Axel Buchner

Axel Buchner
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf | HHU · Institut für Experimentelle Psychologie

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222
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (222)
Article
Full-text available
The two-high threshold (2-HT) eyewitness identification model serves as a new measurement tool to measure the latent cognitive processes underlying eyewitness identification performance. By simultaneously taking into account correct culprit identifications, false innocent-suspect identifications, false filler identifications in culprit-present and...
Article
Full-text available
Words representing living beings are better remembered than words representing nonliving objects, a robust finding called the animacy effect. Considering the postulated evolutionary-adaptive significance of this effect, the animate words’ memory advantage should not only affect the quantity but also the quality of remembering. To test this assumpti...
Article
Background: Digitalisation is reaching German craft enterprises which must increasingly deal with complex software. The usability of the software is crucial for the effective use in everyday work and insufficient usability is associated with increased stress and strain. It thus seems necessary to identify possible usability-related stressors in cr...
Article
Full-text available
The present study serves to test whether cooperation and moral punishment are affected by cognitive load. Dual-process theories postulate that moral behavior is intuitive which leads to the prediction that cooperation and moral punishment should remain unaffected or may even increase when cognitive load is induced by a secondary task. However, it h...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine whether positive and negative mood states affect auditory distraction in a serial-recall task. The duplex-mechanism account differentiates two types of auditory distraction. The changing-state effect is postulated to be rooted in interference-by-process and to be automatic. The auditory-deviant effect is attribu...
Article
Full-text available
Upon the introduction of autonomous vehicles into daily traffic, it becomes increasingly likely that autonomous vehicles become involved in accident scenarios in which decisions have to be made about how to distribute harm among involved parties. In four experiments, participants made moral decisions from the perspective of a passenger, a pedestria...
Article
Visual-verbal serial recall is disrupted when task-irrelevant background speech has to be ignored. Contrary to previous suggestion, it has recently been shown that the magnitude of disruption may be accentuated by the semantic properties of the irrelevant speech. Sentences ending with unexpected words that did not match the preceding semantic conte...
Conference Paper
Measuring user experience is highly important for human-centered development and thus for designing automated driving systems. Multi-item measures such as the System Usability Scale (SUS) [7] or the Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX) [14] are commonly used for collecting user feedback on technical systems or products. The goal of the prese...
Article
Full-text available
A central tenet of the adaptive-memory framework is that memory has not merely evolved to help us relive the past but to prepare us for the future. In reciprocal social exchange, for instance, people must learn from previous experiences to approach cooperators and to avoid cheaters. In this sense, adaptive memory is inherently prospective. The pres...
Article
Full-text available
The duplex-mechanism account of auditory distraction has been extended to predict that people should have metacognitive awareness of the disruptive effect of auditory deviants on cognitive performance but little to no such awareness of the disruptive effect of changing-state relative to steady-state auditory distractors. To test this prediction, we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acoustical environments affect cognitive work. Disruption of serial recall performance by background speech depends upon the content of the to-be-ignored sequence of sound beyond the fact of change. Increments in token set size, the number of different types of sound in such sequences, can increase the extent of disruption: Increments in set size f...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the role of moral norms in cooperation and punishment, we examined the effects of a moral-framing manipulation in a Prisoner’s Dilemma game with a costly punishment option. In each round of the game, participants decided whether to cooperate or to defect. The Prisoner’s Dilemma game was identical for all participants with the exception...
Article
Full-text available
Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people have to change their behaviours to slow down the spreading of the virus. Protective measures include self-isolation, social (physical) distancing and compliance with personal hygiene rules, particularly regular and thorough hand washing. Prevalence estimates for the compliance with the COV...
Article
Background : Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have an increased risk of suffering from mental and neuropsychiatric symptoms. So far, a fundamental problem in the clinical care of MS patients is that these symptoms are underdiagnosed and, as a consequence, often remain untreated. Present assessment tools have not been developed to be applied in...
