Axel Schmidt

Axel Schmidt
University of Bonn | Uni Bonn · Institute of Human Genetics

MD

About

48
Publications
11,025
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518
Citations
Citations since 2017
45 Research Items
514 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Introduction: Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is a signaling molecule with a well-established role for lung branching morphogenesis. Rare heterozygous, deleterious variants in the FGF10 gene are known causes of the lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome and aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands. Previous studies indicate that pathoge...
Article
PPP1R3F (R3F) is a member of the glycogen targeting subunits (GTSs), which belong to the large group of regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a major eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatase that regulates diverse cellular processes. Here, we describe the identification of hemizygous variants in PPP1R3F associated with a novel...
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Full-text available
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) sense extracellular protons and are involved in synaptic transmission and pain sensation. ASIC1a and ASIC3 are the ASIC subunits with the highest proton sensitivity. ASIC2a in contrast has low proton sensitivity but increases the variability of ASICs by forming heteromers with ASIC1a or ASIC3. ASICs are trimers and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Infections can lead to persistent or long-term symptoms and diseases such as shingles after varicella zoster, cancers after human papillomavirus, or rheumatic fever after streptococcal infections(1,2). Similarly, infection by SARS-CoV-2 can result in Long COVID, a condition characterized by symptoms of fatigue and pulmonary and cognitive dysfunctio...
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DNA methylation classifiers (“episignatures”) help to determine the pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). However, their sensitivity is limited due to their training on unambiguous cases with strong-effect variants so that the classification of variants with reduced effect size or in mosaic state may fail. Moreover, episignatur...
Preprint
Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is a signaling molecule with a well-established role for lung branching morphogenesis. Rare heterozygous, deleterious variants in the FGF10 gene are known causes of the lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome as well as aplasia of lacrimal and salivary glands (ALSG). Previous studies indicate that pathogen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Most individuals with rare diseases initially consult their primary care physician. For a subset of rare diseases, efficient diagnostic pathways are available. However, ultra-rare diseases often require both expert clinical knowledge and comprehensive genetic diagnostics, which poses structural challenges for public healthcare systems. To address t...
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Motivation: Missense variants are a frequent class of variation within the coding genome, and some of them cause Mendelian diseases. Despite advances in computational prediction, classifying missense variants into pathogenic or benign remains a major challenge in the context of personalized medicine. Recently, the structure of the human proteome w...
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Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) remains among the most influential and popular classical music composers. Health problems significantly impacted his career as a composer and pianist, including progressive hearing loss, recurring gastrointestinal complaints, and liver disease. In 1802, Beethoven requested that following his death, his disease be de...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: DNA methylation classifiers (“episignatures”) help to determine the pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). However, their sensitivity is limited due to their training on unambiguous cases with strong-effect variants so that the classification of variants with reduced effect size or in mosaic state may fail. Moreover,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Investigating the role of host genetic factors in COVID-19 severity and susceptibility can inform our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that influence adverse outcomes and drug development. Here we present a second updated genome-wide association study (GWAS) on COVID-19 severity and infection susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 from t...
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Non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is a highly heritable facial disorder. To date, systematic investigations of the contribution of rare variants in non-coding regions to nsCL/P etiology are sparse. Here, we re-analyzed available whole genome sequence (WGS) data from 211 European case-parent trios with nsCL/P and identified...
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Host genetics is a key determinant of COVID-19 outcomes. Previously, the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative genome-wide association study used common variants to identify multiple loci associated with COVID-19 outcomes. However, variants with the largest impact on COVID-19 outcomes are expected to be rare in the population. Hence, studying rare vari...
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Next‐generation phenotyping (NGP) is an application of advanced methods of computer vision on medical imaging data such as portrait photos of individuals with rare disorders. NGP on portraits results in gestalt scores that can be used for the selection of appropriate genetic tests, and for the interpretation of the molecular data. Here, we report o...
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Given the highly variable clinical phenotype of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deeper analysis of the host genetic contribution to severe COVID-19 is important to improve our understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we describe an extended GWAS meta-analysis of a well-characterized cohort of 3255 COVID-19 patients with respirat...
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Background: Variants in genes of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway have been associated with heterogeneous clinical presentations ranging from xeroderma pigmentosum to Cockayne syndrome and trichothiodystrophy. NER deficiencies manifest with photosensitivity and skin cancer, but also developmental delay and early-onset neurological dege...
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The first major COVID-19 outbreak in Germany occurred in Heinsberg in February 2020 with 388 officially reported cases. Unexpectedly, the first outbreak happened in a small town with little to no travelers. We used phylogenetic analyses to investigate the origin and spread of the virus in this outbreak. We sequenced 90 (23%) SARS-CoV-2 genomes from...
Preprint
Full-text available
Host genetics is a key determinant of COVID-19 outcomes. Previously, the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative genome-wide association study used common variants to identify multiple loci associated with COVID-19 outcomes. However, variants with the largest impact on COVID-19 outcomes are expected to be rare in the population. Hence, studying rare vari...
Preprint
Full-text available
Each individual genome harbors multiple missense variants, which can be systematically identified via genome or exome sequencing. This class of genetic variation can alter the functional properties of the respective protein, and thereby lead to clinically relevant phenotypes, such as cancer or Mendelian diseases. Despite advances in computational p...
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Full-text available
