Axel Cortes Cubero

Axel Cortes Cubero
Protocol Labs · CryptoEconLab

PhD

About

29
Publications
902
Reads
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295
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
260 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
Additional affiliations
September 2021 - present
Protocol Labs
Protocol Labs
Position
  • Researcher
October 2020 - September 2021
University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2019 - July 2020
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
August 2009 - May 2014
CUNY Graduate Center
Field of study
  • Physics
August 2004 - July 2009
University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez
Field of study
  • Theoretical Physics

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
Full-text available
The thermal deformation of the critical point action of the 2D tricritical Ising model gives rise to an exact scattering theory with seven massive excitations based on the exceptional E_7 E 7 Lie algebra. The high and low temperature phases of this model are related by duality. This duality guarantees that the leading and sub-leading magnetisation...
Preprint
Full-text available
The thermal deformation of the critical point action of the 2D tricritical Ising model gives rise to an exact scattering theory with seven massive excitations based on the exceptional $E_7$ Lie algebra. The high and low temperature phases of this model are related by duality. This duality guarantees that the leading and sub-leading magnetisation op...
Preprint
Our review covers microscopic foundations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD). As one generic approach we develop form factor expansions, for ground states and generalized Gibbs ensembles (GGE), and compare the so obtained results with predictions from GHD. One cornerstone of GHD is the GGE averaged microscopic currents. They can be obtained using f...
Article
Full-text available
Within the generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) formalism for quantum integrable models, it is possible to compute simple expressions for a number of correlation functions at the Eulerian scale. Specializing to integrable relativistic field theories, we show the same correlators can be computed as a sum over form factors, the GHD regime corresponding to...
Preprint
The generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) formalism has become an invaluable tool for the study of spatially inhomogeneous quantum quenches in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models. The main paradigm of the GHD is that at late times local observables can be computed as generalized Gibbs ensemble averages with space-time dependent chemical potentials. It is...
Preprint
Within the generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) formalism for quantum integrable models, it is possible to compute simple expressions for a number of correlation functions at the Eulerian scale. Specializing to integrable relativistic field theories, we show the same correlators can be computed as a sum over form factors, the GHD regime corresponding to...
Preprint
Motivated by recent works aimed at understanding the status of equilibration and the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis in theories with confinement, we return to the 't Hooft model, the large-$N_c$ limit of (1+1)-d quantum chromodynamics. This limit has been studied extensively since its inception in the mid-1970s, with various exact results bei...
Article
Full-text available
A bstract We study the form factors of local operators of integrable QFT’s between states with finite energy density. These states arise, for example, at finite temperature, or from a generalized Gibbs ensemble. We generalize Smirnov’s form factor axioms, formulating them for a set of particle/hole excitations on top of the thermodynamic background...
Preprint
We study the form factors of local operators of integrable QFT's between highly excited states, with finite energy density. These states arise, for example, at finite temperature, or from a generalized Gibbs ensemble. We generalize Smirnov's form factor axioms, formulating them for a set of particle/hole excitations on top of the thermodynamic back...
Article
Full-text available
In (1+1)-dimensional quantum field theory, integrability is typically defined as the existence of an infinite number of local charges of different Lorentz spin, which commute with the Hamiltonian. A well known consequence of integrability is that scattering of particles is elastic and factorizable. These properties are the basis for the bootstrap p...
Article
Full-text available
Machine learning algorithms often take inspiration from established results and knowledge from statistical physics. A prototypical example is the Boltzmann machine algorithm for supervised learning, which utilizes knowledge of classical thermal partition functions and the Boltzmann dis- tribution. Recently, a quantum version of the Boltzmann machin...
Article
Full-text available
We study the dynamics of the sine-Gordon model after a quantum quench into the attractive regime, where the spectrum consists of solitons, antisolitons and breathers. In particular, we analyse the time-dependent expectation value of the vertex operator, $\exp\left({\rm i}\beta\Phi/2\right)$, starting from an initial state in the "squeezed state for...
Article
Full-text available
