behaviour and the extent to which MSM en...
Article
Full-text available
Background Hepatitis C virus reinfections in HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) challenge the effectiveness of antiviral treatment. To fight this problem, an adapted sexual risk reduction intervention was implemented within a hepatitis C treatment trial. Following this, the current study had two aims and describes 1) how the program was r...
Article
Full-text available
The European Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men Internet Survey (EMIS-2017) is an international survey for men who have sex with men (MSM) designed to measure the level and distribution of four dimensions: (a) sexual health outcomes, (b) risk and precaution behaviors, (c) health promotion needs, and (d) coverage/uptake of interventions. The aim of the curre...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objectives Many European countries reported increased numbers of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years. Behaviour changes and increased testing are thought to drive these increases. Methods In 2010 and 2017, two large online surveys for MSM in Europe (EMIS-2010, EMIS-2017) col...
Article
Background: Asylum seekers in Switzerland have to register in federal asylum centres (FACs) before formal permission to enter the country. Some of them may have active tuberculosis (TB), exposing fellow refugees and employees. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of TB infection among employees of Swiss FACs. Methods: Betwe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Over the last decade, syphilis diagnoses among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) have strongly increased in Europe. Understanding the drivers of the ongoing epidemic may aid to curb transmissions. Methods and Findings: We set up an epidemiological model to assess the drivers of syphilis in MSM in Switzerland between 2006 and 2017. We stra...
Article
Introduction In the last decade diagnoses of most STIs have risen among men who have sex with men (MSM). Although a significant proportion of this is likely due to increased STI screening, understanding the role of behavioural drivers remains critical. We measure the associations between stimulant use to enhance and prolong sexual experiences (chem...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: In Switzerland, universal health insurance does not cover any routine testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), not even in individuals at high risk, and extra-genital swabbing is not standard of care. We compared STI prevalence in a multicentre prospective observational cohort of multi-partner women with/without sex work and...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: In Switzerland, universal health insurance does not cover any routine testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), not even in individuals at high risk, and extra-genital swabbing is not standard of care. We determined the prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), viral hepatitis and non-viral STIs in a mul...
Article
Full-text available
Background In October 2007, the Japanese Health Authority directed that precautions be added to antidepressants (ADs) labelling regarding suicide risk among young people. This study evaluates the impact of the labelling change on AD prescriptions and Japanese adolescent suicide rates. Methods We compared AD prescription rates per 100,000 populatio...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Rectal STIs compromise health and are common in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, the European-MSM-Internet-Survey (EMIS-2010) showed that in 2010, the prevalence of anal swabbing during STI screening by MSM varied widely across 40 European cities. In this paper, we replicate a variety of measures of STI testing performance using...
Article
Full-text available
Some men who have sex with men (MSM) were assigned female at birth (AFB) and/or identify as trans men. Little is known about how these men differ from other MSM. We compared sexual and mental health indicators from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS-2017), comparing men AFB and/or currently identifying as trans men with those assigned male at b...
Article
Recently, it became clear that undetectable equals untransmittable (U=U), stressing the importance of engaging in medical care and adhering to antiretroviral therapy. HIV testing and counselling (HTC) are offered in different settings and can be an opportunity to inform people. We aimed to understand if HIV testing history, including recency, place...
Article
Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe are most affected by HIV disparities. Complex systems theory proposes that many health behaviors and risks arise from numerous cascading and interacting processes. Our aim was to explore how stigmatizing policies at the European country-level create pathways to HIV risk and disparities among MSM...
Poster
BACKGROUND: Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) are the subpopulation at greatest risk of HIV in Europe. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has great potential to interrupt transmission. Prevention cascades have been proposed to focus primary HIV prevention programmes on the most commonly unmet needs. We constructed a PrEP cascade for MSM and compared...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is fully reimbursed by the French health insurance system since 2016. However, uptake of PrEP is slower than expected and little is known about men who have sex with men (MSM) who are eligible for PrEP according to French guidelines, but not using it. This study aims to (1) assess and describe MSM that are eligible t...