Many monogenic disorders cause a characteristic facial morphology. Artificial intelligence can support physicians in recognizing these patterns by associating facial phenotypes with the underlying syndrome through training on thousands of patient photographs. However, this ‘supervised’ approach means that diagnoses are only possible if the disorder...
Article
Background: Contact with a pathogen is followed by variable courses of infectious disease, which are only partly explicable by classical risk factors. The susceptibility to infection is variable, as is the course of disease after infection. In this review, we discuss the extent to which this variation is due to genetic factors of the affected indi...
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The combined impact of common and rare exonic variants in COVID-19 host genetics is currently insufficiently understood. Here, common and rare variants from whole-exome sequencing data of about 4000 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were used to define an interpretable machine-learning model for predicting COVID-19 severity. First, variants were conv...
Preprint
The combined impact of common and rare exonic variants in COVID-19 host genetics is currently insufficiently understood. Here, common and rare variants from whole exome sequencing data of about 4,000 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were used to define an interpretable machine learning model for predicting COVID-19 severity. Firstly, variants were c...
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Among children, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are typically mild. Here, we describe the case of a 3.5-year-old girl with an unusually severe presentation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The child had an autoinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, which had been treated using prednisolone and methotrex...
Preprint
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The majority of monogenic disorders cause craniofacial abnormalities with characteristic facial morphology. These disorders can be diagnosed more quickly by using computer-aided next-generation phenotyping tools, such as DeepGestalt. These tools have learned to associate facial phenotypes with the underlying syndrome through training on thousands o...
Preprint
Full-text available
The majority of monogenic disorders cause craniofacial abnormalities with characteristic facial morphology. These disorders can be diagnosed more efficiently with the support of computer-aided next-generation phenotyping tools, such as DeepGestalt. These tools have learned to associate facial phenotypes with the underlying syndrome through training...
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Full-text available
The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has triggered several months of global turmoil, and governments across the world are now actively attempting to develop strategies to combat both the virus and its societal impact. Since SARS-CoV-2 is a novel pathogen, basic research is essential, and manifold international efforts are now underway in order to elucid...
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Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is an inherited skin disorder characterized by fragile skin that is prone to blistering. We report here a consanguineous Pakistani family with 2 siblings, in whom a severe recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa was suspected. Using whole-exome sequencing for 1 sibling, the homozygous base substitution c.7249C>G...
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Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates a broad variety of physiological functions in a number of tissues partly via ionotropic P2X receptors. Therefore, P2X receptors are promising targets for the development of therapeutically active molecules. Bile acids are cholesterol-derived amphiphilic molecules; their primary function is the fa...
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Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) belong to the DEG/ENaC gene family. While ASIC1a, ASIC1b and ASIC3 are activated by extracellular protons, ASIC4 and the closely related bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC or ASIC5) are orphan receptors. Neuropeptides are important modulators of ASICs. Moreover, related DEG/ENaCs are directly activated by neuro...
Article
Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a proton-gated Na+ channel with important roles in pain. ASIC3 quickly desensitizes within less than a second, limiting its capacity to sense sustained acidosis during pain. RFamide neuropeptides are modulators of ASIC3 that slow its desensitization and induce a variable sustained current. The molecular mechani...
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Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 1.5–2%. In most affected individuals, its genetic basis remains unclear. Whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a multitude of novel causative gene defects and have shown that a large proportion of sporadic ID cases results from de novo mutations. Here, we present two unrelat...
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Neuropeptides commonly signal by metabotropic GPCRs. In some mollusks and cnidarians, RFamide neuropeptides mediate fast ionotropic signaling by peptide-gated ion channels that belong to the DEG/ENaC family. Here we describe a neuropeptide system with a dual mode of signaling by both a peptide-gated ion channel and a GPCR. We identified and charact...
Article
The bile acid-sensitive ion channel is activated by amphiphilic substances such as bile acids or artificial detergents via membrane alterations; however, the mechanism of membrane sensitivity of the bile acid-sensitive ion channel is not known. It has also not been systematically investigated whether other members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuropeptides commonly signal by metabotropic G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In some mollusks and cnidarians, RFamide neuropeptides mediate fast ionotropic signaling by peptide-gated ion channels that belong to the DEG/ENaC family. Here we describe a neuropeptide system with a dual mode of signaling by both a peptide-gated channel and a GPCR....
Article
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal receptors for extracellular protons. They contribute to the excitatory postsynaptic current and to the detection of painful acidosis. Moreover, they are activated during peripheral inflammation and acidosis associated with various neuronal disorders such as stroke and neuro-inflammation, rendering them...
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Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the selective degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) and their target muscles. Misfolded proteins which often form intracellular aggregates are a pathological hallmark of ALS. Disruption of the functional interplay between protein degradation (ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy) and RNA-bi...
Article
Significance Marine cone snails provide one of the highest toxin diversities among venomous animals, the conotoxins, which often target ion channels. In addition, cone snail venoms contain short conopeptides, the molecular targets of which are mostly unknown. We identified a new conopeptide from the venom of the cone snail Conus textile that target...
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Full-text available
The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the Deg/ENaC family of ion channels. It is mainly found in bile duct epithelial cells, the intestinal tract and the cerebellum and activated by alterations of its membrane environment. Bile acids, one class of putative physiological activators, exert their effect by changing membrane proper...
Article
Full-text available
The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological funct...

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