Article
Light emitting diode (LED) technology is continuously developing, leading to the current transition from simple phosphor-converted LED lamps to LED lamps optimised for high colour rendition in residential lighting. To assess whether such optimised phosphor-converted LED lamps may fulfil the end users’ needs better than simple phosphor-converted LED...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people have to change their behaviours to slow down the spreading of the virus. Protective measures include self-isolation, social (physical) distancing and compliance with personal hygiene rules, particularly regular and thorough hand washing. Prevalence estimates for the compliance with the CO...
Article
The attentional spatial-numerical association of response codes (Att-SNARC) effect (Fischer, Castel, Dodd, & Pratt, 2003)—the finding that participants are quicker to detect left-side targets when the targets are preceded by small numbers and quicker to detect right-side targets when they are preceded by large numbers—has been used as evidence for...
Article
The degree of consistency of reports across several interviews is often taken as indicating whether a report is experience-based or fabricated. However, due to forgetting some aspects of mnemonic reports will be inconsistent across interviews independent of whether a report is experience-based or fabricated. The concept of differential mnemonic con...
Article
Performance in source-monitoring tests is not only determined by source memory but also by source guessing. Source guessing is not random as it is informed by two distinct mechanisms. (1) People may show a schema-based guessing bias and rely on cross-situationally stable world knowledge. (2) They may apply probability matching and rely on the speci...
Article
Recently, it was demonstrated that heard sentences containing semantically unexpected words disrupt visual-verbal serial recall more than sentences containing semantically expected words. This semantic mismatch effect did not become smaller over the course of the experiment, contrary to what has been observed with other semantic effects. This surpr...
Article
Full-text available
This registered report aims at replicating the so-called "mnemonic time-travel" effect. Aksentijevic, Brandt, Tsakanikos, and Thorpe (2019) reported that memory was improved when their participants experienced backward motion before a memory test in comparison to when they experienced forward motion or no motion. This finding was interpreted as sug...
Article
As light sources based on light emitting diodes (LED) are increasingly used to replace classic tungsten-based light sources in household lighting applications, possible impairments of colour perception under those light sources due to a different spectral power distribution become a major concern. The Colour Rendering Index (CRI) which is the only...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of auditory distraction by task-irrelevant background speech on the immediate serial recall of verbal material are well established. Less is known about the influence of background speech on memory for visual configural information. A recent study demonstrated that face learning is disrupted by joyful music relative to soothing violin music...
Article
A large body of evidence shows an animacy effect on memory in that animate entities are better remembered than inanimate ones. Yet, the reason for this mnemonic prioritization remains unclear. In the survival processing literature, the assumption that richness of encoding is responsible for adaptive memory benefits has received substantial empirica...
Article
Full-text available
The animacy effect refers to enhanced memory for animate over inanimate items. In two studies, we examined whether this memory advantage generalises to source memory. A multinomial processing tree model was used to disentangle item recognition, source memory, and guessing processes. In Study 1, animate and inanimate words were presented at differen...
Article
Full-text available
Short-term memory of visually presented lists of items is disrupted by auditory distraction. The auditory deviant effect refers to the finding that a sequence in which a single auditory event deviates from all other auditory objects disrupts serial recall more than a sequence without such a deviant. The changing-state effect refers to the finding t...
Article
Sound disrupts short-term retention in working memory even when the sound is completely irrelevant and has to be ignored. The dominant view in the literature is that this type of disruption is essentially limited to so-called changing-state distractor sequences with acoustic changes between successive distractor objects (e.g., "ABABABAB") and does...
Article
Rapid advances in digitisation technologies are changing modern working conditions especially in industrial settings. Consequently, employees are confronted with new forms of human‐machine interaction. Whether changes in working conditions in general, and the increasing relevance of human‐machine interaction in particular, affect psychosocial worki...
Article
Lateralized responses to central targets are facilitated when distractors are presented ipsilaterally (congruent trials) compared with contralaterally (incongruent trials) to the response. This accessory Simon effect is explained by assuming that distractors generate a spatial code that conforms to, or conflicts with, the response. The effect typic...