At thermal equilibrium, the concept of effective central charge for massive deformations of two-dimensional conformal field theories (CFT) is well understood, and can be defined by comparing the partition function of the massive model to that of a CFT. This temperature-dependent effective charge interpolates monotonically between the central charge...
Article
It has recently been shown that some integrable spin chains possess a set of quasilocal conserved charges, with the classic example being the spin- XXZ Heisenberg chain. These charges have been proven to be essential in order to properly describe stationary states after a quantum quench, and must be included in the generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE)....
Article
We study a quantum quench of an integrable quantum field theory in the planar infinite-$N$ limit. Unlike isovector-valued $O(N)$ models, matrix-valued field theories in the infinite-$N$ limit are not solvable by the Hartre-Fock approximation, and are nontrivial interacting theories. We study quenches with initial states that are color-charge neutra...
Article
Full-text available
We analyse quench processes in two dimensional quantum field theories with infinite number of conservation laws which also include fermionic charges that close a $N=1$ supersymmetric algebra. While in general the quench protocol induces a breaking of supersymmetry, we show that there are particular initial states which ensure the persistence of sup...
Article
We examine the phase structure of massive Yang-Mills theory in 1+1 dimensions. This theory is equivalent to a gauged principal chiral sigma model. It has been previously shown that the gauged theory has only a confined phase, and no Higgs phase in the continuum, and at infinite volume. There are no massive gluons, but only hadron-like bound states...
Article
Full-text available
We study the finite volume/temperature correlation functions of the (1+1)-dimensional ${\rm SU}(N)$ principal chiral sigma model in the planar limit. The exact S-matrix of the sigma model is known to simplify drastically at large $N$, and this leads to trivial thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations. The partition function, if derived using the...
Article
Full-text available
Massive Yang-Mills theory is known to be renormalizable in 1+1 dimensions. The gluon mass is introduced by coupling the gauge field to an SU(N) principal chiral nonlinear sigma model. The proof of renormalizability relies on the asymptotic freedom of the sigma model. However, renormalization forces the gluon mass to infinity. The continuum theory i...
Article
Full-text available
Yang Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions can be expressed as an array of coupled (1+1)-dimensional principal chiral sigma models. The $SU(N)\times SU(N)$ principal chiral sigma model in 1+1 dimensions is integrable, asymptotically free and has massive excitations. We calculate all the form factors and two-point correlation functions of the Noether curre...
Article
Full-text available
We study Yang Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions, as an array of coupled (1+1)-dimensional principal chiral sigma models. This can be understood as an anisotropic limit where one of the space-time dimensions is discrete and the others are continuous. The $SU(N)\times SU(N)$ principal chiral sigma model in 1+1 dimensions is integrable, asymptotically fr...
Article
The (1+1)-dimensional SU}(N) Yang-Mills Lagrangian, with bare mass M, and gauge coupling e, naively describes gluons of mass M. In fact, renormalization forces M to infinity. The system is in a confined phase, instead of a Higgs phase. The spectrum of this diverging-bare-mass theory contains particles of finite mass. There are an infinite number of...
Article
Full-text available
We present results for the large-$N$ limit of the (1+1)-dimensional principal chiral sigma model. This is an asymptotically-free $N\times N$ matrix-valued field with massive excitations. All the form factors and the exact correlation functions of the Noether-current operator and the energy-momentum tensor are found, from Smirnov's form-factor axiom...
Article
Full-text available
We obtain exact matrix elements of physical operators of the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma model of an SU(N)-valued bare field, in the 't Hooft limit N goes to infinity. Specifically, all the form factors of the Noether current and the stress-energy-momentum tensor are found with an integrable bootstrap method. These form factors are used to fi...
Article
Full-text available
We study the sigma model with $SU(N)\times SU(N)$ symmetry in 1+1 dimensions. The two- and four-particle form factors of the Noether current operators are found, by combining the integrable-bootstrap method with the large-$N$ expansion.
Article
Full-text available
We examine the effect of quantum longitudinal rescaling of coordinates, on the action of quantum chromodynamics (with quarks) to one loop. We use an aspherical Wilsonian integration (previously applied to the pure Yang-Mills theory and to quantum electrodynamics). Quantum fluctuations produce anomalous powers of the rescaling parameter in the coeff...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate quantum longitudinal rescaling of electrodynamics, transforming coordinates as $x^{0,3}\to\lambda x^{0,3}$ and $x^{1,2}\to x^{1,2}$, to one loop. We do this by an aspherical Wilsonian renormalization, which was applied earlier to pure Yang-Mills theory. We find the anomalous powers of $\lambda$ in the renormalized couplings. Our resu...

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