Article
Sequences of auditory objects such as one-syllable words or brief sounds disrupt serial recall of visually presented targets even when the auditory objects are completely irrelevant for the task at hand. The token set size effect is a label for the claim that disruption increases only when moving from a 1-token distractor sequence (e.g., "AAAAAAAA"...
Article
The Publisher regrets that two erroneous values were introduced by the typesetter when performing proof corrections.
Article
Full-text available
Contextual similarity between learning and test phase has been shown to be beneficial for memory retrieval. Negative priming is known to be caused by multiple processes; one of which is episodic retrieval. Therefore, the contextual similarity of prime and probe presentations should influence the size of the negative priming effect. This has been sh...
Article
Full-text available
Short-term memory (STM) for serially presented visual items is disrupted by task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech. Five experiments investigated the extent to which irrelevant speech is processed semantically by contrasting the following two hypotheses: (1) semantic processing of irrelevant speech is limited and does not interfere with serial STM o...
Article
Full-text available
Animate entities are often better remembered than inanimate ones. The proximal mechanisms under- lying this animacy effect on recall are unclear. In two experiments, we tested whether the animacy effect is due to emotional arousal. Experiment 1 revealed that translations of the animate words used in the pioneering study of Nairne et al. (2013) were...
Article
Full-text available
There is an ongoing debate about whether children have more problems ignoring auditory distractors than adults. This is an important empirical question with direct implications for theories making predictions about the development of selective attention. In two experiments, the disruptive effect of to-be-ignored speech on short-term memory performa...
Article
Full-text available
Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with an intelligent category (“professor”) subsequently performed 13.1% better on a trivia test than participants primed with an unintelligent category (“soccer hooligans”). Two unpublished replications of this study by the original authors, designed to verify the appropriate...
Article
Advertisers want to get consumers to love the advertised products, but they often try to do this by annoying them with unwelcome and disruptive advertising. This creates a possible contradiction between the negative feelings elicited by the advertising and the positive feelings the consumers are supposed to develop towards the advertised products....
Article
Full-text available
Four experiments tested conflicting predictions about which components of the serial-recall task are most sensitive to auditory distraction. Changing-state (Experiments 1a and 1b) and deviant distractor sounds (Experiments 2a and 2b) were presented in one of four different intervals of the serial-recall task: (1) during the first half of encoding,...
Article
Full-text available
Task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored sound disrupts serial short-term memory for visually presented items compared to a quiet control condition. We tested whether disruption by changing state irrelevant sound is modulated by expectations about the degree to which distractors would disrupt serial recall performance. The participants' expectations were man...
Article
Objectives: Fundamental changes in ways of working due to the use of digital technology in manufacturing (“smart factory”, “Industry 4.0”) and in many other sectors require new approaches to the process of psychological risk assessment (PRA). The DYNAMIK 4.0 collaborative research project is backed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research...
Article
Full-text available
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner’s previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma...
Data
Excel sheet containing raw data and summed response frequencies for Experiments 1, 2 and 3. (XLSX)
Chapter
Beim Stichwort „Gedächtnis“ denken die meisten Menschen zuerst an das Langzeitgedächtnis, weshalb dieses Thema zuerst und am ausführlichsten behandelt wird. Verschiedene Vorschläge, das Langzeitgedächtnis in Subsysteme zu unterteilen, werden vorgestellt und gewürdigt. Anschließend fokussiert das Kapitel auf Prozesse, die dem Langzeitgedächtnis zuge...
Article
With the ongoing trend towards conditional automation in the automotive industry, it is vital to ensure that drivers are able to resume vehicle control within the given time budget – even when engaging in non-driving related tasks. A driving simulator study was conducted to examine the impact of non-driving related tasks on drivers’ ability to take...
Article
Full-text available
Deviant as well as changing auditory distractors interfere with short-term memory. According to the duplex model of auditory distraction, the deviation effect is caused by a shift of attention while the changing-state effect is due to obligatory order processing. This theory predicts that foreknowledge should reduce the deviation effect, but should...
Article
Full-text available
Women are often believed to be more cooperative and less egoistic than men. In the present study, we examined whether people punish women for failing to live up to these benevolent gender stereotypes. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with female and male partners who either cooperated or defected. Participants were offered a costly pun...
Article
Displays with low pixel densities that were common in the 1980s and 1990s were shown to impair visual performance. Display technology, especially pixel density, has tremendously improved in recent years and new technologies allow densities of 264 ppi and beyond. Two experiments were conducted to test whether there are any measurable benefits of hig...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech adversely affects serial short-term memory (STM) for visually presented items compared with a quiet control condition. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the semantic content of the speech has the capacity to capture attention and to disrupt memory performance. In the...
Article
Full-text available
People who are high in victim-sensitivity—a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others—are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial...
Article
To-be-ignored, task-irrelevant speech disrupts serial recall performance relative to a quiet control condition. In most studies, the content of the auditory distractors had no effect on their disruptive potential, one's own name being one of the few exceptions. There are two possible explanations of this pattern: (1) Semantic features of the irrele...
Article
Full-text available
The present study serves to test how positive and negative appearance-based expectations affect cooperation and punishment. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game with partners who either cooperated or defected. Then they were given a costly punishment option: They could spend money to decrease the payoffs of their partners. Aggregated over...
Article
Full-text available
The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the...
Article
Findings reported in the memory literature suggest that the emotional components of an encoding episode can be dissociated from nonemotional memory. In particular, it has been found that the previous association with threatening events can be retrieved in aversive conditioning even in the absence of item identification. In the present study, we tes...
Article
Models of reciprocity imply that cheater detection is an important prerequisite for successful social exchange. Considering the fundamental role of memory in reciprocal exchange, these theories lead to the prediction that memory for cheaters should be preferentially enhanced. Here, we examine whether information of a partner’s previous behavior in...
Article
Currently, development of conditionally automated driving systems which control both lateral and longitudinal vehicle guidance is attracting a great deal of attention. The driver no longer needs to constantly monitor the roadway, but must still be able to resume vehicle control if necessary. The relaxed attention requirement might encourage engagem...
Article
Four experiments were conducted to test whether recent developments in display technology would suffice to eliminate the well-known disadvantages in reading from screen as compared with paper. Proofreading speed and performance were equal for a TFT-LCD and a paper display, but there were more symptoms of eyestrain in the screen condition accompanie...
Article
Full-text available
A sequential prisoner's dilemma game was combined with psychophysiological measures to examine the cognitive underpinnings of reciprocal exchange. Participants played four rounds of the game with partners who either cooperated or cheated. In a control condition, the partners' faces were shown, but no interaction took place. The partners' behaviors...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to examine age-related differences in the disruption of short- term memory by changing and deviant speech sounds. One hundred and twenty-eight old and 130 young adults performed a serial recall task while ignoring (1) steady state sequences in which the same distractor word was repeated twelve times, (2) auditory devi...
Article
The spatial negative priming effect denotes slowed-down and sometimes more error-prone responding to a location that previously contained a distractor as compared with a previously unoccupied location. In vision, this effect has been attributed to the inhibition of irrelevant locations, and recently, of their task-assigned responses. Interestingly,...
Article
The present study was stimulated by previous findings showing that people preferentially remember person descriptions that violate appearance-based first impressions. Given that until now all studies used faces as stimuli, these findings can be explained by referring to a content-specific module for social information processing that facilitates so...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the influence of emotion on source memory has yielded inconsistent findings. The object-based framework (Mather, 2007) predicts that negatively arousing stimuli attract attention, resulting in enhanced within-object binding, and, thereby, enhanced source memory for intrinsic context features of emotional stimuli. To test this prediction...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates age differences in the vulnerability to illusory correlations between fear-relevant stimuli and threatening information. Younger and older adults saw pictures of threatening snakes and nonthreatening fish, paired with threatening and nonthreatening context information ("poisonous" and "nonpoisonous") with a null conti...